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Encyclopedia Britannica Volume 3 Baltimore - Braila

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Borna
Borna, A Town Lying In The West Of The Land Of Saxony, 17m. S. By E. Of Leipzig. Pop. (1933) 12,123. It Manufactures Musical Instruments. ...

Borneo
Borneo (see Also Borneo, State Of North), A Great Island Of The Malay Archipelago Between 7° N. And 4° 2o' S., 1o8° 53' And 119 ° 2 2' E. ; 83om. Long N.e. To S.w., 600m. Max. Breadth; Area (calculations Of Topographical Bureau, Batavia, 1894), Square Miles. Meyer, Who Is ...

Bornholm
Bornholm, An Island In The Baltic Sea, 22 M. S.e. Of The Swedish Coast, Belonging To Denmark, Lying In I5° E., And Between And 55° 18' N., And Measuring 24 M. From South-east To North West And 19 From East To West. Pop. The Surface Is Generally Hilly, And The ...

Bornite
Bornite, A Copper-iron Sulphide, Of Importance As An Ore Of Copper. It Crystallizes In The Cubic System, The Usual Form Being That Of Interpenetrating Cubes Twinned On An Octahedral Plane. The Faces Are Usually Curved And Rough, And The Crystals Confusedly Aggregated Together. The Colour On A Freshly Fractured Surface ...

Bornu
Bornu, A Country In The Central Sudan, Lying West And South Of Lake Chad, Bounded West By Sokoto, South By Muri And Adamawa, And North By The Sahara. Formerly An Independent Mohammedan Sultanate, It Was Divided Between Great Britain, Germany And France. To France Has Fallen A Portion Of Northern ...

Borodino
Borodino, A Village Of Russia, 7o M. W. By S. Of Moscow, On The Great Moscow-smolensk Road, At The Junction Of The Kolotscha, Voina And Stontsa Tributaries Of The Moskva River, N., 40' E. It Is Famous As The Scene Of A Battle Be Tween The Army Of Napoleon And ...

Borolanite
Borolanite, One Of The Most Remarkable Rocks Of The British Isles, Found On The Shores Of Loch Borolan In Sutherland Shire, After Which It Has Been Named. In This Locality There Is A Considerable Area Of Granite Rich In Red Alkali Felspar, And Passing, By Diminution In The Amount Of ...

Boron
Boron, One Of The Non-metallic Elements, Occurring In Nature In The Form Of Boracic (boric) Acid, And In Various Borates Such As Borax, Tincal, And Boracite (symbol B, Atomic Number 5, Atomic Weight 10.8 2, Isotopes I O And R R) . It Was Isolated By J. L. Gay Lussac ...

Bororoan
Bororoan, An Independent Linguistic Stock Of South American Indians, So Called From The Bororos Who Are Its Most Important Tribe. These Indians (known Also As "coroados," A Term Applied To Various Entirely Unrelated Tribes) Occupy Or Once Occupied A Considerable Area Between The Headwaters Of The Para Guay And San ...

Borough English
Borough English, A Custom Which Prevailed In Certain Ancient English Boroughs, And In Districts Attached To Them (where The Lands Are Held In Socage), And Also In Certain Copyhold Manors (chiefly In Surrey, Middlesex, Suffolk And Sussex), By Which In General Lands Descend To The Youngest Son. It Was Found ...

Borough
Borough. At No Time Before 1835 Can A Precise Legal Definition Be Found For The Borough. Alike In The 11th And In The 18th Century The Popular Use Of The Word Covers So Wide A Variation In Custom And So Long A Gradation Of Powers That Both Lawyer And Historian ...

Boroughbridge
Boroughbridge, Market Town, West Riding Of York Shire, England, 2 2m. N.w. Of York On A Branch Of The L.n.e. Railway. Pop. (1931) 862. It Lies In The Central Plain Of York Shire On The River Ure Near Its Confluence With The Swale. About M. To The West Of Boroughbridge ...

Borromean Islands
Borromean Islands, Four Islands On The West Of Lago Maggiore Off Baveno And Stresa. Isola Bella Is Famous For Its Château And Terraced Gardens, Built By Count Vitaliano Bor Romeo (d. 169o) ; North-east Of This Is The Isola Madre, The Largest Of The Group, With A Château; North Again, ...

