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Encyclopedia Britannica Volume 3 Baltimore - Braila

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Betelgeuse
Betelgeuse, The Brightest Star In The Constellation Orion (a Orionis). It Is Yellowish-red, And Is Thus Easily Distinguished From The Other Important Stars In The Constellation, Which Are White. Betelgeuse Is A Multiple Star, Being An Irregular Variable, Sometimes Above And Sometimes Below The First Magnitude. It Was The First ...

Beth Horon
Beth-horon ("the Place Of The Hollow Way"), The Name Of Two Neighbouring Villages, Upper And Lower Beth-horon, On The Ascent From The Coast Plain Of Palestine To The High Tableland Of Benjamin, Which Was Until The 16th Century The High Road From Jerusalem To The Sea. The Two Towns Thus ...

Bethany
Bethany (mod. El-'azariyeli, A Corruption Of Lazarion), A Small Village Pleasantly Set Amongst Fruit Trees And Cornfields On The Eastern Slope Of The Mount Of Olives : Pop. Soo, Almost Entirely Mohammedan. It Was The Residence Of Lazarus And His Sisters And Much Favoured By Jesus. An Ancient Tower Marks ...

Bethel
Bethel, A Village On The Watershed Of The Judaean Hill-coun Try, 11m. N. Of Jerusalem And 2,900f T. Above Sea-level; Pop. 446, Muslim. Bethel ("house Of God"), Now Called Beitin, But Orig Inally Called Luz (gen. Xxviii. 19), Was Early Accounted A Holy Place, Due, Perhaps, To The Existence Near ...

Bethesda
Bethesda, An Urban District Of Carnarvonshire, North Wales, 5m. From Bangor, By A Branch Of The L.m.s. Railway. Population 4,476. It Lies Near The Lower End Of The Fine Nant Ffrancon (valley Of The Ogwen Stream). The Scriptural Name Is Due, As Often In Wales, To The Village Or Hamlet ...

Bethesda_2
Bethesda, The "house Of Mercy," John V. 2, Better Per Haps Bethzatha Or Bethsaida, A Pool Or Public Bath In Jerusalem, Where Miraculous Cures Were Believed To Be Performed. The Fol Lowing Identifications Have Been Suggested : Birket Israeli, Near St. Stephen's Gate ; A Large Cistern, Near St. Anne's ...

Bethlehem Steel Corporation
Bethlehem Steel Corporation Was Organized In New Jersey On Dec. 1o, 1904, To Acquire The Stock Of Bethle Hem Steel Company (pa.) And Of Several Other Companies Own Ing Shipbuilding Plants. Its Only Steel Plant (at Bethlehem, Pa.) Then Had An Annual Ingot Capacity Of 190,00o Tons And Manufac Tured ...

Bethlehem
Bethlehem, A Town 5m. S. Of Jerusalem On Eastern Spur Of Watershed; Altitude 2,5ooft. (heb. "house Of Bread" Or "of Lahamu" [deity] ; Also Called Ephrathah [mic. V., Ruth Iv.], But This Is Perhaps A District Name.) History.—garrisoned By The Philistines In The Time Of Saul (ii. Sam. Xxiii. 14), ...

Bethlehemites
Bethlehemites, A Name Borne At Different Times By Three Orders In The Roman Catholic Church. (i) A Community Of Friars At Cambridge, In 1257, Whose Habit Was Distinguished From That Of The Ordinary Dominicans By A Five-rayed Red Star (in Reference To Matt. Ii. 9 F .) . (2) An ...

Bethlehem_2
Bethlehem, A City Of Pennsylvania, U.s.a., In North Ampton And Lehigh Counties, On The Lehigh River, Som. North-west Of Philadelphia. It Is On The William Penn Highway And The Bethlehem Pike (one Of The Oldest Highways In The Country) ; Is Served By The Central Railroad Of New Jersey, The ...

Bethnal Green
Bethnal Green, An East Metropolitan Borough, London, England, Bounded North By Hackney, East By Poplar, South By Stepney And West By Shoreditch. Pop. (1931), 108,178. It Is A District Of Poor Houses In The "east End." The People Make Match-boxes, Boots, Furniture, Textiles, Metal Objects, Etc., But Were Formerly Largely ...

