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Encyclopedia Britannica Volume 3 Baltimore - Braila

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Claude Bouthillier
Bouthillier, Claude, Sieur De Fouilletourte (1581-1652), French Statesman, Began Life As An Advocate, And In 1619 Became Councillor Of State And A Secretary To The Queen Mother, Marie De'medici. He Received The Title Of Secretary Of State In 1628, And He Was Able To Remain On Good Terms With Both ...

Claude I Bazire
Bazire, Claude (i French Revolutionist, Was Deputy For The Cote D'or In The Legislative Assembly, And Sup Ported The Mountain In The Convention. He Was Implicated In The Falsification Of A Decree Relative To The East India Company, And Though His Share Seems To Have Been Simply That He Did ...

Claude Louis Berthollet
Berthollet, Claude Louis (1748-182 2 ), French Chemist, Was Born At Talloire, Near Annecy, Savoy, On Dec. 9, 1748. He Studied First At Chambery And Afterwards At Turin, Where He Graduated In Medicine. He Settled In Paris In 1772. In 1785 He Declared Himself An Adherent Of The Lavoisierian School, ...

Colin Blackburn Blackburn
Blackburn, Colin Blackburn, Baron (1813 '896), British Judge, Was Born In Selkirkshire, And Educated At Eton And Trinity College, Cambridge. He Edited The Eight Volumes Of The Ellis And Blackburn Reports, And Had A Considerable Com Mercial Practice, But Was Unknown To The General Public When He Was Promoted To ...

Comparative Ology
Ology, Comparative, And Kindred Articles. Animal Psychology And Behaviour, Which Has Also Received Much Attention Recently, Is Covered By The General Articles Comparative Psychology And Animal Behaviour, While Courtship Of Animals, Play In Animals, Education In Animals And Other Articles Deal With Special Points. Such Important Groups As Protozoa And ...

Confederation Of Bar
Bar, Confederation Of, A Famous Confederation Of The Polish Nobles And Gentry Formed At The Little Fortress Of Bar In Podolia In 1768 To Defend The Internal And External Inde Pendence Of Poland Against The Aggressions Of The Russian Gov Ernment As Represented By Her Representative At Warsaw, Prince Nicholas ...

Conference Of Boulogne
Boulogne, Conference Of (june 21-22, 1920), A Meeting Of The Supreme Council Of The Allies, In Which Japan, Greece And Belgium Participated, As Well As The Principal European Allied Powers. Like The Conference Of Hythe On May 15-17 (see Hythe, Conference Of), It Was Preparatory To The Conference Of Spa ...

Confession Of Basel
Basel, Confession Of. The Reformation Was Some What Stormily Introduced At Basel In 1529; And In 1531 A Con Fession Was Drafted By Oecolampadius, The Friend And Follower Of Zwingli; And Adopted In A Revised Form By The City Authorities In And Shortly Afterwards By The City Of Miihlhausen In ...

Congress And Treaty Of
Berlin, Congress And Treaty Of. The Events That Led Up To The Assembling Of The Congress Of Berlin, The Out Come Of Which Was The Treaty Of July 13, 1878, Are Described Elsewhere (see Europe, History; Turkey, History; Russo Turkish War). Here It Must Suffice To Say That The Object ...

Conon Or Qpesnes Bethune
Bethune, Conon Or Qpesnes, De (c. 1150-1224), French Troubadour Or Trouvere Of Arras, Was Born In The 12th Century. He Came About 1180 To The Court Of France, Where He Met Marie De France, Countess Of Champagne. To This Princess His Love Poems Are Dedicated, And Much Of His Time ...

Continental Banking
Continental Banking. France.—with The Exception Of The Banque De France (q.v.) Modern French Banks Virtually Date From The Years Following The Revolution Of 1848. Thus The Comptoir National D'escompte De Paris Was Founded In 1848, The Credit Lyonnais In 1863, And The Societe Generale In 1864. These And Many Other ...

Cornelius Newton Bliss
Bliss, Cornelius Newton 1), American Merchant And Politician, Was Born At Fall River (massachusetts), On Jan. 26, 1833. He Was Educated In His Native City And In New Orleans, Where He Early Entered His Stepfather's Counting-house. Returning To Massachusetts In 1849, He Became A Clerk, And Sub Sequently A Junior ...

Cotton Boll Weevil
Boll Weevil, Cotton. The First Home Of The Cotton Boll Weevil Was Undoubtedly In The Plateau Region Of Mexico Or Central America. Before 1892 It Had Spread Throughout The Larger Portion Of Mexico. It Occurs Southward To Guatemala And Costa Rica, And In The East Half Of Cuba. About 1892 ...