Borsippa
Borsippa (mod. Birs Or Birs-nimrlid), Ancient City About 15m. S.w. Of Babylon And Iom. From Hillah, On The Hin Dieh Canal. It Was The Sister City Of Babylon, And In The Inscrip Tions Is Often Called Babylon Ii.; Its Patron God Was Nebo (q.v.). Borsippa Is Not Mentioned In The ...

Borstal System
Borstal System. In The Domain Of Criminal Law, The Notable Change In Public Attitude And Opinion With Regard To The Treatment Of Juvenile Crime Finds Expression, So Far As Great Brit Ain Is Concerned, In The Two Acts Of Parliament Of 1908; Viz., The Prevention Of Crime (borstal) Act And ...

Bort Or Boart
Bort Or Boart, An Inferior Kind Of Diamond, Unfit For Cutting, But Useful As An Abrasive Agent. The Typical Bort Occurs In Small Spherical Masses, Of Greyish Colour, Rough Or Drusy On The Surface, And Showing On Fracture A Radiate Crystalline Struc Ture. These Masses, Known In Brazil As Bolas, ...

Borzhom
Borzhom, A Town In The Georgian Socialist Soviet Re Public, On The Kura River In A Gorge Of The Little Caucasus. Lat. 41° 48' N., Long. 43° Io' E. Alt. 2,75oft. Pop. (1926) 5,243. It Is A Popular Health And Summer Resort, With A Warm, Mild Climate, Hot Springs (7i3°-82°f.), ...

Bosa
Bosa, An Episcopal See On The West Coast Of Sardinia, Province Of Nuoro, 3om. W. Of Macomer By Rail. Pop. (1931) 7,102. The Malaspina Castle Stands Above The Town. There Are Some Tanneries, And The Fishing Industry Is Important. The District Pro Duces Oil And Wine. The Present Town Of ...

Boscastle
Boscastle, Small Seaport, Watering Place And Coastguard Station, North Cornwall, England, 5m. N. Of Camelford Station, On The Southern Railway. Pop. (civil Parish Of Forrabury) 775 In 1921. The Village Rises Steeply Above A Very Narrow Cove, Sheltered, But Difficult Of Access, Vessels Having To Be Warped Into It By ...

Bosnia And Hercegovina
Bosnia And Hercegovina, Two Balkan Provinces Successively Turkish, In Austrian Occupation And Annexed To Austria, But Since The Post-war Settlement Included In The Serb Croat-slovene State Or Yugoslavia. See Balkan Peninsula And ...

Bosporus Cimmbrius
Bosporus Cimmbrius, The Ancient Name For The Straits Of Kerch Or Yenikale, Connecting The Black Sea And The Sea Of Azov (see Cimmerii). The Straits Are About 25m. Long And 22m. Broad At The Narrowest, And Are Formed By An Eastern Extension Of The Crimea And The Peninsula Of Taman, ...

Bosporus Or Bosphorus
Bosporus Or Bosphorus. By The Ancients This Name, Signifying A Strait, Was Especially Applied To The Bosporus Cisn Merius (see Below), And The Bosporus Thracius (gr. Booiropos Ox-f Ord, Traditionally Connected With Io, Who, In The Form Of A Heifer, Crossed The Thracian Bosporus In Her Wanderings). It Now Denotes ...

Boss
Boss, A Round Protuberance; The Projecting Centre Or "umbo" Of A Buckler (o.e. Boce, A Swelling; Cf. Fr. Bosse) ; In Geology A Projection Of Rock Through Strata Of Another Species; In Architec Ture, The Large Projecting Stone At The Intersection Of The Ribs Of A Gothic Vault, Sometimes Moulded ...

Bostanai
Bostanai (c. 66o), The Man Who Restored The Dignity Of Prince Of The Captivity, Or Exilarch (q.v.) Of Mesopotamian Jewry After The Muslim Conquest. The Office Was Filled By His Descendants Until Its Extinction. ...

Boston Fern
Boston Fern, A Variety (bostoniensis) Of The Sword Fern (nephrolepis Exaltata) Originated In Cultivation. It Was Intro Duced In 1895 By F. C. Becker And Named In Honor Of The City Of Boston, Mass., In The Vicinity Of Which It Was Discovered. It Is A Strong, Free-growing Plant, With Drooping, ...