Bethune Family
Bethune (family). The Seigneurs Of Bethune, Avoues (advocati) Of The Great Abbey Of Saint-vaast At Arras From The I 1 Th Century, Were The Ancestors Of A Great French House Whence Sprang The Dukes Of Sully, Charost, Orval, And Ancenis; The Mar Quises Of Rosny, Courville, And Chabris ; The ...

Bethune
Bethune, Town Of France, Capital Of An Arrondissement, Department Of Pas-de-calais, 24m. N.n.w. Of Arras, On The Rail Way Between Arras And St. Omer. Pop. (1931) Bethune Is Situated On A Low Hill At The Confluence Of The Lawe With The Canal From Aire To Bauvin. The Town Dates From ...

Betoyan
Betoyan, An Important Linguistic Stock Of South American Indians, So Called From The Betoyes, One Of Its Important Tribes. The Betoyan Stock Occupies An Extensive Area In The Region Drained By The North-western Tributaries Of The Amazon System, From The Napo River In The South, Northwards To The Upper Apure ...

Betrothal
Betrothal. Betrothal Was Anciently A Formal Cere Mony Which In Most Cases Preceded The Actual Marriage Service, Usually By A Period Of Some Weeks, But The Marriage Might Be Delayed For Years. The Canon Law Distinguished Two Types Of Be Trothal:—(i) Sponsalia De Praesenti, (2) Sponsalia De Futuro. The First ...

Better Business Bureaus
Better Business Bureaus Are Maintained In More Than 6o Principal Cities Of The U.s.a. And Canada To Protect Both Business And The Community From Unfair, Misleading, Or Fraudu Lent Advertising And Selling. The National Better Business Bureau In New York City Concerns Itself With National Advertising; The Local Bureaus Are ...

Betterment
Betterment, A Term Used Particularly In Connection With The Increased Value Given To Real Property By Causes For Which A Tenant Or The Public, But Not The Owner, Is Responsible. A Statute Passed To Facilitate The Rebuilding Of London After The Great Fire Of 1666 Provided That Owners Of Property ...

Betting Tax
Betting Tax. By The Enactment Of The Finance Act, 1926, The British Parliament Imposed A Duty On Bets And Betting, A Means Of Raising Revenue That Was Recommended By A Majority Of The House Of Commons Committee Appointed In 1923 To Report On The Subject. The Tax Was Withdrawn By ...

Betul
Betul, A Town And District Of British India, In The Ner Budda Division Of The Central Provinces. Pop. (1931) 9,614. The Administrative Headquarters Of The District Were Moved Many Years Ago To The Town Of Badnur (q.v.) 3 Miles To The North. The District Of Betul Has An Area Of ...

Betwa
Betwa, A River Of India, Which Rises In The Native State Of Bhopal In Malwa, And After A Course Of 36om., For The Most Part In A North-easterly Direction, Falls Into The Jumna At Hamirpur. A Weir Is Thrown Across The Betwa About 15m. From Jhansi Town, Whence A Canal ...

Betzdorf
Betzdorf, A Town In Rhenish Prussia, On The River Sieg, A Tributary Of The Rhine, 35m. E. Of Bonn. Pop. (1933), 8,781. Iron Is Mined And There Are Machinery And Wagon Works. ...

Beudant
Beudant, Francois Sulpice French Mineralogist And Geologist, Was Born At Paris On Sept. 5, 1787. In 1817 He Published A Paper On The Phenomena Of The Crystallization Of Minerals. In 1818 He Was Sent By The French Government On A Geological Journey Through Hungary, And His Voyage Mingiralogique Et Gsologique ...

Beuel
Beuel, A Town On The Rhine Opposite Bonn, Rhenish Prussia. Pop. Metal-work, Asphalt, Basalt, Cardboard, Paper, Vaseline And Chemicals Are Produced. ...

Beuthen
Beuthen, A Town Of Germany, In The Extreme South-east Of The Prussian Province Of Upper Silesia, 12om. S.e. Of Breslau, On The Railway To Cracow. Pop. It Is The Centre Of The Mining District (lead And Zinc) Of Upper Silesia. Arising Out Of This Are Its Chemical And Machine Industries. ...

