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Encyclopedia Britannica

Volume 12, Part 2: Hydrozoa to Epistle of Jeremy

Jeremiah
Jeremiah, The Son Of Hilkiah, Belonging To The Priestly Family Of Anathoth, A Few Miles To The North-west Of Jerusalem, Was The Last Of The Great Pre-exilic Prophets Of Israel. Double Passion, A Love Of His People And A Love Of His God : The Longing Of His Heart Was ...

Jesse Woodson James
James, Jesse Woodson (1847-1882), American Out Law, Was Born Sept. 5, 1847, In Clay County, Mo., U.s.a. In The Early Months Of The Civil War The Family Was Partisan To The Southern Cause, And As A Result Suffered Greatly At The Hands Of The Union Forces. By Way Of Retaliation, ...

Johann Georg Jacobi
Jacobi, Johann Georg (174o-1814), German Poet, Elder Brother Of F. H. Jacobi (q.v.), Was Born At Dusseldorf On Sept. 2, 174o. He Was Professor Of Philosophy At Halle (1766-69), Then, Through The Influence Of His Friend Gleim, Prebendary At Halberstadt (1769-74), Editor Of The Iris At Dusseldorf (1774— 76), And ...

Johann Jahn
Jahn, Johann (1750-1816), German Orientalist, Was Born At Tasswitz, Moravia, On June 18, 1750. He Studied Philo Sophy At Olmiitz, And In 1772 Began His Theological Studies At The Premonstratensian Convent Of Bruck, Near Znaim, Where, After A Short Interval, He Became Professor Of Oriental Languages And Biblical Hermeneutics. On ...

Johannes Janssen
Janssen, Johannes 0829-1890, German Historian, Was Born At Xanten On April Io, 1829, Was Ordained Priest In 1860, Became A Member Of The Prussian Chamber Of Deputies In 1875, And In 188o Was Made Domestic Prelate To The Pope And Apostolic Pronotary. He Died At Frankfort On Dec. 24, 1891. ...

Johannes Vilhelm Jensen
Jensen, Johannes Vilhelm ), Danish Author, Was Born At Farso, North Jutland, On Jan. 20, 1873, Of A Family Of Peasant Extraction. Jensen Belongs To The New School Of Danish Literature Which Came Into Being About 1900. He Re Pudiated The Brandes School With Its Imitation Of French Litera Ture, ...

John Hughlings Jackson
Jackson, John Hughlings English Neurologist, Was Born At Green Hammerton, Yorkshire. In 1862 He Became Physician To The London Hospital And To The National Hospital For The Paralysed And Epileptic. Jackson Utilized The Ophthalmoscope In Diagnosing Brain Disease (1863), Studied Aphasia, Described Unilateral Convulsions (jacksonian Epilepsy), And In The Croonian ...

John Ireland
Ireland, John (1838-1918), American Roman Catholic Prelate, Was Born At Burnchurch, County Kilkenny, Ireland, On Sept. I1, 1838. In 1849 He Was Taken To The United States By His Parents, Who Settled At St. Paul, Minnesota Territory. After Being Educated In France For The Priesthood, He Returned To The United ...

John Ireland_2
Ireland, John (1879-4 ), English Composer, Was Born At Bowdon, Cheshire, On Aug. 13, 1879, The Son Of Alex Ander Ireland, Editor And Proprietor Of The Manchester Examiner. He Studied At The Royal College Of Music. His Pianoforte Trio (5908) Was Followed By The Sonatas In D Minor And A ...

John Jacob
Jacob, John (1812-1858), Indian Soldier And Adminis Trator, Born On Jan. I 1, 1812, Was Educated At Addiscombe, And Entered The Bombay Artillery In 1828. As Commandant Of The Sind Horse And Political Superintendent Of Upper Sind He Im Posed Peace On The Sind Frontier, Reducing The Tribes As Much ...

John Jamieson
Jamieson, John Scottish Lexicographer, Son Of A Minister, Was Born In Glasgow On March 3, 1759. He Was Educated At Glasgow University And At Edinburgh. Jamieson Was Licensed To Preach In 1789 And Became Pastor Of An Anti Burgher Congregation In Forfar; And In 1797 He Was Called To The ...

John Jay
Jay, John (1745-1829), American Statesman And Jurist, Son Of Peter Jay, A Wealthy New York Merchant Of Huguenot Descent, Was Born In New York City On Dec. 12, 1745. He Grad Uated From King's College (now Columbia University) In 1764, Was Admitted To The Bar In 1768 And Soon Developed ...