Boston
Boston, A Municipal And Parliamentary Borough And Seaport Of Lincolnshire, England, On The River Witham, Four Miles From Its Mouth In The Wash, Io7m. N. Of London By The L.n.e. Railway. Pop. (1931) 16,597. It Lies In A Flat Agricultural District, Drained By Numerous Cuts, Some Of Which Are Navigable. ...

Bostonite
Bostonite, In Petrology, A Fine-grained, Pale-coloured, Grey Or Pinkish Rock, Which Consists Essentially Of Alkali-felspar (orthoclase, Anorthoclase, Microperthite, Etc.). Some Bostonites Contain A Small Amount Of Interstitial Quartz (quartz-bostonites) ; Others Have A Small Percentage Of Lime, Which Occasions The Pres Ence Of A Plagioclase Felspar (lime-bostonite). Other Minerals, Except ...

Boston_2
Boston, The Capital City Of The State Of Massachusetts, U.s.a. Comprises The Greater Part Of Suffolk County, 21' 27-6" N., ° 3' W. The Population In 1920 Was 748,060, Of Which 238,919 Were Foreign-born Whites. In 1930, The City Had 781,188 Residents But The Foreign-born Whites Had Decreased To The ...

Boston_3
Boston, A Game Of Cards Invented During The Last Quarter Of The 18th Century. It Is Said To Have Originated In Boston, Massachusetts, During The Siege By The British. It Seems To Have Been Invented By The Officers Of The French Fleet Which Lay For A Time Off The Town ...

Botanic Garden
Botanic Garden. The Original Conception Of A Botanic Garden Was That Literally Implied By The Name, That Is, A Garden, With The Plants Arranged According To Some System Of Botanical Classification. A Botanic Garden Thus Differed From A Park, Where The Plants Are Usually Arranged Solely With Reference To Securing ...

Botanical Articles
Botanical Articles. The Scope And Range Of The Subject Is Indicated In The Article Botany, While More Detailed Treatment Of Various Aspects Is Given In The Articles On The Main Branches : Thus Plants Gives A General Account Of The Structure, Physiology And Distribution Of The Members Of The Vegetable ...

Botanical Society Of America
Botanical Society Of America. This Society Consists Of A Group Of Botanists, Active In Various Fields, Resident In The United States And Canada. It Was Founded In 1893 And Reorganized In 1906, When A Union Of The Original Society With The Society For Plant Morphology And Physiology And The American ...

Botany Bay
Botany Bay, An Inlet On The Coast Of New South Wales, Australia, In Lat. 34° S., C. 5 M. S. Of Port Jackson, Which It Resembles In Being A Drowned Valley Feature (cook's And George's Rivers) Shut In By Peninsular Headlands (la Perouse And Kurnell). Historically It Is Of Intereg. ...

Botany
Botany, The Science Which Includes Everything Relating To The Vegetable Kingdom, Whether In A Living Or In A Fossil State. The Name Is Derived From The Greek Gorluni, A Plant. It Embraces A Consideration Of The External Forms Of Plants—of Their Anatomi Cal Structure, However Minute—of The Functions Which They ...

Bothrop
Bothrop, A Mining Town In The Extreme South-west Of The District Of Munster, In The Prussian Province Of Westphalia, Ger Many. Pop. 86,189. ...

Bothwell
Bothwell, A Town And Parish Of Lanarkshire, Scotland, On The Right Bank Of The Clyde, 9m. E.s.e. Of Glasgow By The L. N. E. R. And The L. M. S. R., And A Residential Quarter Of Glasgow. Pop. Of Parish (1931) 6o,660. The Choir Of The Gothic Church Of 1398 ...

Botocudos
Botocudos, The Foreign Name For A Tribe Of South Ameri Can Indians Of Eastern Brazil, Also Known As The Aimores Or Aim Bores. They Appear To Have No Collective Tribal Name For Them Selves. Some Are Called Nacnanuk Or Nac-poruk, "sons Of The Soil." The Name Botocudos (from Port. Botoque, ...