Bevel
Bevel, The Inclination Of One Surface Of A Solid Body To Another, Also Any Angle Other Than A Right Angle, And In Carpentry Or Joinery The Angle To Which A Piece Of Timber Must Be Cut. The Tool Known As A Bevel Is A Rule With Two Arms That Can ...

Beverley
Beverley, Municipal Borough In The East Riding Of York Shire, England, Eight M. N.n.w. Of Hull On A Branch Of The L.n.e.r. Population (1931) 14,011. It Lies In A Level Country East Of The Yorkshire Wolds, Near The River Hull, And Has Com Munication By Canal With Hull. There Are ...

Beverly Hills
Beverly Hills, A Luxurious Residential City Of Los Angeles County, Calif., U.s.a., Adjoining Los Angeles, And 9m. From The Ocean. It Was Incorporated In 1914 As A City Of The Sixth Class, And Is Governed By A Board Of Trustees. The Area Is 4.87 Square Miles. The City Was Laid ...

Beverly
Beverly, A City Of Essex County, Massachusetts, U.s.a., On The Picturesque "north Shore," Opposite Marblehead, And 18m. N.e. Of Boston. It Has A Land Area Of 15sq.m., Includes Nine Miles Of Seacoast, And Is The Starting Point Of The Famous North Shore Drive, Which Winds Past The Beautiful Summer Resorts ...

Bevis Of Hampton
Bevis Of Hampton, The Name Of An English Metrical Romance. The Wife Of Guy, Count Of Hampton (southampton) Asks A Former Suitor, Doon Or Devoun, Emperor Of Almaine Many), To Send An Army To Der Guy In The Forest. The Plot Is Successful, And She Marries Doon. When Threatened With ...

Bewdley
Bewdley, Municipal Borough, Worcestershire, England, Lies Near The Shropshire Border On The Sloping Right Bank Of The Severn. The Ancient Forest Of Wyre, Extending From South East Shropshire, Borders The Town On The West. Population (1931) 2,868. Bewdley (i.e., Beaulieu) Was Held By The King At The Time Of The ...

Bexhill Or Bexhill On Sea
Bexhill Or Bexhill-on-sea, A Municipal Borough And Watering-place, Sussex, England, 62 M. S.e. By S. Of London, On The Southern Railway. Pop. (1891) 5,206; (1931) 21,229. The Ancient Village, With The Norman And Early English Church Of St. Peter, Lies Inland On The Slope Of The Low Hills Fringing The ...

Bexley
Bexley, Urban District, Kent, England, I2m. S.e. By E. Of London By The Southern Railway. Pop. (1931) 32,94o. Bexley Is Mentioned In Domesday Book And Has Had A Church Since The 9th Century. The Present Church Of St. Mary Is Early English And Later. With The Rental Of The Manor ...

Bey
Bey, A Modern Turkish Word, The Older Form Being Beg (cf. Pers. Baig), The Administrator Of A District, Later An Honorific Title Throughout The Turkish Empire. In Tunis "bey" Has Become The Hereditary Title Of The Reigning Sovereigns (see Tunisia). ...

Beybazar
Beybazar, The Chief Town Of A Kaza Of The Angora Vilayet Of Turkey, Situated On An Affluent Of The Sakaria (anc. Sangarius), About 52m. West Of Angora. It Corresponds To The Anc. Lagania, Renamed Anastasiopolis Under The Emperor Anastasius (491-518), A Bishopric By The 5th Century. Its Well Built Wooden ...

Bezant Or Byzant
Bezant Or Byzant, A Byzantine Gold Coin Which Had A Wide Circulation Throughout Europe Up To About 125o. Its Average Value Was About Nine Shillings. Bezants Were Also Issued In Flanders And Spain. Silver Bezants, In Value From One To Two Shillings, Were In Circulation In England In The 13th ...

Bezantee
Bezantee, In Architecture, A Name Given To A Band Or Moulding Dec Orated With A Series Of Flat, Circular Pro Jections Supposedly Resembling The Coins (bezants) Struck In Byzantium. ...

Bezel
Bezel, A Sloping Edge, As Of A Cutting Tool, Also Known As Basil. In Jewellery, The Term Is Used For The Oblique Sides Or Faces Of A Gem; The Rim Which Secures The Crystal Of A Watch In Position Or A Jewel In Its Setting, And Particularly The Enlarged Part ...

