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Encyclopedia Brittanica

Volume 5, Part 1: Cast-Iron to Cole

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Charles Spencer Chaplin
Chaplin, Charles Spencer ), Cinema Actor, Was Born April 16, 1889, Of English Parentage, And Passed His Childhood In London. At An Early Age He Appeared On The Music-hall Stage With His Father And His Brother Sydney, Taking Small Parts In Vaudeville. Af Ter A Short Experience On The Legiti ...

Charles The Great Charlemagne
Charles The Great (charlemagne), King Of The Franks And Emperor, Born April 2, 742 Or 743, Was The Eldest Son Of Pepin Iii. By Berta (bertrada), Daughter Of Charibert Of Laon. At That Date The Franks Were Governed By Pepin And His Brother Carloman, Who Ruled As Mayors Of The ...

Charles V Or Iv
Charles V. Or Iv. (1643-169o), Duke Of Lorraine, Nephew Of Duke Charles Iv., Was Born On April 3, 1643. He Was Con Stantly On Active Service In The Imperial Army Against The Turks, And Later Against The French. He Was Twice (1668 And 1674) An Unsuccessful Candidate For The Elective ...

Charles V
Charles V. Roman Emperor And (as Charles I.) King Of Spain, Was Born In Ghent On Feb. 20, 1500. His Par Ents Were Philip Of Burgundy And Joanna, Third Child Of Ferdinand And Isabella. Philip Died In 1506, And Charles Succeeded To His Netherland Possessions And The County Of Burgundy ...

Charles Vi
Charles Vi. (1685-1740), Roman Emperor, Was Born On Oct. 1, 1685, At Vienna. He Was The Second Son Of The Emperor Leopold I. By His Third Marriage With Eleanore, Daughter Of Philip William Of Neuburg, Elector Palatine Of The Rhine. When The Spanish Branch Of The House Of Habsburg Became ...

Charles Victor Cherbuliez
Cherbuliez, Charles Victor French Novelist And Miscellaneous Writer, Was Born At Geneva, Where His Father, Andre Cherbuliez (1795-1874), Was A Classical Professor At The University. He Resumed French Citizenship And Was Elected A Member Of The Academy (1881). Cherbuliez Wrote Many Novels, Showing The Influence Of George Sand, Of Which ...

Charles Vii
Charles Vii. (1697-1745), Roman Emperor, Known Also As Charles Albert, Elector Of Bavaria, Was The Son Of The Elector Maximilian Emanuel And His Second Wife, Theresa Cunigunda, Daughter Of John Sobieski, King Of Poland. He Was Born On Aug. 6, 1697. His Father Having Taken The Side Of Louis Xiv. ...

Charles Viii
Charles Viii. (147o-1498), King Of France, Was The Only Son Of Louis Xi. On The Death Of Louis Xi. In 1483 Charles, A Lad Of 13, Was Absolutely Incapable Of Governing. Until 1492 He Abandoned The Government To His Sister Anne Of Beaujeu. In 1491 He Married Anne, Duchess Of ...

Charles Vii_2
Charles Vii. (1403-1461), King Of France, Fifth Son Of Charles Vi. And Isabeau Of Bavaria, Was Born In Paris On Feb. 22, 1403. The Count Of Ponthieu, As He Was Called In His Boy Hood, Was Betrothed In 1413 To Mary Of Anjou, Daughter Of Louis Ii., Duke Of Anjou ...

Charles Vi_2
Charles Vi. (1368-1422), King Of France, Son Of Charles V. And Jeanne Of Bourbon, Was Born In Paris On Dec. 3, 1368. He Received The Apanage Of Dauphine At His Birth, And Was Thus The First Of The Princes Of France To Bear The Title Of Dauphin From Infancy. Charles ...

Charles V_2
Charles V. King Of France, Called The Wise, Was Born At The Château Of Vincennes, On Jan. 21, 1337, The Son Of John Ii. And Bonne Of Luxembourg. In 1349 He Be Came Dauphin Of The Viennois By Purchase From Humbert Ii. And In 1355 He Was Created Duke Of ...

Charles X Charles Gustavus
Charles X. (charles Gustavus) (1622-1660), King Of Sweden, Son Of John Casimir, Count Palatine Of Zweibrucken, And Catherine, Sister Of Gustavus Adolphus, Was Born At Nykop Ing Castle On Nov. 8, 1622. He Learnt The Art Of War Under The Great Lennart Torstensson, Being Present At The Second Battle Of ...