John Rushworth Jellicoe Jellicoe
Jellicoe, John Rushworth Jellicoe, 1st Earl (1859-1935), British Admiral, Was Born Dec. 5, 1859, The Son Of J. H. Jellicoe, A Captain In The Mercantile Marine. His Great-grandfather Was Sir James Whalley Smyth Gardiner, The Third And Last Baronet Of That Name. Educated At Rottingdean, He Entered The Navy As ...

Jorge Isaacs
Isaacs, Jorge (1837-1895), Colombian Poet And Novel Ist, Was Born At Cali, In The Province Of Cauca, Colombia, In April 1837, The Son Of A Prosperous English Jew. He Received An Excellent Education, First At Bogota And Later In England. Dur Ing The War Of The Cauca (186o-63), He Was ...

Jose Francisco De Isla
Isla, Jose Francisco De ( Spanish Sati Rist And Jesuit, First Showed His Gifts In The Triunfo Del Amor Y De La Lealtad: Die Grande De Navarra, A Satirical Description Of The Ceremonies At Pamplona In Honour Of Ferdinand Vi.'s Accession ; Its Sly Humour So Far Escaped The Victims ...

Josef Israels
Israels, Josef (1824-1911), Dutch Painter, Was Born At Groningen, Of Hebrew Parents, On Jan. 27, 1824. His Father Intenqd Him To Be A Rabbi And The Study Of The Talmud In His Youth Influenced His Outlook In Later Life. However, The Attempts He Made Under The Guidance Of Two Painters ...

Joseph Jacotot
Jacotot, Joseph (i770-1840), French Educationist, Author Of The Method Of "emancipation Intellectuelle," Was Born At Dijon On March 4, He Was Educated At The University Of Dijon, Where In His Nineteenth Year He Was Chosen Professor Of Latin. In 1788 He Organized A Federation Of The Youth Of Dijon For ...

Joseph Jefferson
Jefferson, Joseph Actor. Born In Philadelphia. Pa_. Feb. A:. The Third Act:: Of This Name In A Ai____inagers. And One Of Most Famous Of All An:tr.:an The Age Of Appeared A.s The Kotzebue's And Thrc::' Youth He Underwent Ail The Hardships Connected With Theatriii: Touring In Those Early Days .4titer ...

Joseph Marie Jacquard
Jacquard, Joseph Marie (1752-1834), French In Ventor, Was Born At Lyons On July 7, 1752. In 1793 He Took Part In The Unsuccessful Defence Of Lyons Against The Troops Of The Convention ; But Afterwards Served In Their Ranks On The Rhone And Loire. He Then Worked In A Lyons ...

Juan De Jauregui
Jauregui, Juan De (1583-1641), Spanish Poet, Whose Rims (1618), A Collection Of Graceful Lyrics, Is Preceded By A Controversial Preface Which Attracted Much Attention On Account Of Its Outspoken Declaration Against Culteranismo. His Poem Orfeo (1624), However, Is Visibly Influenced By Gongora, While A Trans Lation Of The Pharsalia (begun ...

Jules Gabriel Janin
Janin, Jules Gabriel French Critic, Was Born At St. Etienne (loire) On Feb. 16, 1804, And Died Near Paris On June 19, 1874. He Worked On The Figaro, The Quotidienne, Etc., Until In 1830 He Became The Dramatic Critic Of The Journal Des Debats. After Many Years Of Feuilleton Writing ...

Karl Gustav Jacob Jacobi
Jacobi, Karl Gustav Jacob (1804-1851), Ger Man Mathematician, Was Born At Potsdam, Of Jewish Parentage, On Dec. 10, 1804. He Studied At Berlin University, Where He Obtained The Degree Of Doctor Of Philosophy In 1825, His Thesis Being An Analytical Discussion Of The Theory Of Fractions. In 1827 He Became ...

Kikujiro Ishii
Ishii, Kikujiro, Viscount (1866-- Japanese Diplo Matist, Was Born At Chiba, Japan. Like Other Members Of His Family, He Was Destined To Enter Official Life. His Intention Was To Become A Lawyer, But His Studies In International Law Gave Him A Deep Interest In Foreign Affairs. His Early Days Were ...

Koyata Iwasaki
Iwasaki, Koyata, 2nd Baron (1879— ), Japanese Philanthropist, Was Born In 1879, And Succeeded To The Barony In 1909. Educated At The Imperial University Of Tokyo And At Cam Bridge, England, He Became President Of The Banking Department Of The Mitsubishi Company. His Vast Wealth Was Largely Expended In Experiments ...