Botori
Botori, A Japanese Game Played In Schools, By Two Sides Of Equal Number, Usually About 100, Each Of Which Defends A Pole About 8f T. High Firmly Set In The Ground, The Poles Being About 2ooyds. Distant From Each Other. The Object Of Each Party Is To Overthrow The Adversary's ...

Botosani
Botosani, A Town Of Rumania, Capital Of The Department Of The Same Name ; On A Small Tributary Of The River Jijia, And In One Of The Richest Agricultural And Pastoral Regions Of The North Mol Davian Hills. Pop. (1930) Botosani Lies On A Branch Rail Way Between Dorohoi And ...

Botrytis
Botrytis, A Minute Fungus Which Appears As A Brownish Grey Mould On Decaying Vegetation Or On Damaged Fruits. Under A Hand-lens It Is Seen To Consist Of Tiny, Upright, Brown Stalks Which Are Branched At The Tips, Each Branchlet Being Crowned With A Naked Head Of Pale-coloured Spores. It Is ...

Bottle Brush Plants
Bottle-brush Plants, A Genus Of Australian Plants, Known Botani Cally As Callistemon, And Belonging To The Myrtle Family (myrtaceae) . They Take Their Name From The Resemblance Of The Head Of Flowers To A Bottle-brush. They Are Well Known In Cultivation As Green House Shrubs ; The Flower Owes Its ...

Bottle
Bottle, A Vessel For Containing Liquids, Generally As Opposed To One For Drinking From (though This Probably Is Not Excluded) And With A Narrow Neck To Facilitate Closing And Pouring. The First Bottles Were Probably Made Of The Skins Of Animals. In The Iliad (iii. 247) The Attendants Are Represented ...

Bottomry
Bottomry, A Maritime Contract In The Nature Of A Mort Gage Of A Ship By Which Money Is Borrowed For The Necessities Of The Ship To Enable It To Proceed On Its Voyage. The Keel Or Bottom Of The Ship (as Representing The Whole), With The Cargo And Freight, Are ...

Botulism Or Allantiasis
Botulism Or Allantiasis. The Term Botulism (lat. Botulus, Sausage) Seems To Have Been First Applied In The Early Part Of The 19th Century To A Type Of Sausage Poisoning Observed In Wurttemberg And Some Other Parts Of Germany. A Recogni Zable Description Of This Disease Appeared, However, As Early As ...

Boucher
Boucher, Francois (1703-177o), French Painter, Was Born In Paris On Sept. 29, 1703, And Died There May 3o, 1770. He Was At First Employed By Jean Francois Cars (1670-1739), The Engraver, Father Of The Engraver Laurent Cars (1699-1771), To Make Designs And Illustrations For Books. After Four Years Spent In ...

Bougie
Bougie, A Seaport Of Algeria, Chief Town Of An Arrondisse Ment In The Department Of Constantine, 120 M. E. Of Algiers. The Town, Fortified Afresh Since The French Occupation, Is Beautifully Situated On Mount Guraya Amid Rich Vegetation (rainfall Metres). Behind Are Mounts Babor And Tababort, Rising Some 6,400 Ft., ...

Bouillabaisse
Bouillabaisse, A Kind Of Stew, Made Of All Kinds Of Fish, Popular In The South Of France, And Particularly Associated With Marseilles. ...

Bouillon
Bouillon, Formerly The Seat Of A Dukedom In The Ar Dennes, Now A Small Town In The Belgian Province Of Luxembourg. Pop. (193o) 2,869. It Is Picturesquely Situated In The Valley Of The Semois, Under The Rocky Ridge Which Preserves Remains Of The Castle Of Godfrey Of Bouillon (q.v.), The ...

Bouillon_2
Bouillon, A Watery Extract Made From Beef, And Widely Used As An Appetizer. The Finely Cut Meat Is Slowly Boiled In Water, The Solidified Fat Removed After Cooling, And The Liquid Strained, Thus Removing The Meat Fragments And Coagulable Proteins. The Bouillon Cubes Of Commerce Are Made By Adding Salt ...

Boulanger
Boulanger, The Name Of Several French Artists : Jean (16o6-6o), A Pupil Of Guido Reni At Bologna, Who Had An Academy At Modena ; His Cousin Jean (1607-80), A Celebrated Line-engraver; The Latter's Son Matthieu, Another Engraver; Louis (1807-67), A Subject-painter, The Friend Of Victor Hugo And Director Of The ...