Charles X
Charles X. (1757-1836), King Of France From 1824 To 183o, Was The Fourth Child Of The Dauphin Louis, Son Of Louis Xv. And Of Marie Josephe Of Saxony. He Was Known Before His Acces Sion As Charles Philippe, Count Of Artois. At The Age Of 16 He Married Marie Therese ...

Charles Xi
Charles Xi. (1655-1697), King Of Sweden, The Only Son Of Charles X. And Hedwig Leonora Of Holstein-gottorp, Was Born In The Palace At Stockholm On Nov. 24, 1655. His Father, Who Died When The Child Was In His Fourth Year, Appointed A Regency Of Five Great Ministers Of State With ...

Charles Xii
Charles Xii. (1682-1718), King Of Sweden, The Only Sur Viving Son Of Charles Xi. And Ulrica Leonora, Daughter Of Fred Erick Iii. Of Denmark, Was Born On June 17, 1682. He Was Carefully Educated By Excellent Tutors Under The Watchful Eyes Of His Parents. Charles Xi. Personally Supervised His Son's ...

Charles Xiii
Charles Xiii. (1748-1818), King Of Sweden And Norway, The Second Son Of Adolphus Frederick, King Of Sweden, And Louisa Ulrica, Sister Of Frederick The Great, Was Born At Stockholm On Oct. 7, 1748. In 1772 He Co-operated In The Revolutionary Plans Of His Brother Gustavus Iii. (q.v.). During The Russo-swedish ...

Charles Xiv John
Charles Xiv. (john) (1763-1844), King Of Sweden And Norway, Born At Pau On Jan. 26, 1763, Was The Son Of Henri Ber Nadotte (1711-1780), Procurator At Pau, And Jeanne St. Jean The Family Name Was Originally Deu Pouey, But Was Changed Into Bernadotte In The Beginning Of The 17th Century. ...

Charles Xv
Charles Xv. (1826-1872), King Of Sweden And Norway, Eldest Son Of Oscar I., King Of Sweden And Norway, And Josephine Beauharnais Of Leuchtenberg, Was Born On May 3, 1826. On June 19, 185o, He Married Louisa, Daughter Of Prince Frederick Of The Netherlands. He Became Regent On Sept. 25, 1857, ...

Charles
Charles, A Masculine Proper Name (fr. Charles; Span. Carlos; Ital. Carlo; Ger. Karl), Meaning Originally "man." It Has Been Borne By Many European Sovereigns And Princes. ...

Charleston
Charleston, A City Of Eastern Illinois, U.s.a., On The Nickel Plate And The Big Four Railways, 45m. W. Of Terre Haute; The County Seat Of Coles County. The Population In 1920 Was 6,615 ; 1930 It Was 8,012. It Is In The Midst Of The Broom-corn Belt, And Has Broom ...

Charleston_2
Charleston, The Largest City Of South Carolina, U.s.a., And An Important South Atlantic Seaport, On A Narrow Peninsula Between The Cooper And The Ashley Rivers, At The Head Of The Bay Formed By Their Confluence, 7m. From The Ocean ; The County Seat Of Charleston County, Headquarters Of The Customs ...

Charleston_3
Charleston, The Capital Of West Virginia, U.s.a., On The Kanawha River At The Mouth Of The Elk, South-west Of The Centre Of The State; The County Seat Of Kanawha County. It Is On Federal Highways 21 And 6o; And Is Served By The Baltimore And Ohio, The Chesapeake And Ohio ...

Charlestown
Charlestown, Formerly A Separate City Of Middlesex County, Massachusetts, U.s.a., But Since 1874 A Part Of The City Of Boston, With Which It Had Long Before Been In Many Respects Practically One. It Is Situated On A Small Peninsula On Boston Harbour, Between The Mouths Of The Mystic And Charles ...

Charles_2
Charles (1525-1574), Cardinal Of Lorraine, French States Man, Was The Second Son Of Claude Of Lorraine, Duke Of Guise, And Brother Of Francis, Duke Of Guise. He Was Archbishop Of Reims In 1s38 And Cardinal In 1547. At First He Was Called The Cardinal Of Guise, But In 155o, On ...