Lake Of Iseo
Iseo, Lake Of, A Lake In Lombardy, North Italy (anc. Locus Sebinus), At The Southern Foot Of The Alps, Between The Provinces Of Bergamo And Brescia. The Oglio Enters The North End At Lovere And Leaves The South End At Sarnico To Join The Po. Area 24 Sq.m., Length 171 ...

Later Irish Literature
Later Irish Literature With The Steady Advance Of English Culture On The Heels Of The English Power After 1600 It Was Only Natural That The School Of Bardic Poets Should Decline. Amongst The Prominent Poets Of This Later Period May Be Mentioned Tadhg Dall O'higinn (d. Shortly Before 1617), Published ...

Laurence Sydney Brodribb Irving
Irving, Laurence Sydney Brodribb (1871 1914), English Actor, Younger Son Of Sir Henry Irving (q.v.), Was Born In London On Dec. 21, 1871. He Was Educated At Marl Borough And Abroad, Being Destined For The Diplomatic Service; But He Joined Frank Benson's Shakespearean Company In 1893, And Made His First ...

Lawrence Pearsall Jacks
Jacks, Lawrence Pearsall (186o— ), British Unitarian Divine, Was Born In Nottingham. He Studied At London University, And At Gottingen And Harvard. In 1887 He Became Assistant To Stopford Brooke, At Bedford Chapel, London, And In 1889 He Married Brooke's Daughter, Olive Cecilia. He Was Sub Sequently Minister Of Unitarian ...

League Of The Iroquois
League Of The Iroquois The Iroquois Proper Of History Comprise The Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, And Seneca, Living In This Order From East To West In Central New York. According To Tradition, Hiawatha, A Mohawk, And Dekanawida, Reputed A Huron By Birth, Induced The Five Tribes To Form A League ...

Leos Janacek
Janacek, Leos (1854-1928), Czech Composer, Was Born In Hukvaldy, Moravia, On June 3, 1854, And Educated In The Mon Astery Of The Austrian Friars In Brno Under The Composer, Paul Kflikovsky. After Studies In Prague, Leipzig And Vienna He Returned To Brno, Where, In 1881, He Became Director Of The ...

Marshall
(marshall). The Date Of The Epistle Is Uncertain ; Possibly It Belongs To The Ist Century B.c. ...

Mary Putnam Jacobi
Jacobi, Mary Putnam (1842-1906), American Pio Neer Woman Physician And Wife Of Abraham Jacobi (q.v.), Was Born At London, England, On Aug. 31, 1842, The Daughter Of George P. Putnam, American Publisher. She Was Educated At Home, Studied Anatomy With A Private Instructor, And Gained Admission, As Its First Woman ...

Maximin Isnard
Isnard, Maximin (1758-1825), French Revolutionist, Dealer In Perfumery At Draguignan, Was Elected Deputy (for The Var) To The Legislative Assembly, Where He Joined The Girondists. Attacking The Court, And The "austrian Committee" In The Tuil Eries, He Reproached Louis Xvi. For Infidelity To The Constitution. But On June 2o, 1792, ...

May Irwin
Irwin, May (1862-1938), American Actress, Was Born June 27, 1862 At Whitby, Ontario, Canada And Made Her Debut On The Stage As A Child Of 12. In Feb. 1876 She Appeared With Her Sister Flora At The Adelphi Theatre In Buffalo, N.y., As A Member Of Tony Pastor's Company. From ...

Mei Ji Period
Mei Ji Period Komei Was Succeeded By His Son Mutsuhito, Aged 15, Who Under The Title Of Meiji (meaning Enlightened Government) Became The Best Known Name In Modern Japan. The New Shogun Keiki Was A Man Of Ability And Mature Intellect Who Had Been Convinced By Events That It Was ...

Metallography And Heat Treatment
Metallography And Heat Treatment The Fact That The Hardness, Toughness And General Desirability Of A Piece Of Steel Could Be Profoundly Modified By A Simple Heating And Cooling Has Been Known Since Time Immemorial—in Fact What We Now Know As Steel Was Perhaps Not Recognized As Having Great Merit Until ...

Methods Of Lifting Water
Methods Of Lifting Water By Continually Renewed Labour Shadoof.—baling Up Water By Hand (obviously The Earliest System And That By Which Many Acres Are Still Watered Throughout The World) Is Slow And Expensive In Labour. Inventive Minds Soon Devised Mechanical Aids. About The Earliest Must Have Been The Contrivance Made ...