Council Of Basel
Basel, Council Of. The Third Of The Three Reforming Councils Of The I 5th Century, After The Councils Of Pisa (14o9 ) And Constance (1414-18) . In These Councils The Aim Of The Ma Jority Was To Destroy The Absolute Supremacy Of The Pope And Curb The Rule Of The ...

Count
Count (1693-1768), Grand Chancellor Of Russia, The Second Son Of Count Peter Bestuzhev, The Early Favourite Of The Empress Anne, Was Born At Moscow And Educated Abroad, With His Elder Brother Mikhail, At Copenhagen And Berlin. He Served His Ap Prenticeship To Diplomacy By Peter The Great's Orders, At The ...

Counts And Dukes Of
Bar, Counts And Dukes Of. In The Middle Of The Ioth Century The Territory Of Bar (barrois) Formed A Dependency Of The Empire. In The I 1 Th Century Its Lords Were Only Counts By Title; They Belonged To The House Of Mousson (which Also Pos Sessed The Countship Of ...

Countship Of Blois
Blois, Countship Of. From 865 To About 940 The Count Ship Of Blois Was Held In Fee By The Margrave Of Neustria, Robert The Strong, And By His Successors, The Abbot Hugh, Odo (or Eudes), Robert Ii. And Hugh The Great. It Then Passed To A New Family, At First ...

Count_2
Count (1688-176o), Russian Diplomatist, Was Educated At Ber Lin, And Was Sent By Peter The Great To Represent Russia At Copen Hagen In 1705. In 172o He Was Appointed Resident At London At A Time When The English Court Was Greatly Inflamed Against Peter, Who Was Regarded As A Dangerous ...

Credit Policy
Credit Policy Banks Create Credit. It Is A Mistake To Suppose That Bank Credit Is Created To Any Important Extent By The Payment Of Money Into The Banks. Money Is Always Being Paid In By Trades Men And Others Who Receive It In The Course Of Business, And Drawn Out ...

Criticism
Criticism) . No Ms. Of The Pre-peshitta Syriac Of The Acts Or Epistles Sur Vives. For The Acts We Have The Armenian Translation Of Eph Raim's "commentary," Which Is Little More Than An Abridged Para Phrase, Almost Worthless For Textual Purposes. For The Pauline Epistles We Have Many Quotations In ...

Cuthbert Bede
Bede, Cuthbert, The Pen-name Of Edward Bradley (1827-1889), English Author, Who Was Born At Kidderminster On March 25, 1827. He Entered Durham University In 1845, Studied Later At Oxford, Took Holy Orders, And Eventually Became Rector Of Stretton In Rutlandshire. Here He Gained A Reputation As A Hu Morist And ...

Daines Barrington
Barrington, ]daines English Lawyer, Antiquary, And Naturalist, Fourth Son Of The First Viscount Barring Ton, Was Appointed A Welsh Judge In 1757 And Afterwards Second Justice Of Chester. Though An Indifferent Judge. His Observations On The Statutes, Chiefly The More Ancient, From Magna Charta To 21st James I., Cap. 27, ...

Daniel Bomberg
Bomberg, Daniel (d. 1j49), A Famous Dutch Christian Printer Of Hebrew Books. His Chief Activity Was In Venice Be Tween 1516 And 1549 (the Year Of His Death). Among Other Great Enterprises, He Published The Editio Princeps Of The Rabbinical Bible (hebrew Text With Rabbinical Commentaries, Etc). He Also Produced ...

Daniel Boone
Boone, Daniel (1734-1820), Most Famous Of American Pioneers And Backwoodsmen, Was Born Probably On Nov. 2, 1734, Near The Present City Of Reading (pa.), But Moved To The Yadkin Valley With His Family In His Youth. A Wagoner And Blacksmith In Braddock's Disastrous Expedition, A Wandering Hunter And Trapper Who ...

Daniello Bartoli
Bartoli, Daniello ), Italian Jesuit Priest, Was Born At Ferrara And Entered The Society Of Jesus In 1623. He Became Rector Of The Jesuit College In Rome In 1685, And Wrote The Istoria Della Compagnia Di Gesu (1650-73) ; It Is Of Value In Regard To The Early Work Of ...