Charles_3
Charles The Simple (879-929), King Of France, Was A Posthumous Son Of Louis The Stammerer And Of His Second Wife Adelaide. On The Deposition Of Charles The Fat In 887 He Was Ex Cluded From The Throne Owing To His Youth; But During The Reign Of Odo, Who Had Succeeded ...

Charles_4
Charles (1421-1461), Prince Of Viana, Sometimes Called Charles Iv., King Of Navarre, Was The Son Of John, Afterwards John Ii., King Of Aragon, By His Marriage With Blanche, Daughter Of Charles Iii. Of Navarre. Both His Grandfather Charles And His Mother, Who Ruled Over Navarre, Had Bequeathed This Kingdom To ...

Charles_5
Charles (c. 1319-1364), Duke Of Brittany, Known As Charles Of Blois And Charles Of Chatillon, Was The Son Of Guy Of Chatillon, Count Of Blois (d. 1342), And Of Marguerite Of Valois, Sister Of Philip Vi. Of France. In 1337 He Married Jeanne Of Penthievre (d. 1384), Daughter Of Guy ...

Charles_6
Charles, Called The Bold (1433-1477), Duke Of Burgundy, Son Of Philip The Good Of Burgundy And Isabella Of Portugal, Was Born At Dijon On Nov. Io, 1433. In His Father's Lifetime He Bore The Title Of Count Of Charolais. He Was Brought Up Under The Direction Of The Seigneur D'auxy. ...

Charles_7
Charles (127o-1325), Count Of Valois, Of Maine, And Of Anjou, Third Son Of Philip Iii., King Of France, Was Born On March 12, 1270. He Inherited The Four Lordships Of Crepy, La Ferte-milon, Pierrefonds And Bethisy, Which Together Formed The Countship Of Valois. In 1284 Martin Iv., Having Excommunicated Pedro ...

Charleville
Charleville, A Town Of North-eastern France, In The Department Of Ardennes, 5o M. N.e. Of Reims. Pop. (1931) 21,837. Charleville Is Situated Within A Bend Of The Meuse On Its Left Bank, Opposite Mezieres, With Which It Is United By A Suspen Sion Bridge. The Town Was Founded In 1606 ...

Charlevoix
Charlevoix, A City Of Michigan, U.s.a., On Lake Michi Gan, With Lake Charlevoix On Its Eastern Boundary And Round Lake In The Centre Of The Town; A Port Of Entry And The County Seat Of Charlevoix County. It Is On Federal Highway 31, And Is Served By The Pere Marquette ...

Charlotte
Charlotte (184o-1927), Empress Of Mexico, Only Daugh Ter Of Leopold I., King Of Belgium, And Louise, Princess Of Orleans, Was Born At Laeken, Near Brussels, On June 7, 1840. She Married In 1857 The Archduke Maximilian Of Austria, And Went With Him To Mexico In 1864, When He Accepted The ...

Charlottenburg
Charlottenburg, A Town Incorporated In The Greater Berlin Scheme Of 1912 (which Came Into Full Operation In 1920), In The Land Of Prussia, On The River Spree; Its Earlier Name Was Lietzenburg. The Central Part Of The Town Is Connected With Berlin By An Avenue, The Charlottenburger Chaussee. The Schloss, ...

Charlottesville
Charlottesville, A City In The Beautiful Piedmont Region Of Virginia, U.s.a., On The Rivanna River, Tom. W.n.w. Of Richmond; The County Seat Of Albemarle County, But Administra Tively Independent Of It. It Is Served By The Chesapeake And Ohio, And The Southern Railways. The Population In 1920 Was 10,688, Of ...

Charlottetown
Charlottetown, The Capital Of The Province Of Prince Edward Island, Canada, Situated In Queen's County, On Hillsbor Ough River. Pop. (1931) 12,361. It Has A Good Harbour, And The River Is Navigable By Large Vessels For Several Miles. The Export Trade Of The Island Centres Here, And The City Has ...

Charlotte_2
Charlotte, A City Of Michigan, U.s.a., 18m. S.w. Of Lansing; On Federal Highway 27, And Served By The Grank Trunk And The Michigan Central Railways; The County Seat Of Eaton County. The Population In 1920 Was 5,126; 1930 It Was 5,307. It Has Varied Manufacturing Industries, And Is The Trade ...