Methods Of Lifting Water_2
Methods Of Lifting Water By Permanent Works Early Saw That He Could Assist Nature By Taking Water Out Of A River At A Point Higher Upstream Than Immediately Opposite His Own Particular Field, And Thus Take Advantage Of The Fall Or Slope Between These Two Points. In The Case Of ...

Mills For Semi Finished Materials
Mills For Semi-finished Materials Continuous Mills.—four Classes Of Semi-finished Materials Are Manufactured In Such Tonnage That Special Mills Are Set Up To Pro Duce Them, Namely: Sheet Bars, Skelp, Strip, And Wire Rods. These Products Are The Raw Material For Special Manufacturing Plants Often Located At A Distance From The ...

Minor Systems Of Irrigation
Minor Systems Of Irrigation Water Meadows.—in Addition To The Two Major Systems Of Irrigation, There Are A Number Of Minor Systems With Special Objects In View. Nowhere In England Can It Be Said That Irrigation Is Necessary To Ordinary Agriculture, But It Is Occasionally Em Ployed To Stimulate The Growth ...

Modern European Ironwork
Modern European Ironwork A Renaissance In The Art Of Ironwork Was Achieved By The End Of The 19th Century. At First Certain Workers Rediscovered This Fine Craft With All Its Strength, Suppleness And Complexity. The Wonderful Balustrade Of Chantilly, A Work Of The Moreau Brothers (188o), Shows The Results Achieved ...

Modern Italian Language
Italian Language, Modern. Spoken Latin Must Necessarily Have Varied In The Successive Centuries And According To The Speech Of The Peoples Which Adopted It. When The Centrip Etal Force Of Rome Was Relaxed, These Differences Were Empha Sized And By Degrees The Romance Languages (q.v.) Developed. To Speak However Of ...

Morris Jastrow
Jastrow, Morris (1861-1921), American Orientalist, Was Born In Warsaw, Poland, On Aug. 13, 1861, But At Five Was Taken To Philadelphia, Where His Father, A Rabbi, Had Been Called. He Was Educated At The University Of Pennsylvania And At French And German Universities. In 1885 He Returned To Pennsylvania As ...

Moses Ben Israel Isserles
Isserles, Moses Ben Israel (c. Known As Rema, Was Born At Cracow And Died There In 1572. He Wrote Commentaries On The Zohar, The "bible Of The Kabbalists," But Is Best Known As The Critic And Expander Of The Shullian Aruch Of Joseph Qaro (caro) (q.v.). His Chief Halakhic (legal) ...

National University Of Ireland
Ireland, National University Of. The National University Of Ireland Had Its Beginning In The Queen's University—incorporated In 185o. In 188o The Queen's University Was Superseded By The Royal University Of Ireland. It In Turn Was Dissolved On Oct. 31, 1907, Giving Place To The National University. Of The Three Queen's ...

Nicolas Jarry
Jarry, Nicolas, One Of The Best Known 17th Century French Calligraphers. He Was Born At Paris About 162o, And Was Officially Employed By Louis Xiv. His Most Famous Work Is The Guirlande De Julie (1641). He Died Some Time Before ...

Northern Ireland
Ireland, Northern, A Part Of The United Kingdom Of Great Britain And Northern Ireland, With A Certain Measure Of Local Self-government. The Capital City Is Belfast On The River Lagan, Which Is An Important Centre Of The Shipbuilding, Linen, Tobacco, Ropemaking, And Distilling Industries. A Considerable Trade In Live-stock And ...

Open Hearth Process
Open-hearth Process As Soon As The Bessemer Process Attained A Production Stage It Was Found That The Mild Steels Intermediate In Carbon Content, Strength And Ductility Between Carbon-free Wrought Iron On The One Hand And High Carbon Crucible Steel On The Other, Were Most Useful Materials For Machinery And Engineering ...

Otto Jahn
Jahn, Otto (1813-1869), German Archaeologist, Philolo Gist, And Writer On Art And Music, Was Born At Kiel On June 16, 1813. He Was Professor Of Archaeology At Greifswald, And Then At Leipzig, But Was Dismissed (1851) From The Leipzig Chair For Political Reasons. He Was Then Director Of The Art ...

Paul Jablochkov
Jablochkov, Paul (1847-1894), Russian Electrical Engineer And Inventor, Was Born At Serdobsk, In The Government Of Saratov, On Sept. 14, 1847, And Educated At St. Petersburg. He Devoted Himself To Research On Electric Lighting By Arc Lamps And In 1876 He Brought Out The Jablochkov "candles," Which Consisted Of Two ...