David Beaton Or Bethune
Beaton Or Bethune, David (c. Scot Tish Cardinal And Archbishop Of St. Andrews, Was A Younger Son Of John Beaton, Of Balfour, In The County Of Fife. He Was Educated At The Universities Of St. Andrews And Glasgow, And Studied Civil And Canon Law In Paris. About This Time He ...

David Beatty
Beatty, David, 1st Earl (1871-1936), British Admiral Of The Fleet, Was Born On Jan. 17, 1871, Second Son Of Captain David Longfield Beatty Of County Wexford, Ireland. He Entered The Training Ship "britannia" As A Naval Cadet In 1884. As A Young Officer, From 1896-98, He Saw Service With The ...

David Belasco
Belasco, David American Playwright And Theatrical Manager, Was Born At San Francisco (cal.), On July 25, 1854, The Son Of Adventurous Hebrew Parents Lured There By The Gold Rush. He Spent Part Of His Boyhood In Victoria, Texas, And Gained Much Of His Education In Various Schools And A Mon ...

David Blondel
Blondel, David French Protestant Minis Ter, Was Professor Of History At Amsterdam. His Works Show A Con Siderable Critical Faculty. They Include A Treatise On The So-called False Decretals; And Two Treatises, Eclaircissement De La Question Si Une Femme A Ete Assise Au Siege Papal De Rome (1647), And De ...

Dezso Banffy
Banffy, Dezso (desiderius), Baron (1843-191i) , Hungarian Statesman, Was Born At Klausenburg On Oct. 28, And Died In Budapest On May 24, 1911. As Lord Lieutenant Of The County Of Belso-szolnok, Chief Captain Of Koval- And Curator Of The Calvinistic Church Of Transylvania, Banffy Exercised In Fluence Outside Parliament From ...

Dierick Bouts
Bouts, Dierick (1400?-1475), Painter Of The Nether Landish School, A Follower Of The Van Eycks. Before Going To Lou Vain About 1445 He May Have Worked At Brussels Under The In Fluence Of Roger Van Der Weyden. He Died At Louvain On May 6, 1475. Two Authentic Works Of This ...

Dion Boucicault
Boucicault, Dion (1822-189o), Irish-american Actor And Playwright, Was Born In Dublin On Dec. 26 1822, The Son Of A French Refugee And An Irish Mother, And Died In New York On Sept. 18 1890. Before He Was 20 He Was Fortunate Enough To Make An Immediate Success As A Dramatist ...

Diseases And Injuries Of
Bones, Diseases And Injuries Of. The More Specific Diseases Affecting The Bones Of The Human Body Are Treated Under Separate Headings (see Tuberculosis; Venereal Dis Eases, Etc.) ; In This Article Injuries, Inflammations And Tumours Of Bone Are Dealt With. There Are Two Kinds Of Bone, The Compact, Which Is ...

Diseases Of Prostate Gland
Diseases Of Prostate Gland The Prostate Gland May Become Acutely Inflamed As The Result Of The Backward Extension Of Gonorrhoeal Inflammation Of The Urethra; It May Also Be Attacked By The Germs Of Ordinary Sup Puration Or By B. Tuberculosis. As A Result Micturition And De Faecation Are Difficult, Painful ...

Dmitrevich Basil I
Basil I., Dmitrevich (1371-1425), Son Of Dmitri (demetrius) Donskoi, Whom He Succeeded In 1389, Married Sophia, The Daugh Ter Of Vitovt, Grand-duke Of Lithuania. Basil Annexed The Prin Cipality Of Suzdal, With The City Of Nijni Novgorod, To Muscovy, Together With Murom, Kozelsk, Przemysl, And Other Places; Re Duced The ...

Dom Benedictine
Benedictine, D.o.m. A Famous Aromatic Liqueur Made At Fecamp On The Coast Of Normandy, 44m. From Dieppe. Some Connoisseurs Regard It As The Only Rival To The Old Chartreuse. Both Liqueurs Have A Romantic History. The Religious Orders Were Early Famed For Their Liqueurs. The Abbey Of Fecamp, The Origin ...

Domenico Di Pace Beccafumi
Beccafumi, Domenico Di Pace Italian Painter, Of The School Of Siena, Was The Son Of A Peasant, Giacomo Di Pace, Who Worked On The Estate Of Lorenzo Becca Fumi, Who Adopted The Boy And Sent Him To Study Painting In The City. Known Afterwards As Domenico Beccafumi, Or Earlier As ...