Charlotte_3
Charlotte, A City In Southern North Carolina, U.s.a., 175m. S.w. Of Raleigh; The County Seat Of Mecklenburg County. It Is On Federal Highways 21, 74 And 170; And Is Served By The Norfolk Southern, The Piedmont And Northern, The Seaboard Air Line And The Southern Railways. In 1900 The Population ...

Charm
Charm, An Incantation, Verses Sung With Supposed Magical Results, Hence Anything Possessing Powers Of Bringing Good Luck Or Averting Evil, Particularly Articles Worn With That Purpose, Such As An Amulet. It Is Thus Used Of Small Trinkets Attached To Bracelets Or Chains. The Word Is Also Used, Figuratively, Of Fasci ...

Charmeuse
Charmeuse. In Textiles, The Proprietary Name For A Silk Dress Fabric Of Light And Delicate Texture Suitable For Gowns, Party Wraps, And Such Like Garments For Purely Dress Purposes, And For Which Strength And Durability Are Not Essential Qualities. This Fabric Has A Rich And More Lustrous Appearance On The ...

Charnel House
Charnel House. A Place For The Storage Of Human Bones, Specifically That Rendered Necessary By The Fact That Many Crowded Mediaeval Cemeteries Were Used Again And Again, So That Each New Burial Unearthed The Bones Of People Long Dead. Charnel Houses Were Sometimes Situated In Church Crypts, And Sometimes As ...

Charnockite
Charnockite, In Petrology A Series Of Igneous Rocks (originally Described By Sir T. H. Holland) From Madras Presi Dency, Southern India, And Forming A Well-defined Petrographic Province Of Archaean Age. The Name Is Derived From That Of The Founder Of Calcutta, Job Charnock, Whose Tombstone Is Made Of A Typical ...

Charnwood Forest
Charnwood Forest, An Upland Tract In North Leices Tershire (q.v.), England, South-west Of Loughborough. It Is In Great Part Barren, Though There Are Extensive Tracts Of Woodland. Over 6,000ac. Are At A Height Exceeding 600f T. ; The Loftiest Point, Bardon Hill, Is 912 F T. ...

Charolles
Charolles, A Town Of East-central France, Capital Of An Arrondissement In The Department Of Saone-et-loire, At The Con Fluence Of The Semence And Arconce, 39 M. W.n.w. Of Macon. Pop. (193i) 2,883. Charolles Was The Capital Of Charolais Which From The Early 14th Century Gave The Title Of Count To ...

Charon
Charon, In Greek Mythology, The Son Of Erebus And Nyx (night). It Was His Duty To Ferry Over The Styx (or Acheron) Those Souls Of The Deceased Who Had Duly Received The Rites Of Burial, In Payment For Which Service He Received An Obol, Which Was Placed In The Mouth ...

Charondas
Charondas, A Celebrated Lawgiver Of Catina In Sicily. His Date Is Uncertain. Some Make Him A Pupil Of Pythagoras (c. 580– 504 B.c.) ; But All That Can Be Said Is That He Was Earlier Than Anaxilaus Of Rhegium (494-476), Who Abolished His Laws, Pre Viously In Use At Rhegium. ...

Charpentier
Charpentier, Francois 702), French Archaeologist And Man Of Letters, Was Born In Paris. In His Excel Lence De La Langue F Rancaise (1683) He Anticipated Perrault In The Famous Academical Dispute Concerning The Relative Merit Of The Ancients And Moderns. He Is Credited With A Share In The Produc Tion ...

Charrua
Charrua, An Almost Extinct Tribe Of South American In Dians, Wild And Warlike, Formerly Ranging Over Uruguay And Part Of Southern Brazil. They Were Dark And Heavily Built, Fought On Horses And Used The Bolas Or Weighted Lasso. ...

Chart
Chart. A Chart Is A Marine Map Intended Specially For The Use Of The Seaman, To Assist Him To Navigate Seas And Oceans, To Sail From Port To Port And By Its Means To Ascertain The Position Of A Ship With Reference To The Land, The Direction In Which To ...

Charter
Charter, A Written Instrument, Contract, Or Convention By Which Grants Of Property Or Of Rights And Privileges Are Confirmed And Held. The Use Of The Word For Any Written Document Is Obso Lete In England, But Is Preserved In France, E.g., The Ecole Des Chartes At Paris. In Feudal Times ...