Petrarch And Boccaccio Dante
Dante, Petrarch And Boccaccio Dante (1265-1321).—as The Author Of The Vita Nuova, The Greatest Of All Italian Poets, Dante, Also Belongs To The Same Lyric School And Partly Shares Guinicelli's And Cavalcanti's Conception Of Love. In The Lyrics Of The Vita Nuova There Is A High Idealization Of Love. It ...

Philip Jarnach
Jarnach, Philip (1892— ), French Composer, Was Born At Noisy Of Spanish Parents On July 26, 1892. From 1907 He Studied In Paris Under Risler For Piano And Lavignac For Har Mony. In 1914 He Went To Switzerland And From 1918-21 Was Professor Of Counterpoint And Composition At Zurich Conserva ...

Pierre Janet
Janet, Pierre (1859– ), French Psychologist, Was Born On May 3o, 1859, In Paris, And Educated At The Ecole Normale And The Ecole De Medecine In Paris. From 1881 To 1898 He Lectured On Philosophy At The Lycees Of Chateauroux And The Hague, At The College Rollin, And At The ...

Pierre Jeannin
Jeannin, Pierre 2 ) , French Statesman, Was Born At Autun. A Pupil Of The Great Jurist Jacques Cujas At Bour Ges, He Was An Advocate At Dijon In 1569 And Became Councillor And Then President Of The Parlement Of Burgundy. He Opposed In Vain The Massacre Of St. Bartholomew ...

Pierre Jules Cesar Janssen
Janssen, Pierre Jules Cesar French Astronomer, Was Born In Paris On Feb. 22, 1824, And Studied Mathematics And Physics At The Faculty Of Sciences. Vari Ous Scientific Missions Were Entrusted To Him. In 1857 He Went To Peru In Order To Determine The Magnetic Equator; In 1861-62 And 1864, He ...

Pope Versus Emperor
Pope Versus Emperor Guelph And Ghibelline.—the Cause Of Frederick's Son Con Rad Was Sustained In Lower Italy By Manfred, One Of His Many Natural Children; And When Conrad Died In 1254, Manfred Still Acted As Vicegerent For The Swabians, Who Were Now Represented By A Boy, Conradin. Innocent Iv. And ...

Preparation Of Ore For
Preparation Of Ore For Smelting Transport.—in England And On The Continent Much Of The Iron Ore Is Smelted In Furnaces Erected Nearby—even At The Mine Mouth. Freight Is A Minor Matter. That Which Is Transported From Overseas Is Handled For The Most Part In Ordinary Cargo Vessels. In America, However, ...

Principles Of Investigation
Principles Of Investigation General Rules.—hans Gross's Rules For Guiding Investigators Are Quite Generally Observed By Police Detectives Assigned To In Vestigate Crimes. Briefly, They Are : Take The Simplest View At The Outset And Disregard All Strange And Extraordinary Supposi Tions ; Omit The Romantic Features Of Fiction Writers, Remove ...

Private International Law
International Law, Private. Private Inter National Law Means That Law Which Is Applied To The Judicial Adjust Ment Of Divergent Private Interests Of An International Character, Whether Between Individuals Or An Individual And A State, As Dis Tinguished From The Law Applicable To The Settlement Of Relations Between States, Which ...

Public International Law
International Law, Public, The General Term For The Law Governing The Relations And Intercourse Of States Inter Se. The Parties Are States And Not Nations, So That The Word "international" Does Not Accurately Define The Scope Of The Subject. Nor Do Authors Always Confine Themselves To Its Proper Limitation. Thus ...

Recent Finds In Rome
Recent Finds In Rome The City Of Rome Still Yields A Constant Stream Of Ancient Works Of Art. The Government Has Secured Possession Of The Capitoline Hill And With Characteristic Zeal At Once Ordered The Excavation Of The Site Of Rome's Chief Temple. The Massive Foundations Of Tarquin's Structure Were ...

Reorganization Of Italy
Reorganization Of Italy Bonaparte Procured The Cession To France Of Parma; While The Duke Of Parma (husband Of An Infanta Of Spain) Was Promoted By Him To The Duchy Of Tuscany, Now Renamed The Kingdom Of Etru Ria; And On Sept. 21, 1802, Piedmont Was Incorporated In The French Republic. ...

Richard Jago
Jago, Richard (1715-1781), English Poet, Son Of Rich Ard Jago, Rector Of Beaudesert, Warwickshire, Was Born On Oct. 1, 1715, And Educated At University College, Oxford. After Holding Various Preferments, He Died At Smitherfield May 8, 1781. See The Edition Of His Poems In Chalmers's English Poets, Vol. Xvii. ...