Dominique Bouhours
Bouhours, Dominique (1628-1702), French Critic, Was Born In Paris. He Entered The Society Of Jesus At The Age Of 16 And Undertook Educational Work In Various Places Until 1665 Or 1666, When He Returned To Paris, And Published In 1671 Les Entretiens D'ariste Et D'eugene, A Critical Work On The ...

Dormont De Belloy
Belloy, Dormont De, The Name Assumed By Pierre Laurent Buirette (i 7 2 7-i 775), French Dramatist. He Was Born At Saint-flour, In Auvergne, On Nov. 17, 1727, And Educated For The Bar. To Escape From A Profession He Disliked He Joined A Troupe Of Comedians Playing In The Courts ...

Dorothea Beale
Beale, Dorothea (1831-1906), Headmistress Of Chel Tenham Ladies' College, England, Was Born On March 21, 1831 And Died At Cheltenham, Nov. 9, 1906. In 1848 She Attended Lectures At The Newly Opened Queen's College, London, And In 1857 Was Appointed Head Teacher Of The Clergy Daughters' School At Casterton, Westmorland—the ...

Dukes Of Bolton
Bolton, Dukes Of. The Title Of Duke Of Bolton Was Held In The Family Of Powlett Or Paulet From 1689 To 1794. Charles Povv'lett, The Ist Duke (c. 1625-1699), Who Became 6th Marquis Of Winchester On His Father's Death In 1675, Had Been Member Of Parliament For Winchester And Then ...

Earls Allen Bathurst Bathurst
Bathurst, Earls. Allen Bathurst, Ist Earl Bath Urst (1684-17 7 5 ), Was The Eldest Son Of Sir Benjamin Bathurst (d. 1704), By His Wife, Frances (d. 1727), Daughter Of Sir Allen Apsley Of Apsley, Sussex, And Belonged To A Family Which Is Said To Have Settled In Sussex Before ...

Earls And Dukes Of
Bedford, Earls And Dukes Of. The Present English Title Of Duke Of Bedford Comes From A Line Of Earls And Dukes In The Russell Family. In Jan. 15 5o John, Baron Russell, Was Created Earl Of Bedford, And In May 1694 His Descendant, William, The 5th Earl, Became Duke Of ...

Early Boobs In Mexico
Early Boobs In Mexico The History Of Bookselling In America Has A Special Interest. The Spanish Settlements Drew Away From The Old Country Much Of Its Enterprise And Best Talent, And The Presses Of Mexico And Other Cities Teemed With Publications, Mostly Of A Religious Character. The Prologue Of Printing ...

Economic Biology
Biology, Economic, The Application Of Biological Science To The Control And Improvement Of Man's Practical Inter Relations With Plants And Animals. Man's Circle Of Practical Inter Ests Intersects The Life-circles Of Many Other Creatures. There Are, First, Those Wild Animals That Are Captured For Food, And It Is The Business ...

Edme Bouchardon
Bouchardon, Edme (1698-1762), French Sculptor, Was Born At Chaumont On May 29, 1698, And Died On July 27, 1762, In Paris. He Was A Pupil Of Guillaume Coustou, And Spent Ten Years In Rome, Where He Made A Striking Bust Of Pope Benedict Xiii. (1730). His Most Famous Work Is ...

Edme Boursault
Boursault, Edme (1638-1701), French Dramatist And Miscellaneous Writer, Was Born At Mussy L'eveque, Now Mussy Sur-seine (aube). In Paris In 1652 He Produced His First Comedy, Le Mort Vivant. This And Some Other Pieces Of Small Merit Secured For Him Distinguished Patronage In The Society Ridiculed By Moliere In The ...

Edmund Bolton Or Boulton
Bolton Or Boulton, Edmund Eng Lish Historian And Poet, Brought Up A Roman Catholic And Educated At Trinity Hall, Cambridge, Afterwards Residing In Lon Don At The Inner Temple. In I600 He Contributed To England's Helicon. He Was A Retainer Of The Duke Of Buckingham, And Through His Influence Secured ...

Edmund Bonner
Bonner, Edmund (?1500-69), Bishop Of London, Was Perhaps The Natural Son Of George Savage, Rector Of Davenham, Cheshire, By Elizabeth Frodsham, Who Was Afterwards Married To Edmund Bonner, A Sawyer Of Hanley In Worcestershire. This Account, Which Was Printed With Many Circumstantial Details By Strype (eccles. Mem., Iii. I. 172-173), ...