Chartered Companies
Chartered Companies. A Chartered Company Is A Corporation Enjoying Certain Rights And Privileges, And Bound By Certain Obligations Under A Special Charter Granted To It By The Sov Ereign Authority Of The State, Such Charter Defining And Limiting Those Rights, Privileges And Obligations, And The Localities In Which They Are ...

Charterhouse
Charterhouse, A Corruption Of The French Maison Chartreuse, A Religious House Of The Carthusians (q.v.). The Name Is Found In Various Places In England (e.g., Charterhouse-on-men Dip, Charterhouse Hinton) Where The Carthusians Were Established, But Is Most Familiarly Applied To The Charterhouse, London. Near The Old City Wall, West Of ...

Chartism
Chartism, The Name Of A Revolutionary Democratic Agita Tion In Great Britain Which Came Into Prominence In 1838 And Disappeared After 1850. The "people's Charter" Was The Name Given To A Bill Containing The Famous Six Points—equal Electoral Areas, Universal Suffrage, Payment Of Members, No Property Qualifications, Vote By Ballot, ...

Chartres
Chartres, A City Of North-western France, Capital Of The Department Of Eure-et-loir, 55 M. South-west Of Paris On The Rail Way To Le Mans. Pop. (1931) 21,440. Chartres Is On The Left Bank Of The Eure, On A Hill Crowned By Its Famous Cathedral, The Spires Of Which Are A ...

Chartreuse
Chartreuse. A Celebrated Liqueur, Green And Yellow, Made At La Grande Chartreuse, The Old Carthusian Monastery Near Grenoble. The Carthusian Order Of Monks Was Founded By Saint Bruno Of Cologne In 1084. In 1607 The Marechal D'estrees Gave To The Carthusian Fathers The Recipe Of The Elixir. It Was Supposed ...

Chasse
Chasse, A Gliding Step In Dancing, So Called Since One Foot Is Brought Up Behind, Or Chases, The Other. The Chasee Croise Is A Double Variety Of The Step. ...

Chasseurs
Chasseurs, Light Infantry Or Cavalry Regiments In The French Army (from Fr. Chasser, To Hunt) . The First Light Infantry (chasseurs A Pied) Units Were Raised In 1743, And By 1794 Their Number Had Increased To 21 Battalions. The Name Then Disap Peared Until 1840, But By 1870 They Had ...

Chassis
Chassis. Properly, A Window-frame. The Word Is French, Meaning A Frame, From Which Is Derived "sash." It Is In General Use For That Part Of A Motor-vehicle Consisting Of The Wheels, Frame And Machinery, On Which The Body Or Carriage Part Rests. The Word Has Passed Into Aeronautics, And Is ...

Chasuble
Chasuble, A Liturgical Vestment Of The Catholic Church, Being The Outermost Garment Worn By Bishops And Priests When Celebrating The Mass. The Word Is Derived, Through The French, From The Latin Casula, A Little House Or Hut. Since The Chasuble (or Planeta, As It Is Also Called In The Roman ...

Chatalja Lines
Chatalja Lines, A Fortified Position 25m. W. Of And Covering Constantinople, Extending From The Black Sea At Kara Burnu To The Sea Of Marmara At Buyuk Chekmedje. They Form A Very Strong Position, Covered In Part By Lakes And Marshes, And Commanding All The Country To The West. They Were ...

Chateau Doex
Chateau-d'oex, Resort, Switzerland, 202 M. From Mon Treux, In The Sarine Valley, 3,182 Feet Above Sea-level, Below The North-west End Of The Bernese Oberland. Pop. 3,464. The Castle Has Been Replaced By A Church And The Village Has Many Attractive Chalets Scattered On The Hillside, Which Are Enriched With Pine ...

Chateau Gontier
Chateau-gontier, A Town Of Western France In The Arrondissement Of Laval In The Department Of Mayenne On The Mayenne, 18 M. S. By E. Of Laval. Pop. 5,97o. Château Gontier Owes Its Origin And Its Name To A Castle Erected In The First Half Of The 11th Century By Gunther, ...

Chateau Thierry
Chateau-thierry, A Town Of Northern France, In The Department Of Aisne, S9 M. E.n.e. Of Paris On The Eastern Rail Way To Nancy. Pop. 7.492. Château-thierry Is Built On Ris Ing Ground On The Right Bank Of The Marne, Over Which A Fine Stone Bridge Leads To The Suburb Of ...