Richard Jefferle S
Jefferle S, Richard ( S4 S--i Ss 71. English Naturalist And Novelist. Was Born On Nov. 6. Is4s. At Coate Near Swindon. He Attended School At Sydenham And Then At Swindon Until The Age Of Wnen He Made An Unsu - A Reach And Then America. Returning He A Post ...

Robert Jameson
Jameson, Robert Scottish Naturalist And Mineralogist, Was Born At Leith On July Ii, 1774. He Became Assistant To A Surgeon In His Native Town. He Studied Natural History Under Dr. John Walker In 1792 And 1793, And Went In 1800 To Freiberg To Study For Nearly Two Years Under Werner. ...

Robert Jamieson
Jamieson, Robert (c. 1780-1844), Scottish Antiquary, Was Born In Morayshire. In 1806 He Published A Collection Of Popular Ballads And Songs From Tradition, Manuscript And Scarce Editions. Two Pleasing Lyrics Of His Own Were Included. Scott, Through Whose Assistance He Received A Government Post At Edin Burgh, Held Jamieson In ...

Robert Jenkins
Jenkins, Robert (fl. English Master Mariner, Is Known As The Protagonist Of The "jenkins's Ear" Inci Dent, Which, Magnified In England By The Press And The Opposition, Became A Contributory Cause Of The War Between England And Spain (1739) Which Ultimately Merged Into The War Of The Aus Trian Succession. ...

Robert Jephson
Jephson, Robert (1736-1803), Irish Dramatist, Was Born In Ireland. After Serving For Some Years In The British Army, He Retired With The Rank Of Captain, And Lived In England, Where He Was The Friend Of Garrick, Reynolds, Goldsmith, Johnson, Burke, Burney And Charles Townshend. His Appointment As Master Of The ...

Rolling Mills
Rolling Mills Hot Working.—a Spongy Lump Of Wrought Iron, Hot From The Furnace, Requires Forging In Order To Squeeze Out Much Of The Trapped Slag, And To Consolidate The Metal. Even The Best Ingot Of Steel Is Improved By Hot Work, Such As Forging Or Pressing; Its Fracture Is Changed ...

Rome
Rome : Archaeology.) (t. F.) Natural Economic Resources.—on The Asset Side Of Italy's Economic Balance-sheet Must Be Placed Man-power, Brains, Geo Graphical Position, Water-power ; On The Debit Side, The Absence Of Coal And Fuel Oils In Commercial Quantities, Limited Mineral Resources, A High Percentage Of Rocky Mountainous Territory, Either ...

Sacking Of Bukhara
Sacking Of Bukhara The Invading Force Was In The First Instance Divided Into Two Armies : One Commanded By Jenghiz's Second Son Jagatai Was Directed To March Against The Kankalis, The Northern Defenders Of The Khw5.rizm Empire; And The Other, Led By Juji, His Eldest Son, Advanced By Way Of ...

Saint Ivo Of Chartres
Ivo Of Chartres, Saint (yvo, Yves) (c. 1040 I116), Bishop Of Chartres, Was Born Of A Noble Family Near Beau Vais, And Was Educated In Paris And At Bec Under Lanfranc. About Io8o He Became Prior Of The Canons Of St. Quentin In Beauvais And Ten Years Later Bishop Of ...

Sir Henry Irving
Irving, Sir Henry (1838-1905), English Actor, Whose Original Name Was John Brodribb, Was Born At Keinton-mande Ville, Somerset, Feb. 6, 1838. After A Brief Experience As Clerk In A City Firm He Started As An Actor. He Made His First Appearance (sept. 29, 1856) At Sunderland As Gaston, Duke Of ...

Sir James Hopwood Jeans
Jeans, Sir James Hopwood (1877— ), English Mathematician, Was Born In London On Sept. 11, 1877. He Was Educated At Cambridge, Where He Was Second Wrangler In 1898 And Smith's Prizeman In 1900. He Has Held The Posts Of Stokes Lecturer In Applied Mathematics At Cambridge And Professor Of Ap ...

Sir James Ivory
Ivory, Sir James (1765-1842), Scottish Mathematician, Was Born In Dundee In 1765. In 1779 He Entered The University Of St. Andrews, Distinguishing Himself Especially In Mathematics. From 1804-16, He Occupied A Chair Of Mathematics At The Royal Military College, Marlow (now Sandhurst). He Contributed Many Memoirs To The Philosophical Transactions, ...