Edmund Henry Barker
Barker, Edmund Henry (1788-1839), English Classical Scholar, Was Born At Hollym, Yorkshire, England, And Died In London On March 21 1839. He Entered Trinity College, Cambridge, As A Scholar In 1807, But Left The University Without A Degree, Being Prevented By Religious Scruples From Taking The Oath Then Required. After ...

Edouard
Edouard Francois And Louis Marie Francois (1801-54), Were Directors In Succession Of The Journal Des Debats. ...

Eduard Benes
Benes, Eduard (1884— ), Czechoslovak Statesman, Was Born May 28, 1884, In The Village Of Koilany, Czechoslovakia. His Parents Were Poor Peasants, But The Boy Was Educated In The Faculty Of Philosophy At Prague University, Where Fees Are Small And Are Wholly Remitted In The Case Of Poor Students. He ...

Eduard Bernstein
Bernstein, Eduard (1850-'1932), German Politician And Writer, Was Born In Berlin, Jan. 6, 185o. In 1872 He Joined The Social Democrats And From 1881-90 Edited, With Bebel, The Sozialdemokrat In Zurich, And Later In London, Where He Lived In Exile Until 190i. In 1902 He Entered The Reichstag As Deputy ...

Eduard Von Bauernfeld
Bauernfeld, Eduard Von Austrian Dramatist, Was Born At Vienna On Jan. 13, 1802, And Died There On Aug. 9, 189o. He Entered The Austrian Civil Service, And Remained A Civil Servant Until After The Revolution Of 1848, When He Retired In Order To Devote His Whole Energies To The Drama. ...

Edward Bates
Bates, Edward 1869), American Lawyer And Statesman, Was Born In Belmont, Va., On Sept. 4, Of A Quaker Family. In 1814 He Went To The Territory Of Missouri Of Which His Brother, Frederick, Was Secretary. There He Began The Practice Of Law And In 1816 Be Came Prosecuting Attorney At ...

Edward Bellamy
Bellamy, Edward (1850-1898), American Author And Social Reformer, Was Born At Chicopee Falls (mass.), March 25, 185o, And Died There May 22, 1898. He Studied At Union College, Schenectady, New York, And In Germany; Was Admitted To The Bar In 1871, But Soon Became Associate Editor Of The Springfield (mass.) ...

Edward Benlowes
Benlowes, Edward (16o3?-76), English Poet, Son Of Andrew Benlowes Of Brent Hall, Essex, Matriculated At St. John's College, Cambridge, In 162o, And On Leaving The University Made A Prolonged Tour On The Continent Of Europe. He Was A Roman Catholic In Middle Life, But Became A Convert To Protestantism In ...

Edward Bickereteth I
Edward Bickereteth (i 814-1892 ), Dean Of Lichfield, Was His Nephew, And Edward Bickersteth (1850-1897), Bishop Of South Tokyo, His Grandson. ...

Edward Bickersteth
Bickersteth, Edward (1786-1850), English Hymn Writer, Was One Of The Secretaries Of The Church Missionary Society, From 1816 To 1830, And Rector Of Watton, Herts., From 183o To His Death. His Christian Psalmody (london, 1833), A Collection Of Over 70o Hymns, Went Through 59 Editions In Seven Years, And Formed ...

Edward Blake
Blake, Edward (1833-1912), Irish-canadian States Man, Whose Father, W. H. Blake, Chancellor Of Ontario, Settled In Canada In 1832, Was Born On Oct. 13 1833 At Adelaide, Ontario. Blake Was Called To The Bar In 1856, And In 1867 Became A Member, Both Of The Dominion Parliament And Of The ...

Edward Blount Or Blunt
Blount Or Blunt, Edward (born 1565 ?), The Printer, In Conjunction With Isaac Jaggard, Of Mr. William Shake Speares Comedies, Histories And Tragedies. Published According To The True Originall Copies (1623), Usually Known As The First Folio Of Shakespeare. It Was Produced Under The Direction Of John Heming (died 1630) ...

Edward Braddock
Braddock, Edward British General, Was Born In Perthshire, Scotland, About 1695. He Joined The Coldstream Guards In 1710 And Served Under The Prince Of Orange In Holland During The Siege Of Bergen-op-zoom In I710. In 1754 He Became A Major-general, And Was Appointed To Command Against The French In Virginia ...

Edward Emerson Barnard
Barnard, Edward Emerson Amer Ican Astronomer, Was Born In Nashville, Tenn., On Dec. 16, He Began His Studies Alone In Boyhood. In 1887 He Graduated At Vanderbilt University, After Having Charge Of The Observatory There For Four Years. In 1887 He Was Appointed Astronomer At Lick Observatory, And From 1895 ...