Beziers
Beziers, Town Of France, Capital Of An Arrondissement, Department Of Herault, 47m. S.w. Of Montpellier By Rail. Pop. (1930 64,888. Beziers Lies In A Wine-growing District, On A Hill On The Left Bank Of The Orb, Joined At This Point By The Canal Du Midi. The Romans Established A Colony ...

Bezique
Bezique, A Game At Cards Played With Two Similar Packs From Which The Twos, Threes, Fours, Fives, And Sixes Have Been Rejected, Shuffled Together And Used As One (probably From Span. Besico, Little Kiss, In Allusion To The Meeting Of The Queen And Knave, An Important Feature In The Game). ...

Bezwada
Bezwada, A Town Of British India, In The Kistna Dis Trict Of Madras, On The Left Bank Of The River Kistna, At The Head Of Its Delta. Pop. (t 93 R) 60,427. Here Are The Headquarters Of The Kistna Canal System, Which Irrigates About 700,00o Acres, And Also Provides Navigation ...

Bhagalpur
Bhagalpur, Town Of British India, In The Behar Sec Tion Of Behar And Orissa, Which Gives Its Name To A District And To A Division ; Situated On The Right Bank Of The Ganges, With A Station On The East Indian Railway. Pop. (1931) 83,847. The Chief Educational Institution Is ...

Bhamo
Bhamo, A Town And District Of Burma. The Town Was In Ancient Times The Capital Of The Shan State Of Manmaw, Later The Seat Of A Burmese Governor. It Is Now The Headquarters Of A District In The North-east Frontier Division Of Burma On The Chinese Frontier. It Is Situated ...

Bhandara
Bhandara, A Town And District Of British India In The Nagpur Division Of The Central Provinces. The Town (pop. 1931, 16,738) Is Situated On The Left Bank Of The River Wainganga, 7 Miles From A Station On The Bengal-nagpur Railway. It Has Considerable Manufactures Of Cotton Cloth And Brass-ware, And, ...

Bhang
Bhang, An East Indian Name For The Hemp Plant, Cannabis Sativa (see Hemp), But Applied Specially To The Leaves Dried And Prepared For Use As A Narcotic Drug. In India It Is Recognized Under The Three Names And Forms Of Bhang, Gunja Or Ganja, And Churrus Or Charas. Bhang Consists ...

Bharahat Or Barhut
Bharahat Or Barhut, A Village In The Small State Of Nagod In India Lying About S.w. Of Allahabad. It Is Famed For The Remains Of An Imposing Stzcpa Which Was Excavated In 1874. The Stupa Was Circular, Loft. In Diameter And 42ft. High. It Was Surrounded By A Stone Railing ...

Bharal
Bharal (bur'41), The Tartar Name For The "blue Sheep" Ovis Nahura, Of Ladak And Tibet. The General Colour Is Blue Grey With Black "points" And White Markings And Belly ; And The Horns Of The Rams Are Olive-brown And Nearly Smooth, With A Backward Curvature. The Bharal Serves To Connect ...

Bharatpur Or Bhurtpore
Bharatpur Or Bhurtpore, An Indian State In The Rajputana Agency. Its Area Covers 1,978 Sq.m., And Its Popula Tion In 1931 Was 486,954. The Country Is Generally Level, But De Tached Hills, Rising To 2o0ft. In Height, Occur, Especially In The North. These Hills Contain Good Building Stone And Some ...

Bhascara
Bhascara (b. I114), Known As Acarya (the Learned), In Dian Astronomer And Mathematician, Was The Head Of An Observa Tory At Oudjein. He Wrote In Verse On Astronomy And Mathematics, The Siddliantashiromani. The Chapters On Mathematics Were Trans Lated By Colebrooke With The Work Of Brahmagupta (q.v.) And Those On ...

Bhatgaon
Bhatgaon, A Town Of Nepal, 8m. From Kathmandu. It Is A Celebrated Hindu Religious Centre, The Favourite Residence Of The Brahmans Of Nepal, And Contains More Families Of That Order Than Either Kathmandu Or Patan. It Has A Population Of About 30,00o And Its Palace And Buildings Generally Are Of ...