Sir Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy
Jeejeebhoy, Sir Jamsetjee, Bart. Inclan Tier:nail: An Born In Bombay. Of Parsee Parents_ And Was Left An Ln Early Life. He Made His Way In Life By .715 Own Unaided Ability. Before He Was Twenty He Under Took A Voyage To China : And He Subseqaently Initiated Matic Trade With ...

Sir Lawrence Jenkins
Jenkins, Sir Lawrence (1858-1928), Indian Judge And Reformer, Was Born At Cilbronau, Cardigan, On Dec. 22, 1858, And Educated At Cheltenham And At University College, Oxford. He Was Called To The Bar In 1883, And Became Well Known As An Equity Lawyer. He Married In 1892 Catherine Kennedy, Author Of ...

Sir Leander Starr Jameson
Jameson, Sir Leander Starr British Colonial Statesman, Son Of R. W. Jameson, A Writer To The Signet In Edinburgh, Was Born At Edinburgh In 1853, And Was Educated For The Medical Profession At University College Hos Pital, London (m.r.c.s. 1875; M.d. 1877). After Acting As House Physician, House Surgeon And ...

Sir Leoline Jenkins
Jenkins, Sir Leoline (1623-1685), English Lawyer And Diplomatist, Was The Son Of A Welsh Country Gentleman. He Was Born In 1623 And Was Educated At Jesus College, Oxford. Dur Ing The Civil War And The Commonwealth He Was An Ardent Royalist; In 1661 He Was Made Registrar Of The Consistory ...

Sir Richard Claverhouse Jebb
Jebb, Sir Richard Claverhouse English Classical Scholar, Was Born At Dundee On Aug. 27, 1841, And Died At Cambridge, Where He Was Professor Of Greek, On Dec. 9, 1905. He Was Educated At Charterhouse And At Trinity College, Cambridge. In 1891 He Was M.p. For Cambridge Univeisity, In 1900 He ...

Sir Thomas Graham Jackson
Jackson, Sir Thomas Graham, Bart. (1835 1924), English Architect, Was Born In London On Dec. 21, 1835, The Son Of A Solicitor, And Educated At Oxford, Where He Became A Fellow Of Wadham. He Worked In The Office Of Sir George Gil Bert Scott For Three Years, But Was Not ...

Sir William Jenner
Jenner, Sir William, Bart. (1815-1898), English Physician, Was Born At Chatham On Jan. 3o, 1815, And Educated At University College, London. In 1847, At The London Fever Hos Pital, He Began Investigations Into Cases Of "continued" Fever, Which Enabled Him Finally To Make The Distinction Between Typhus And Typhoid On ...

Soame Jenyns
Jenyns, Soame (1704-87), English Author, Was Born In London On Jan. I, 1704, And Was Educated At St. John's College, Cambridge. In 1742 He Was Chosen M.p. For Cambridgeshire, In Which His Property Lay, And He Afterwards Sat For The Borough Of Dunwich And The Town Of Cambridge. From 1755 ...

Some
Some Ferro-alloys Are Highly Important And Include Those Metallic Substances Used For Finishing Carbon Steel And Manufacturing Alloy Steel. Most Of Them Are Electric Furnace Alloys Of Iron And Carbon Plus The Third Distinguishing Metal, Manganese, Silicon, Chromium Or Some Other, Although For Some Purposes The Carbon Content Must Be ...

Spanish Austrian Ascendancy
Spanish-austrian Ascendancy It Was High Time, After The Sack Of Rome In 1527, That Charles V. Should Undertake Italian Affairs. By The Treaty Of Barcelona In 1529 The Pope And Emperor Made Terms. By That Of Cambrai In The Same Year France Relinquished Italy To Spain. Charles Then Entered The ...

St Januarius
Januarius, St., Or San Gennaro, The Patron Saint Of Naples. According To The Legend, He Was Bishop Of Benevento, And Flourished Towards The Close Of The 3rd Century. On The Outbreak Of The Persecution By Diocletian And Maximian, He Was Taken To Nola And Brought Before Timotheus, Governor Of Campania, ...

State University Of Iowa
Iowa, State University Of, An Institution Of Higher Learning, Situated In Iowa City, Ia. It Was Organized By An Act Of The Legislature In 1847. Instruction Was Begun In The Spring Of 1855, But The First Regular Collegiate Session Did Not Open Until The Autumn Of 1856. Because Of Financial ...