Edward I Boscawen
Boscawen, Edward (i 7 I 761), British Admiral, Was Born Aug. '9,1711, And Died At Guildford, Jan. Ro, 1761. He Was The Third Son Of Hugh, 1st Viscount Falmouth. He Early Entered The Navy, And In 1739 Took Part In The Siege Of Porto Bello. At The Siege Of Cartagena, ...

Edward Lyon Berthon
Berthon, Edward Lyon (1813-1899), English In Ventor, Was Born In London, On Feb. 20, 1813, The Son Of An Army Contractor. He First Studied Medicine, Then Travelled Abroad For Some Years, And In 1841 Entered Magdalene College, Cambridge. He Took Orders In 1845, And Held Livings At Fareham And Then ...

Edward Spencer Beesly
Beesly, Edward Spencer English Historian And Positivist, Son Of The Rev. James Beesly, Was Born At Feckenham, Worcestershire, England, On Jan. 23, 1831, And Died At St. Leonards On July 7, 1915. He Was Educated At Wad Ham College, Oxford, Which May Be Regarded As The Original Centre Of The ...

Edward Valentine Blomfield
Blomfield, Edward Valentine (1788-18'6) , English Classical Scholar, Was Born At Bury St. Edmunds. He Be Came A Fellow And Lecturer Of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, And Is Chiefly Known By His Translation Of Matthiae's Greek Grammar (1819), Which Was Prepared For The Press By His Brother. See "memoir Of Edward ...

Edward Webster Bemis
Bemis, Edward Webster American Economist, Was Born At Springfield (mass.), April 7, 186o, And Was Educated At Amherst And Johns Hopkins University. He Held The Professorship Of History And Political Economy In Vanderbilt University (1889-92), Was Associate Professor Of Political Economy In The University Of Chicago (1892-95), Assistant Statistician To ...

Edward White Benson
Benson, Edward White (1829-1896), Archbishop Of Canterbury, Was Born On July 14, 1829, At Birmingham, The Son Of A Manufacturing Chemist, Who Came Of A Family Of Yorkshire Dalesmen. He Was Educated At King Edward Vi.'s School, Birmingham, And Trinity College, Cambridge, Graduated In 1852 As A Senior Optime, 8th ...

Edward Wilber Berry
Berry, Edward Wilber ), American Palaeontologist, Was Born In Newark, N.j., On Feb. So, 1875. He Was Educated Privately And From 1897 Until 1905 He Conducted A Newspaper In Passaic, N.j. In 1905 He Studied At The Johns Hopkins University Where In 1906 He Was Appointed Assistant In Palaeontology And ...

Edward William Binney
Binney, Edward William English Geologist, Was Born At Morton, Nottinghamshire. He Was Articled To A Solicitor In Chesterfield, And In 1836 Settled At Manchester. On The Coal Measures He Became An Acknowledged Authority, And Wrote Observations On The Structure Of Fossil Plants Found In The Carboniferous Strata (1868-75). His Large ...

Edward William Bok
Bok, Edward William American Editor And Author, Was Born At Helder, Holland, Oct. 9, 1863, And Brought To The United States When Six Years Old. Educated In The Brooklyn Public Schools, He Became An Office Boy With The Western Union Telegraph Company. Continuing His Education At A Night School, He ...

Edwin Howland Blashfield
Blashfield, Edwin Howland American Artist, Was Born Dec. 15, 1848 In New York City. He Was A Pupil Of Bonnat In Paris, And Became (1888) A Member Of The National Academy Of Design In New York. For Some Years A Genre Painter, He Later Turned To Decorative Work, Marked By ...

Edwin Thomas Booth
Booth, Edwin Thomas American Actor, Second Son Of The Anglo-american Actor Junius Brutus Booth, Was Born Nov. 13, 1833 At Belair, Maryland. His Father (born London 1796) Removed To America In 1821. There He Became A Great Favourite Upon The Stage, Renewing The Successes He Had Achieved In London, Where ...

Eliot Blackwelder
Blackwelder, Eliot (188o— ), American Geolo Gist, Was Born In Chicago, Ill., On June 4, 1880. He Graduated At The University Of Chicago In 1901 And In 1914 Received The Degree Of Doctor Of Philosophy From That Institution. From 1902 Until 1919 He Was Instructor Or Professor In The Universities ...