Bhattiana
Bhattiana, A Tract In The Punjab, India, Covering The Ghaggar Valley From Fatehabad In Hissar To Bhatnair In Bikanir. In 1795 It Was Nominally Under George Thomas, The Hariana Adventurer, And After Lord Lake's Victories (1803) It Passed With The Delhi Territory Under British Rule, But Was Not Settled Until ...

Bhau Daji Ramkrishna Vithal
Bhau Daji (ramkrishna Vithal) (1822-74), Hindu Physician, Scholar And Antiquary, Was Educated At The Elphinstone College In Bombay, Where He Eventually Joined The Teaching Staff. Both He And His Brother, Narayen Daji, Were Physicians Of Note. Bhau Daji Took An Active Interest In Bombay University, Of Which He Was One ...

Bhavnagar Or Bhaunagar
Bhavnagar Or Bhaunagar, A Native State Of India In Western India States Agency: Area, 2,961 Sq.m. ; Pop. (1930, 500,274. The Tribute Is £8,5oo. The Chief, Whose Title Is Thakor Sahib, Is Head Of The Famous Clan Of The Gohel Rajputs Of Kathiawar. The Enlightened System Of Administration Formed During ...

Bhera
Bhera, A Town In British India, Shahpur District, Punjab, On The River Jhelum. Pop. (1931) 19,741. It Is An Important Centre Of Trade, With Manufactures Of Cotton Goods, Metal-work And Carving. ...

Bhil
Bhil, An Aboriginal, Probably Munda, Tribe Of Central India (fr. Dravidian Bil, "bow"). Its Language Only Survives In About 6% Of Its Vocabulary And It Now Speaks A Mixture Of Guzerati And Malwi. Possibly The Pygmies Of Ktesias And The Phyllitae And Pulindae Of Ptolemy, Its Name Is Hardly Traceable ...

Bhima
Bhima, In The Epic Hindu Mythology, One Of The Pandava Princes In The Mahabharata, Distinguished By His Size, Strength And Voracity (skt. "terrible"). ...

Bhiwani
Bhiwani, Town, British India, Hissar District, Punjab, 38m. S.e. Of Hissar Town By Rail. Pop. (193i) 35,866. It Is An Important Centre Of Trade With Rajputana, And Has Factories For Ginning And Pressing Cotton, And Metal Manufactures. ...

Bhopal
Bhopal, An Indian State In The Central India Agency. Its Area Is 6,902 Sq.m., And Its Population In 1931 Was Bhopal Is The Principal Muslim State In Central India, And Second Only To Hyderabad For The Whole Of India. The Surface Of The Country Is Uneven, Being Traversed By The ...

Bhopawar
Bhopawar, Former Agency In Central India Comprising The Dhar And Barwani States, Three Minor States, Ali Rajpur, Jhabua And Jobat, And A Number Of Districts And Estates, Some Of Them Minute In Area. The Chief Towns Are Dhar (pop., 19,607) ; Bar Wani (8,949), And Kukshi (6,621). ...

Bhor
Bhor, A Native State Of India, In The Revankatha Agency, Bombay, Situated Among The Higher Peaks Of The Western Ghats. Its Area Covers 925 Square Miles. Pop., 1931, 141,546; The Tribute Is 1312. The Chief, Whose Title Is Pant Sachiv, Is A Brahman By Caste. The Town Of Bhor Is ...

Bhuj
Bhuj, A Town Of India, The Capital Of The Native State Of Cutch, In The Western India States Agency, Situated At The Base Of A Fortified Hill, On The North Side Of The Ran Of Cutch. Pop. (1931) 21,859. It Is Well Known For Its Silver Work. It Contains Some ...

Bhutan
Bhutan, An Independent State In The Eastern Himalayas, Lying Between Tibet And British India, With The Latter Of Which The Boundary Marches For, About 200 Miles. It Is Bounded On The East By A Tract Inhabited By Savage Tribes, Such As Abors And Mishmis, Called By The Tibetans Kha Lo ...

Biafar
Biafar, A Portuguese Guinea People Related To The Bagnun, Balante, Mandjak, Bola And Papel, And Located On The Right Bank Of The Geba Estuary. ...

Bialystok
Bialystok, A Province Of Poland, Bounded North By Prussia And Lithuania; East By The Province Of Novogrodek; South By The Provinces Of Lublin And Polesie, And West By The Province Of Warsaw. Area, 12,597 Square Miles. It Is A Uniform Plain, Drained By The Niemen, Bobr, Narew And Bug, All ...