Territorial Redivision
Territorial Redivision The Adriatic Question.—the Ministerial Crisis Initiated By Bissolati's Resignation Came To A Head On Jan. 18, And Resulted In The Resignation Of Nitti (who Wished To Prepare The Way For Assum Ing The Premiership Himself) And Of Four Other Ministers. The Italian Peace Delegation To The Paris Conference, ...

The Anglo French Declaration
The Anglo-french Declaration Liberation Of 'iraq.—on Nov. 7, 1918, Ten Days After The Signature Of The Turkish Armistice At Mudros, The British And French Governments Issued A Joint Declaration Of Vital Impor Tance To The Occupied Arab Territories, Stating Their Aims In The East To Be : To Complete The ...

The Ashikaga Period
The Ashikaga Period Thus Began The Ashikaga Line Of Shoguns (1338-1565) And Also A Period Of Divided Sovereignty Which Lasted 56 Years, The Em Peror Go-daigo And His Descendants Reigning At Yoshino As The Southern Court And The Emperor Kornyo And His Descendants At Kyoto As The Northern Court. Though ...

The Bronze Age
The Bronze Age Of The Bronze Implements Many Types Are Similar To Those Found Elsewhere In Northern Europe, But Some Have Distinctive Character. The Flat Copper Hatchet Is Probably Indigenous To The Country, From Which It Spread Over The Continent. The Copper Halberds Are Especially Remarkable. They Are A Kind ...

The Conqueror James I
James I., The Conqueror (1208-1276), King Of Aragon, Son Of Peter Ii. And Of Mary Of Montpellier, Was Born At Mont Pellier On Feb. 2, 1208. Peter, Whose Possessions In Provence En Tangled Him In The Wars Between The Albigenses And Simon De Montfort, Arranged An Alliance Between James And ...

The Fascist Coup Detat
The Fascist Coup-d'etat The General Strike.—on Aug. 1, 1922, A General Strike In All Italy Was Called By The Alleanza Del Lavoro Proclaimed By Turati A "legalist" Strike, Because Its Professed Object Was To Affirm The Authority Of The State Against The Fascists. Work Was Suspended In Many Factories And ...

The Fascists
The Fascists About This Time Agrarian Troubles, Provoked By Socialists And Left-wing Popolari, Had Also Broken Out In Various Parts Of Italy, Notably In The Veneto, The Provinces Of Bergamo And Cremona, The Lazio, Tuscany And Sicily. The Peasants Demanded Contracts Which, If Accepted, Would Have Left The Landlords Without ...

The Frankish Emperors
The Frankish Emperors The Franco-papal Alliance Held Within Itself That Ideal Of Mutu Ally Supporting Papacy And Empire Which Exercised So Powerful An Influence In Mediaeval History. When Charles The Great (charle Magne) Deposed His Father-in-law Desiderius, The Last Lombard King, In 774, And When He Was Crowned Emperor By ...

The Fujiwara Period And
The Fujiwara Period And Wars Of Gempei Kwammu Removed The Court To Nagaoka, Yamashiro; Then In 794 To The New City Of Kyoto, Which Continued To Be The Imperial Residence Until 1869. The Chief Reason For The Change Was No Doubt The Fear That At Nara The Government Might Be ...

The German Emperors
The German Emperors Berengar Gained Nothing By His Act Of Obedience To Otto. Otto Entered Lombardy In 961, Deposed Berengar, Assumed The Crown In Sant' Ambrogio At Milan, And In 962 Was Proclaimed Emperor By John Xii. At Rome. Henceforward Italy Changed Masters Ac Cording As One Or Other Of ...

The Great Earthquake
The Great Earthquake The Hara Cabinet Continued In Power Until Nov. 1921. From A Japanese Point Of View, It Was Only Moderately Successful In Foreign Politics And Many Accusations Of Corruption In Domestic Matters Were Brought Against It. Nevertheless The Sudden Assassi Nation Of Mr. Hara On Nov. 4 Appeared ...

The International Telephone And
International Telephone And Tele Graph Corporation, The, A Holding And Operating Company, Incorporated Under The Laws Of The State Of Maryland, U.s.a., Having Its Principal Office In New York City. This Cor Poration Was Organized To Develop Electrical Communication In All Its Branches. Its Present Business May Be Briefly Summarized ...

The International
International, The). At About The Same Time The Growth Of In Ternational Trade Led To The Earliest Official International Unions, Such As That Constituted By The International Telegraphic Conven Tion Of 1865, And The General Postal Union Of 1874 (see Post And Postal Services). Quite Exceptional Was The International Sugar ...