Elizabeth Barry
Barry, Elizabeth (1658-1713), English Actress. At First She Was Unsuccessful On The Stage; But She Was Coached By Her Lover The Earl Of Rochester. Her Performance As Isabella, Queen Of Hungary, In The Earl Of Orrery's Mustapha, Was Said To Have Caused Charles Ii. And The Duke And Duchess Of ...

Elizabeth Barton
Barton, Elizabeth (c. 1506-1534), "the Maid Of Kent," Was, According To Her Own Statement, Born In 1506 At Al Dington, Kent. In 1525, When She Was A Servant In The House Of Thomas Cobb, Steward Of An Estate Near Aldington Owned By Wil Liam Warham, Archbishop Of Canterbury, She Had ...

Elizabeth Billington
Billington, Elizabeth (c. 1768-1818), British Opera-singer, Was Born In London, Her Father Being A German Musician Named Weichsel, And Her Mother A Popular Singer. She Was A Precocious Child, And Received A Solid Musical Training From Her Father. Before She Was Twelve She Had Published Two Volumes Of Pianoforte Sonatas. ...

Elizabeth Blackwell
Blackwell, Elizabeth The First Woman Doctor Of Medicine, Was Born At Counterslip, Bristol, Feb. 3, 1821. The Daughter Of A Sugar Refiner, Who Emigrated To New York In Aug. 1832, Elizabeth Sought Admission In Vain To The Medical Schools Of Philadelphia And New York, And Eventually Secured Admission To The ...

Emil Von Behring
Behring, Emil Von (1854-1917) German Bacteriolo Gist And Founder Of Immunology As A Science. Behring Began Life As An Army Surgeon And Became Professor Successively At Halle (1894) And Marburg (1895). In 189o, While Working With The Japanese Investigator Kitasato (q.v.) In The Laboratory Of Robert Koch At Berlin, He ...

Employee Bonus
Bonus, Employee, A Phrase Used Especially In The United States To Designate An Award In Addition To The Contractual Wage. It Is Usually Intended As A Stimulus To Extra Effort But Sometimes Represents The Desire Of The Employer To Share With His Workers The Fruits Of Their Common Enterprise. Related ...

English Banking
English Banking Until The 17th Century, There Was A Lot Of Indefinable Banking Carried On Elsewhere In Europe, Though It Is Impossible To Separate Deposit Banking From Investments In Trading Ventures, Money Changing And Other Commercial Transactions Of The Period. The Fuggers Undoubtedly Did A Lot Of General Financing, While ...

English Bible
Bible, English. The History Of The Vernacular Bible Of The English Race Resolves Itself Into Two Distinctly Marked Periods, The One Being That Of Manuscript Bibles, Which Were Secondary Translations From The Latin Vulgate, The Other That Of Printed Bibles, Which Were, More Or Less Completely, Translations From The Original ...

English Billiards
English Billiards The English Table Consists Of A Framework Of Mahogany Or Other Hard Wood, With Eight Legs, Strong Enough To Bear The Weight Of Five Slabs Of Slate, Each 2ft. Wide By 6ft. ' In., And About Sin. Thick. These Having Been Fitted Together To Form A Level Surface, ...

English
English. To The First Christians, Who Were Jews, The Law And The Prophets Were Already Sacred. Their National Sacred Writings Were To Them The Oracles Of God, Though They Could No Longer Be Regarded As Containing The Whole Truth Of God. The Coming Of The Messiah Had Revealed God With ...

Enoch Arnold Bennett
Bennett, Enoch Arnold English Novelist And Dramatist, Born At Hanley, Staffordshire On May 27, 1867. After Leaving School He Entered A Lawyer's Office, But In 1893, Having Published Several Stories And Articles, Decided To Devote Himself To Writing And Settled In London Where He Obtained The Position Of Assistant-editor On ...

Epistle Of Barnabas
Barnabas, Epistle Of. The Epistle Is One Of "the Apostolic Fathers." It Stands At The End Of The 4th Century Codex Sinaiticus Of The New Testament, In A Sort Of Appendix. This Means That It Once Enjoyed Quasicanonical Authority, A Fact Borne Out By Clement, Origen And Eusebius (h.e. Iii. ...

Ermolao Hermolaus Barbarus Barbaro
Barbaro, Ermolao (hermolaus Barbarus) (1454 C. 1493), Italian Scholar, Was Born At Venice. He Edited And Translated A Number Of Classical Works, Of Which The Most Important Were: Castigationes Plinianae (1492) , In Which He Boasted Of Having Made 5,000 Corrections In The Text Of Pliny's Natural History; Themistius' Paraphrases ...