Boulder
Boulder, A City Of Colorado, U.s.a., On Boulder Creek, Just East Of The Continental Divide, 3om. North-west Of Denver, At An Elevation Of 5,300 Ft.; The County Seat Of Boulder County. It Is Served By The Burlington, The Colorado And Southern, And The Union Pacific Railways. The Population In 1930 ...

Boulder_2
Boulder, A Large Stone, Weathered Or Water-worn (cf. Swed. Bullersten, A Large Stone Which Causes A Noise Of Rippling Water In A Stream. A Geological Term For A Large Mass Of Rock Transported To A Distance From The Formation To Which It Belongs; In Mining, A Mass Of Ore Found ...

Boule
Boule, The General Term In Ancient Greece For An Advisory Council. In The Homeric State There Was A Council Of The Leading Nobles, Who Met, On The Summons Of The King, For Consultation. It Formed A Means Of Communication Between The King And The Free Men Assembled In The Agora ...

Bouleterion
Bouleterion, In Greek Architecture, The Building Where The Boule, Or Council, Met. It Was Usually On Or Near The Agora. ...

Boulevard
Boulevard (a Fr. Word, Earlier Boulevart, From Dutch Or Ger. Bollwerk, C F . Eng. "bulwark") , Originally, In Fortification, An Earthwork With A Broad Platform For Artillery. It Came Into Use Owing To The Width Of The Gangways In Mediaeval Walls Being Insuf Ficient For The Mounting Of Artillery ...

Boulogne Billancourt Or Boulogne Sur Seine
Boulogne-billancourt Or Boulogne-sur Seine (the Former Title Was Fixed By Decree In 1925), Town Of Northern France, In The Department Of Seine, On The Right Bank Of The Seine, South-west Of Paris And Immediately Outside The Fortifications. Pop. (1931) 85,190. The Town Has A Gothic Church Of The 14th And ...

Boulogne Or Boullongne
Boulogne Or Boullongne, The Name Of A Family Of French Painters. Loves (1609-1674), Who Was One Of The Original Members Of The Academy Of Painting And Sculpture (1648), Became Celebrated Under Louis Xiv. His Traditions Were Continued By His Children : Genevieve (1645-1708), Who Married The Sculptor Jacques Clerion ; ...

Boulogne Sur Mer
Boulogne-sur-mer, Town Of North France, Capital Of An Arrondissement In The Department Of Pas-de-calais, On The English Channel At The Mouth Of The River Liane, 157m. N.n.w. Of Paris On The Northern Railway, And 28m. By Sea S.e. Of Folke Stone, Kent. Pop. (1931) 50,312. On The Site Of The ...

Bouncing Bet
Bouncing Bet, A Name Commonly Given In The United States To The European Soapwort (q.v.), Which Has Become Very Widely Naturalized In Waste Grounds And Along Roadsides. ...

Bound Brook
Bound Brook, A Borough Of Somerset County, New Jer Sey, U.s.a., On The Raritan River And The Delaware And Raritan Canal, 32m. South-west Of New York City, At The Foot Of The Watchung Hills. It Is Served By The Central Railroad Of New Jer Sey, The Lehigh Valley, The Baltimore ...

Bound Or Boundary
Bound Or Boundary, That Which Serves To Indicate The Limit Or Extent Of Land. In Law, The Exact Boundary Of Land Is Always A Matter Of Evidence; Where No Evidence Is Available, The Court Acts On Presumption Which May Be Rebutted. For Example, The Boundary Of Land On Opposite Sides ...

Bounty
Bounty, A Gift Or Gratuity; More Usually, A Premium Paid By A Government To Encourage Some Branch Of Production Or, Industry, As In England In The Case Of The Bounty On Corn, First Granted In 1688 And Abolished In 1814, The Herring-fishery Bounties, The Bounties On Sailcloth, Linen, And Other ...

Bourbon Lancy
Bourbon-lancy, Watering-place, East-central France, Department Of Saone-et-loire, 52m. S.s.e. Of Nevers By Rail. Pop. , 1,939. The Town On A Hill About 2m. From The Right Bank Of The Loire Possesses Thermal Springs, Used In The Roman Period, And Ancient Baths Have Been Found. The Waters, Saline And Ferru Ginous, ...