Chateau
Chateau, The French Word For Castle (q.v.). The Develop Ment Of The Castle In The 15th And I6th Centuries Into Houses Arranged Rather For Residence Than Defence Led To A Corresponding Widening Of The Meaning Of The Term Château, Which Came To Be Applied To Any Seigniorial Residence And So ...

Chateaubriand
Chateaubriand, Francois Rene, Vicomte De (1768-1848), French Author, Youngest Son Of Rene Auguste De Chateaubriand, Comte De Combourg, Was Born At St. Malo On Sept. 4, 1768. He Was A Brilliant Representative Of The Reaction Against The Ideas Of The French Revolution, And The Most Con Spicuous Figure In French ...

Chateaubriant
Chateaubriant, A Town Of Western France, Capital Of An Arrondissement In The Department Of Loire-inf Erieure, On The Left Bank Of The Chere, 4om. N.n.e. Of Nantes By Rail. Pop. It Takes Its Name From A Castle Founded In The Ii Th Century By Brient, Count Of Penthievre, Remains Of ...

Chateaudun
Chateaudun, A Town Of North Central France, Capital Of An Arrondissement In The Department Of Eure-et-loir, 28 M. S.s.w. Of Chartres. Pop. (1931) 6,050. It Stands On High Ground Near The Left Bank Of The Loir. The Streets Radiate From A Central Square, The Town Being Replanned After Fires In ...

Chateauroux
Chateauroux, A Town Of Central France, Capital Of The Department Of Indre, Situated On The Left Bank Of The Indre, 88 M. S. Of Orleans On The Main Line Of The Orleans Railway. Pop. (1931) 23,619. The Old Town, Close To The River, Forms A Nucleus Round Which A Newer ...

Chatelain
Chatelain, In France Originally Merely The Equivalent Of The English Castellan, I.e., The Commander Of A Castle. With The Growth Of The Feudal System, However, The Title Gained In France A Special Significance Which It Never Acquired In England, As Implying The Jurisdiction Of Which The Castle Became The Centre. ...

Chatelaine
Chatelaine, The Mistress Of A Castle. From The Custom Of A Chatelaine Of Carrying The Keys Of The Castle Suspended From Her Girdle, The Word Was Applied In The Late 19th Century To The Collection Of Short Chains, Worn By Ladies To Which Keys, Penknife, Needlecase, Scissors, Etc., Were Attached. ...

Chatelet
Chatelet, The Word, Sometimes Also Written Castillet, Used In France For A Building Designed For The Defence Of An Outwork Or Gate, Sometimes Of Great Strength Or Size, But Distinguished From The Château, Or Castle Proper, In Being Purely Defensive And Not Residential (from Med. Lat. Castella) . In Paris, ...

Chatellerault
Chatellerault, A Town Of Western France, Capital Of An Arrondissement In The Department Of Vienne, 19 M. N.n.e. Of Poitiers On The Orleans Railway. Pop. (1931) 13,527. It Is Situated On The Right Bank Of The Vienne And Is Connected With The Suburb Of Chateauneuf By A Stone Bridge Of ...

Chatham Islands
Chatham Islands, A Small Group Of Islands In The Pacific Ocean Forming Part Of New Zealand, 536 M. Due E. Of Lyttleton, In South Island, In About 44° S., 1i7° W. It Consists Of Three Islands, A Large One Called Whairikauri, Or Chatham Island, A Small One, Rangihaute, Or Pitt ...

Chatham Or Miramichi
Chatham Or Miramichi, An Incorporated Town And Port Of Entry In Northumberland County, New Brunswick, Can Ada, On The Miramichi River, 24m. From Its Mouth And On The Canadian National Railway. Pop. (1931) 4,017. The Town Con Tains A Roman Catholic Pro-cathedral, Many Saw-mills, Pulp Mills, And Establishments For Curing ...

Chatham
Chatham, A Port And Municipal And Parliamentary Borough Of Kent, England, On The Right Bank Of The Medway, 34 M. E.s.e. Of London By The Southern Railway. Pop. Though A Distinct Borough It Is Continuous On The West With Rochester, And Forms With It And New Brompton, On The East, ...

Chatham_2
Chatham, A City And Port Of Entry Of Ontario, Canada, And The Capital Of Kent County, 64m. S.w. Of London And Um. N. Of Lake Erie, On The, Thames River And The Canadian Na Tional, Canadian Pacific And Lake Erie And Huron Railways. Pop. (1931) 14,569. It Has Steamboat Connection ...