Ernest Belfort Bax
Bax, Ernest Belfort (1854-1926), English Writer And Economist, Was Born At Leamington On July 24, 1854, And Educated Privately. When A Young Man He Escaped From The Strict Sabattarian Atmosphere Of His Home, And Went To Study Music In Germany, Where He Became Interested In The Work Of The German ...

Ernest Bloch
Bloch, Ernest ), Composer, Was Born At Geneva, Switzerland, July 24 1880. He Studied Harmony Under Jaques-dalcroze, Geneva, The Violin With Ysaye, Brussels, And Composition Under Ivan Knorr, Frankfort. His Lyric Drama Mac Beth Was Performed At The Paris Opera Comique, 1911. He Ar Rived In America In I Q ...

Ernest William Barnes
Barnes, Ernest William (1874— ), British Divine, Was Born On April 1, 1874, And Was Educated At King Edward's School, Birmingham, And At Trinity College, Cambridge, Where He Had A Brilliant Career, Being Bracketed Second Wrangler In 1896 And Elected In 1898 To A Fellowship Of His College Or Dained ...

Ernst Barlach
Barlach, Ernst German Artist And Poet, Was Born At Wedel, Holstein, On Jan. 2, 1870. After Distinguishing Himself As A Sculptor He Attracted Public Notice With His Dramatic Works, Der Tote Tag (1912), Der Arme Vetter (1918), Die Echten Sedemunds (1920), Der Findling (1922) And Die Siindflut (1924). He Received ...

Ernst Bassermann
Bassermann, Ernst (1854-1917), German Politician And Leader Of The National Liberal Party, Was Born On June 26, 1854 At Wolsag In The Black Forest. He Began His Career In 1880 As A Lawyer At Mannheim. From 1886 To 1892 He Was Deputy In The Baden Diet, And From 1893, With ...

Ernst Von Bergmann
Bergmann, Ernst Von A German Surgeon Of Russian Birth, Was Born At Riga On Dec. 16, 1836, And Educated At Dorpat, Where He Was Professor Of Surgery From 1871 To 1878. In 1878 He Removed To The University Of Wiirz Burg, And In 1882 Succeeded Langenbeck At Berlin. He Had ...

Esaias Boursse
Boursse, Esaias (163o-1673), Dutch Painter, Born In Amsterdam, Was A Follower Of Pieter De Hooch. His Paintings Are Exceedingly Rare, Many Of Them Pass Under The Names Of Vermeer Of Delft And Pieter De Hooch. Two Of The Paintings Ascribed To The Latter (one Bears The False Signature) At The ...

Ethel Barrymore
Barrymore, Ethel ), American Actress, Was Born On Aug. 15, 1879 In Philadelphia (pa.), And Was Edu Cated At The Convent Of Notre Dame In That City. She Made Her Debut In 1896 In The Company Of Her Uncle, John Drew. In 1897 She First Appeared In England In Secret ...

Etienne Baluze
Baluze, Etienne French Scholar, Was Born At Tulle On Nov. 24, 163o, And Died In Paris On July 28, 1718. The Works Which Place Him In The First Rank Of The Scholars Of His Time Are The Capitularia Regum Francorum (1674; New Edition Enlarged And Corrected In 178o) ; The ...

Etienne Bezout
Bezout, Etienne (1 73o-1 783 ), French Mathematician, Was Born At Nemours On March 3 R, R 73o. He Studied Mathematics In Opposition To The Wishes Of His Parents. In 1763 He Became Ex Aminer Of Naval Entrants In Mathematics, And A Few Years Later He Undertook Similar Work For ...

Eugen Boehm Von Bawerk
Boehm Von Bawerk, Eugen (1851-1914), Aus Trian Economist And Statesman, Was Born At Brunn On Feb. 12, 1851, And Died At Vienna On Aug. 28 1914. He Was Professor Of Political Economy At Innsbruck (1884), Councillor Of The Finance Ministry (1889), Finance Minister (1895, 1897-98 And 1900-06), And President Of ...

Eugene De Beauharnais
Beauharnais, Eugene De Stepson Of Napoleon I., Was Born In Paris On Sept. 3, 1781, The Son Of The General Viscount Alexandre De Beauharnais (176o-94) And Josephine Tascher De La Pagerie. The Father, Who Was Born In Martinique, And Served In The American War Of Independence, Took Part In The ...