Bourbon Larchambault
Bourbon L'archambault, Town, Central France, Department Of Allier, On The Burge, 16m. W. Of Moulins By Rail. Pop. (1931) 1,852. There Are Thermal Springs Known Since Roman Times, A Church (12th Century), And Ruins Of 'a Castle Of The Dukes Of Bourbon (13th And I 5th Centuries), Including A Cylindrical ...

Bourbon
Bourbon. The Noble Family Of Bourbon, From Which So Many European Kings Have Sprung, Took Its Name From Bourbon L'archambault, Chief Town Of A Lordship Which In The I Oth Cen Tury Was One Of The Largest Baronies Of The Kingdom Of France. The Limits Of The Lordship, Which Was ...

Bourbonnais
Bourbonnais Was Formerly A Province Of France, Bounded On The North By Nivernais And Berri, On The South By Auvergne, On The East By Burgundy And Forez, And On The West By Berri. It Covered Approximately The Same Area As The Modern Department Of Allier. Bourbonnais Was A Purely Feudal ...

Bourbonne Les Bains
Bourbonne-les-bains, A Watering-place Of East France, Department Of Haute-marne, East North-east Of Langres. Pop. (1931) 2,773. Its Hot Saline Springs (i O8 °-15o° F.) Were Known To The Romans Under The Name Aquae Borvonis. The Waters Are Useful In Skin Troubles And Rheumatism. The Principal Buildings Are A 12th Century ...

Bourg Or
Bourg Or Bourg-en—bresse, A Town In The East Of France, Capital Of Department Of Ain, Formerly Capital Of The Prov Ince Of Bresse, 36m. N.n.e. Of Lyons By The P.l.m. Railway. Pop. (1931) 16,840. Bourg Is At The South-western End Of The Jura, On The Left Bank Of The Reyssouze, ...

Bourgeois
Bourgeois, A French Word Originally Meaning A Freeman Of A Bourg Or Borough; Later Extended To The Whole Class Between The Worker And The Landed Nobility, And Now Used Generally Of The Capitalist Class Of Any Country. In Printing, The Name Of A Type, In Size ("nine Point") Between Long ...

Bourges
Bourges, Chief Towns Of The Department Of Cher, Central France, 144m. S. Of Paris On The Orleans Railway Between Vierzon And Nevers. Pop. 36,646. Bourges Is Built In Marshy Country On A Hillock Cut Off On Three Sides By The Canal Of Berry, The Yevre, The Auron And Smaller Streams. ...

Bourne Or Bourn
Bourne Or Bourn, Urban District Of Kesteven, South Lincolnshire, England; Lying In A Fenny District 95m. N. By W. Of London. Pop. (1931) 4,889. The Church Of St. Peter And St. Paul Is Norman With Early English And Later Additions; It Is Part Of A Monastic Church Belonging To A ...

Bourne
Bourne, An Intermittent Stream Or Brook Frequent In Chalk And Limestone Country Where The Rock Becomes Saturated With Winter Rain, That Slowly Drains Away Until The Rock Becomes Dry, When The Stream Ceases. A Heavy Rainfall Will Cause Streams To Run In Winter From The Saturated Soil. These Are The ...

Bournemouth
Bournemouth, Municipal Parliamentary And County Borough And Watering-place, Hampshire, England, 1072m. S.w. By S. Of London By The Southern Railway. Pop. (1931) 116,780. The Town Is Wholly Of Modern And Remarkably Rapid Growth, For The Population Was But A Few Hundred In The Middle Of The 19th Century. The Village ...

Bournonite
Bournonite, A Mineral Species, A Sulphantimonite Of Lead And Copper With The Formula It Is Of Some Interest On Account Of The Twinning And The Beautiful Development Of Its Crystals. It Was First Mentioned By Philip Rashleigh In 1797 As "an Ore Of Antimony," And Was More Completely Described By ...

Bourree
Bourree, A French Name For A Dance Common In Au Vergne And In Biscay In Spain ; Also A Term For A Musical Compo Sition Or A Dance-movement In A Suite, Somewhat Akin To The Gavotte, In Quick Time With Two Beats To The Bar. ...