Bialystok_2
Bialystok, A Town Of Poland, Capital Of The Province Of The Same Name In 53° 8' N. And 10' E., On The Main Railway Line From Warsaw To Leningrad. Founded In 1320, It Became Part Of Prussia After The Third Partition Of Poland, But Was Annexed To Russia In 1807. ...

Biarritz
Biarritz, Watering-place, South-west France, In The Depart Ment Of Basses-pyrenees, On The Bay Of Biscay About 5m. W.s.w. Of Bayonne. Pop. (1931) 21,369. A Small Fishing Village In The Early 19th Century, It Rose Rapidly Into Importance Under The Pat Ronage Of The Empress Eugenie, And Is To-day The Most ...

Bias
Bias, Of Priene In Ionia, One Of The So-called Seven Sages Of Greece, Son Of Teutamus, Flourished About 570 B.c. The Aph Orisms Attributed To Him May Be Found Collected In F. W. A. Mullach, Fragmenta Pliilosophorurn Graecorum (186o). He Is Said To Have Written A Poem On The Best ...

Bias_2
Bias, Something Oblique Or Slanting (fr. Biais, Of Unknown Origin) . The Term Is Used Especially Of A Piece Of Cloth Cut Obliquely Across The Texture, Or Of A Seam Of Two Such Pieces Brought Together. In The Game Of Bowls (q.v.) It Is Applied Alike To The One-sided Construction ...

Biaxial Crystal
Biaxial Crystal, A Crystal Having Two Optic Axes, I.e., Two Directions Within The Crystal In Which The Ordinary And Extra Ordinary Rays Of Light Are Propagated With The Same Velocity; E.g., Aragonite Is A Biaxial Crystal And, In Common With Others, Exhibits Conical Refraction (q.v.). (see Light.) ...

Biberach
Biberach, A Town In The Land Of Wurttemberg, Ger Many, On The Riss, A Small Affluent Of The Danube, 2 2m. S.s.w. Of Ulm. Pop. (1933), 10,426. It Is Still Surrounded By Mediaeval Walls And Towers, And Has A 12th Century Church. Biberach Be Came A Free Imperial City In ...

Bibirine Or Bebeerine
Bibirine Or Bebeerine, An Alkaloid Obtained From The Bark And Fruit Of The Greenheart (q.v.) Tree, Nectandra Rodiaei, Called Bibiru Or Sipiri In Guiana. It Has Been Used As A Febrifuge In Place Of Quinine. Its Formula Is C1.h21no3. ...

Bible Christians
Bible Christians, One Of The Denominations Now Merged In The United Methodist Church (see United Metho Dists), So Called Because Its Early Preachers Appealed Solely To The Bible In Confirmation Of Their Doctrines. The Denomination Arose In The Agricultural Districts And Fishing Villages Of North Cornwall And Devon; A District ...

Bible Societies
Bible Societies, Associations Of A Philanthropic Char Acter For Translating And Circulating The Holy Scriptures. The Translation Of The Bible Has Generally Followed The Expansion Of The Church. By The 15th Century, Versions, More Or Less Complete, Existed In Manuscript In About 20 Languages. The Invention Of Printing Aided Reprpduction. ...

Bible
Bible. The English Word "bible" Is Derived Through Mediaeval Latin From The Greek Ta 1343x1a, Which Simply Means "the Books." It Is The Name Given To The Collection Of Books Which Christian People Regard As Sacred And In Which They Find The Record Of The Revelation That Lies At The ...

Biblicgraphy W
Biblicgraphy.-w. Levison Has Edited The Vitae Sancti Boni F Atii (hanover, 10o5), That By Willibald Being Translated Into Eng. By G. W. Robinson (harvard, 1916) ; The English Correspondence Of St. ...

Bibliograpiiy
Bibliograpiiy. Monumenta Boica (munich, 1763-1900) ; A. Buch Ner, Geschichte Von Baiern (munich, 1820-53) ; G. T. Rudhart, Ael Teste Geschichte Bayerns (hamburg, 1841) ; A. Quitzmann, Abstam Mung, Ursitz, And Dlteste Geschichte Der Baiwaren (munich, 1857), And Die Alteste Geschichte Der Baiern Bis Sir (brunswick, 1873) ; Much Valuable ...

Bibliomancy
Bibliomancy, A Form Of Divination (q.v.) By Means Of The Bible Or Other Books. The Method Employed Is To Open The Bible Haphazard And Be Guided By The First Verse Which Catches The Eye. Among The Greeks And Romans The Practice Was Known Under The Name Of Sortes Homericae And ...

Bibracte
Bibracte, An Ancient Gaulish Hill-top Town, 2,5ooft. Above Sea-level, The Modern Mt. Beuvray, Near Autun, In France Ex Cavation Has Revealed An Area Of 33o Acres, Girt With A Stone And Wood Rampart 3m. Long, And Containing The Remains Of Dwelling Houses, A Temple Of Bibractis, And Workshops Of Iron ...

Bibulus
Bibulus, A Surname Of The Roman Gens Calpurnia. The Best Known Of Those Who Bore It Was Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus The Persistent Enemy Of Caesar, With Whom He Was Consul, 59 B.c. He Was The Candidate Of The Aristocratic Party And His Election Was Secured By Bribery (suetonius, Caesar, 9). ...

Bicarbonate
Bicarbonate, In Chemistry, An Acid Carbonate, A Salt In Which One Only Of The Two Hydrogen Atoms In The Molecule Of Carbonic Acid Has Been Replaced By Metal. Na2co3 Is The Formula Of Normal Sodium Carbonate, Washing Soda; Nahco3, Is That Of Sodium Bicarbonate, Or Baldng Soda. (see Antacid; Carbon; ...

Bice
Bice, A Term Erroneously Applied To Particular Shades Of Green Or Blue Pigments From The French Terms Vert Bis And Azur Bis, Dark Green Or Blue. These Colours Are Generally Prepared From Basic Copper Carbonates, But Sometimes From Ultramarine And Other Pigments. ...

Biceps
Biceps, The Name Given To One Of The Muscles Of The Upper Arm, From Which The Latter Derives Its Rounded Appearance In Front. It Has Two Heads Or Origins, The Shorter Attached To The Cor Acoid Process Of The Scapula, The Longer To The Edge Of The Glenoid Cavity. The ...

Bicester
Bicester (bis'tur), Urban District Of Oxfordshire, England, I2m. N.n.e. Of Oxford By The L.m.s.r.; Pop. (1931) 3,109. It Lies In A Pastoral Country On The Northern Edge Of The Open Plain Of Ot Moor. The Termination Cester, Commonly Indicating Roman Origin, Does Not Appear To Do So Here, And Is ...

Bicknell
Bicknell, A City Of Knox County, Indiana, U.s.a., On The Pennsylvania Railroad, 15m. N.e. Of Vincennes, In A Coal-mining And Agricultural Region. The Population Was 2,794 In 1910; In 1920; 5,212 In 1930. ...

Bicycle
Bicycle, A Light Vehicle Formed Of Two Wheels Mounted In Single Line In A Simple Frame Of Steel Tubes, Which Is Equipped With Handles, Pedals Attached To Cranks And A Saddle. The Rider Sits On The Saddle, Grasps The Handlebars, And Turns The Cranks With His Feet By Means Of ...

Bida
Bida, A Town Of West Africa In The Niger (formerly Nupe) Province Of Northern Nigeria, On The Baro-minna Branch Of The Lagos-kano Railway. It Lies 25m. E. Of The Niger In 9° 5' N., 6° East. It Was Founded In 1859 When Fula Rule Was Established In Nupe ; It ...

Biddeford
Biddeford, A City Of York County, Maine, U.s.a., On The Saco River, 6m. From Its Mouth, Opposite Saco And 15m. South West Of Portland. It Is On Federal Highway 1 And The Boston And Maine Railroad. The Population Was 16,145 In 'goo; 18,008 In 192o, Of Whom 6,338 Were Foreign-born ...

Biddery Or Bidri
Biddery Or Bidri (an Indian Word, From Bedar Or Bidar, A Town In The Nizam's Dominions), An Alloy Of Copper, Lead, Tin And Zinc Used In Making Various Articles And Ornaments Which Are Inlaid With Gold And Silver. ...