Bourse
Bourse, A Continental Term For A Stock Exchange, Derived From French Usage, And First Used For The Paris Exchange. The Derivation Is From Med. Lat. Bursa, A Purse. The English Form, "burse," As In Sir Thomas Gresham's Building, Which Was Known As "britain's Burse," Went Out Of Use In The ...

Boustrophedon
Boustrophedon, A Term Descriptive Of A Peculiar Form Of Writing Common Among The Early Greeks. The Direction Of Writing Was Alternately Right To Left And Left To Right In Horizontal Lines, Or, Conversely, Left To Right And Right To Left. It Was A Transi Tion Between The Earlier Right To ...

Bouvardia
Bouvardia, A Genus Of Handsome, Evergreen, Greenhouse Shrubs, Belonging To The Family Rubiaceae, And Including 3o Species, Natives Of Tropical America. The Flowers Are In Terminal Generally Many-flowered Clusters; The Corolla Has A Large Tube And A Spreading Four-rayed Limb. The Cultivated Forms Include A Number Of Hybrids. ...

Bouvines
Bouvines, A Village On The French-belgian Frontier Be Tween Lille And Tournay, The Scene Of One Of The Greatest Battles Of The Middle Ages, Fought On July 27, 1214, Between The Forces Of Philip Augustus, King Of France, And Those Of The Coalition Formed Against Him, Of Which The Principal ...

Bovianum
Bovianum, The Name Of Two Ancient Italian Towns. (i) Undecimanorum (boiano), Chief City Of The Pentri Samnites, 9m. N.w. Of Saepinum And 18m. S.e. Of Aesernia, On The Road From Beneventum To Corfinium, Connecting The Via Appia And The Via Valeria. Cyclopean Walls Of The Old (upper) City Remain Above ...

Bovidae
Bovidae, The Name Of The Family Of Hollow-horned Rumi Nant Mammals Typified By The Common Ox (bos Taunts), And Specially Characterized By The Presence On The Skulls Of The Males Or Of Both Sexes Of A Pair Of Bony Projections, Or Cores, Covered In Life With Hollow Sheaths Of Horn, ...

Bovillae
Bovillae, An Ancient Town Of Latium, A Station On The Via Appia (already Paved Up To This Point In 293 B.c.) 11m. S.e. Of Rome. It Was A Colony Of Alba Longa, And One Of The 3o Cities Of The Latin League. After The Destruction Of Alba Longa The Sacra ...

Bow Wood
Bow-wood, A Name Given To The North American Tree More Commonly Called Osage Orange (q.v.). ...

Bow
Bow, A Common Teutonic Word For Anything Bent'. Thus It Is Found In English Compound Words, E.g., "elbow," "rainbow," "bow-net," "bow-window," "bow-knot," "saddle-bow," And By Itself As The Designation Of A Great Variety Of Objects. The Old English Use Of "bow" Or Stone-bow, For "arch," Now Obsolete, Survives In Certain ...

Bower Bird
Bower-bird, The Name Applied To Birds Of The Family Ptilonorhynchidae, Allied To The Crows And Birds Of Paradise (qq.v.). Like The Latter, The Bower-birds Are Confined To The Trop Ical Parts Of The Australian Region. Their Most Characteristic Feature Is The Habit Of The Males Of Forming " Play-grounds," Clearing ...

Bowfin
Bowfin, A Fresh-water Fish (amia Calva) Of North Amer Ica, The Only Living Representative Of Its Family, Which Dates Back To The Cretaceous. It Is A Voracious Fish, Found In The Great Lakes, And Southwards In Sluggish Waters. It Is Elongate In Form, And Mottled Green In Colour With A ...

Bowling Green
Bowling Green, A City Of Kentucky, U.s.a., 118m. S.w. Of Louisville, At The Head Of Navigation On The Picturesque Barren River; The County Seat Of Warren County. It Is Served By The Louisville And Nashville Railroad, By Motor Coaches To All Points In The State And As Far South As ...

Bowling Green_2
Bowling Green, A City Of Ohio, United States, 2om. S.w. Of Toledo; On Federal Highway 25, And Served By The Bal Timore And Ohio And The New York Central Railways ; The County Seat Of Wood County. The Population In 193o Was 6,688. It Is Situated In A Rich Agricultural ...