Bidding Prayer
Bidding-prayer, The Formula Of Exhortation To Prayer Said In England Before The Sermon In Cathedrals, At University Ser Mons, In The Inns Of Court, And Elsewhere On Special Occasions. Such Formulae Are Of Great Antiquity In Both Eastern And Western Churches. The Characteristic Feature Is That The Minister Tells The ...

Bideford
Bideford, Municipal Borough On North Coast Of Devon Shire, England, 83- M. South;west Of Barnstaple. Population (19.3i) 8,782. It Is Situated On Two Hills Rising From The Banks Of The River Torridge, 3 M. Above Its Junction With The Estuary Of The Taw. Bideford (bedeford, Bydyford, Budeford, Bytheford) Is Not ...

Bidjugo
Bidjugo, An Island Fishing Population Of The Ilhas Dos Bissagos Of Portuguese Guinea Living In 17 Villages, And Ruled At Present By An Elected Queen. See De Coutouly, "la Population De L'archipel Des Bissagos," Revue D'ethn. Et Trad. Pop. (1921). ...

Biebrich
Biebrich, A Town Of Germany, In Hesse-nassau, On The Right Bank Of The Rhine, 3m. S. Of, And River-port For, Wies Baden. Pop. 357. The Palace Of The Former Dukes Of Nassau Occupies A Fine Position On The River Bank. Biebrich Is An Important Steamboat Station For Both Passenger And ...

Bielefeld
Bielefeld, Chief Town Of A Subdivision Of The District Of Minden, North-eastern Westphalia, Prussia, C. 4om. E. By N. Of Munster. Pop. (1933) 120,872. It Is Situated At The Foot Of The Teutoburger Wald, And Consists Of Two Portions, Separated By The River Luther, Which Were First United Into One ...

Bielitz
Bielitz, A Town Of Poland In Silesia (czech. Bilsko, Polish Bielsko), 4o M. S.e. Of Ratibor. It Is One Of A Series Of Towns In The Border Zone Between The Carpathian Mountains And The Plain Of Eastern Europe. It Is Situated On The River Biala A Small Tributary Of The ...

Biella
Biella, Episcopal See, Piedmont, Italy, Province Of Vercelli, 55m. N.e. Of Turin By Rail, And 38m. Direct, On The Southern Edge Of The Lower Alps. Pop. (1931) Town 9,755; Commune 28,210. The Old Upper Town (1,558ft.) And New Lower Town Are Linked By Cable Tram. Fine Palaces With Terra-cotta Decorations ...

Bienne Or Biel
Bienne Or Biel, An Important Industrial Town In The Swiss Canton Of Berne, At The North-eastern End Of The Bielersee, Where The River Suze Or Scheuss Issues From A Deep Cleft (the Tauben Loch) In The Jura Range, 19m. N.e. Of Neuchatel, And N.w. Of Berne. Its Chief Industries Are ...

Biennials
Biennials, The Name Applied To Plants Which Normally Complete Their Life-cycle In Two Years, Usually Devoting The First To Laying Up A Store Of Food, The Second To Flowering. This Period Is Not, However, Fixed, As If Food Is Scarce The Plant May Delay Flowering For More Than One Year, ...

Bierce
Bierce, Satirist, Story Writer And Poet, Was Born On A Farm In Meiggs County (ohio), On June 24, 1842, The Son Of Marcus Aurelius And Laura Sherwood Bierce. His Father Had Little Money, But A Good Library, And In Stead Of A Formal Education The Boy Read Widely. In 1861 ...

Bifrost
Bifrost, In Old Norse Mythology, The Rainbow, Which Was Supposed To Form The Bridge Guarded By Heimdal, God Of Light, By Which The Gods Passed Between Heaven And Earth. ...

Big Bertha
Big Bertha. The Original Big Berthas Were 42cm. How Itzers Produced At The Skoda Works In Austria-hungary And Used By The Germans In Battering The Forts At Liege And Namur In 1914. It Was Assumed That This Artillery Originated From The Krupp Works In Germany—hence The Nickname, After Frau Bertha ...

Big Business
Big Business, A Term Which First Came Into Use In The United States At The Beginning Of The 2oth Century, To Denote The Huge Aggregations Of Capital And Enterprise Which Are Growing Up In Many Industrial Countries. The First Impulse To Form These Large Aggregations Was Due To The Great ...