Bowling
Bowling, An Indoor Game Played Upon An Alley With Composition Balls And Ten Maple Pins (lat. Bulla, A Globe, Through O.fr. Boule, Ball). It Has Been Played For Centuries In Germany And The Low Countries, Where It Is Still In High Favour, But Attains Its Greatest Popularity In The United ...

Bowls
Bowls, One Of The Oldest Of Outdoor Pastimes. It Has Been Traced Certainly To The 13th, And Conjecturally To The 12th, Century. William Fitzstephen (d. About 119o), In His Biography Of Thomas Becket, Gives A Graphic Sketch Of The London Of His Day And, Writ Ing Of The Summer Amusements ...

Bowtell
Bowtell (sometimes Written Boltel), In Architecture, A Term Used To Describe A Large Class Of Projecting Mediaeval Mouldings Always Of Convex Contour And Usually Approximating To A Torus (q.v.) Or A Torus With Small Attached Fillet (q.v.). A "roving Bowtell" Is One Following An Irregular Curved Line, As On The ...

Box Car
Box Car, A Covered And Enclosed Flat Car Used In America For Carrying Freight, With Sliding Doors Either At The Sides Alone Or At Both Side-centre And Ends. It Is Usually About 4o Ft. In Length, Has An Average Capacity Of From 5o To 55 Tons, And Is Made Of ...

Box
Box. A Container Or Receptacle Of Dimensions Usually Not Exceeding 2 Or 3 Ft., Made Of Various Firm Materials Into Many Different Shapes, And Provided With A Lid Which Opens By Lifting Or Sliding, And Which May Be Fastened By Hinges, Catches, Hasps And Locks. The Same Term Is Sometimes ...

Boxing Day
Boxing Day, The Name Given In Great Britain To The Day After Christmas Day, On Which Christmas "boxes," Or Presents, Are Given To Errand Boys, Postmen, Etc. It Is A Bank Holiday (q.v.). One Of The Most Important Changes In Manufacturing And Marketing That Has Taken Place Within Recent Years ...

Boxing In America
Boxing In America Boxing, Pugilism, Prize-fighting And Ruffianism Were Synony Mous In The Public Mind From The Earliest Days Of Prize-fighting In The United States Down To The World War, When Boxing Was Prescribed As A Means Of Quickly Fitting Untrained Men For Action At The Front. Boxing Up To ...

Boxing
Boxing, The Art Of Attack And Defence With The Fists Pro Tected By Padded Gloves, As Distinguished From Pugilism, In Which The Bare Fists, Or Some Kind Of Light Gloves Affording Little Moder Ation Of The Blow, Are Employed (m.e. Box, A Blow, Probably From Dan. Bask, A Buffet). The ...

Boxwood
Boxwood, The Wood Obtained From The Genus Buxus, The Principal Species Being The Well-known Tree Or Shrub, B. Serper Virens, The Common Box, In General Use For Borders Of Garden Walks, Ornamental Parterres, Etc. The Other Source Of The Or Dinary Boxwood Of Commerce Is B. Balearica, Which Yields The ...

Boy Scouts
Boy Scouts. The Boy Scouts Movement Was Started In 1908 For The Purpose Of Training Boys In The Essentials Of Good Citizenship. It Had Its Beginning In The British Isles, But Spread Rapidly Until Today It Is To Be Found In Every Civilized Country In The World. ...

Boyaca
Boyaca, An Inland Department Of Colombia, With An Area Of 27,23o Sq.m., Including The Casanare Territory. Pop. In 1,041,267. The Department Is Very Mountainous, Heavily Forested And Rich In Minerals. The Great Muso Emerald Mines Are Situated In The Western Part Of Boyaca. The Capital, Tunja (pop. In 1918, 10,68o), ...

Boyar
Boyar, A Dignity Of Old Russia Conterminous With The His Tory Of The Country (russ. Boyarin, Plur. Boyare). Originally The Boyars Were The Intimate Friends And Confidential Advisers Of The Russian Prince, The Superior Members Of His Druzhina Or Body Guard, His Comrades And Champions. They Were Divided Into Classes ...