Chatsworth
Chatsworth, A Parish Of Derbyshire, England, Contain Ing A Famous Seat Belonging To The Duke Of Devonshire. Chats Worth House Is Situated Close To The Left Bank Of The River Derwent, 24m. E.n.e. Of Bakewell. It Is Ionic In Style, Built Foursquare, And Enclosing A Large Open Courtyard, With A ...

Chattanooga
Chattanooga, A City Of Tennessee, U.s.a., On The Tennessee River, At The Southern Boundary Of The State; A Port Of Entry And The County Seat Of Hamilton County. It Is At The Inter Section Of Federal Highways Ii, 41 And 72; Has A Municipal Air Port, Marr Field ; And ...

Chattel Mortgage
Chattel Mortgage, A Transaction By Which An Owner Of Personal Property Transfers The Property To A Creditor For The Purpose Of Securing Payment Of The Debt. The Chattel Mortgage Differs From A Pledge In That The Latter Requires Transfer Of Posses Sion And Control Of The Goods To The Creditor, ...

Chattel
Chattel, A Term Used In English Law As Equivalent To "per Sonal Property," That Is, Property Which, On The Death Of The Owner, Devolves On His Executor Or Administrator To Be Distributed (un Less Disposed Of By Will) Among The Next Of Kin According To The Statutes Of Distributions. Chattels ...

Chatterer
Chatterer, The General Name Applied To The Members Of Two Families Of Birds. The True Chatterers Are The Ampelidae, The Best-known Species Of Which Are The Waxwing (q.v.) And The American Cedar-bird. The South American Chatterers Are The Cotingidae, Woodland Birds, Feeding Mainly On Fruit; The Best Known Are The ...

Chatteris
Chatteris, Urban District And Market Town In The Isle Of Ely, Cambridgeshire, England, 25 Gym. N. By W. Of Cambridge By The L.n.e.r. Pop. (193i) 5,153. The Church Of St. Peter Is Principally Decorated; And There Are Fragments Of A Benedictine Convent Founded In The Loth Century And Rebuilt After ...

Chatti
Chatti, An Ancient German Tribe Inhabiting The Upper Reaches Of The Rivers Weser, Eder, Fulda And Werra, A District Approximately Corresponding To Hesse-cassel, Though Probably Somewhat More Extensive. They Frequently Came Into Conflict With The Romans During The Early Years Of The 1st Century A.d. Eventually They Formed A Portion ...

Chaudesaigues
Chaudesaigues, A Village Of Central France, In The De Partment Of Cantal, At The Foot Of The Mountains Of Aubrac, 19 M. S.s.w. Of St. Flour. Pop. (1931) 8o1. It Has Hot Mineral Springs, Which At Their Maximum Rank As The Hottest In France. The Water, Which Contains Bicarbonate Of ...

Chauffeur
Chauffeur. In Its Anglicized Sense, The Common Name For A Professional Driver Of A Motor-vehicle. The Word Is French (from Chauffer, To Heat) And, Primarily Used For A Man In Charge Of A Forge Or Furnace, Came To Describe A Stoker On A Locomotive Or Steamship. ...

Chaumont
Chaumont, A Town Of Eastern France, Capital Of The De Partment Of Haute-marne, A Railway Junction 163 M. E.s.e. Of Paris On The Main Line Of The Eastern Railway To Belfort. Pop. A Chaumont Is Situated On High Ground At The Confluence Of The Marne And Suize. It Received A ...

Chauny
Chauny, A Town Of Northern France In The Department Of Aisne, 19 M. S. By W. Of St. Quentin By Rail. Pop. The Town Is Situated On The Oise (which Here Becomes Navigable) And At The Junction Of The Canal Of St. Quentin With The Lateral Canal Of The Oise. ...

Chausses
Chausses. Mediaeval Protective Leg-harness Or Mail Hose. Modern French Chausse: Stocking, Hose. The Term Also Refers To Light Pantaloons Covering The Hips, Legs And Feet. ...

Chautauqua
Chautauqua, An Unincorporated Village Of Chautauqua County, New York, U.s.a., In A Township Of The Same Name, On The West Shore Of Chautauqua Lake, A Beautiful Body Of Water 1,3ooft. Above Sea-level, 17m. Long And 3m. Across At Its Greatest Width. It Is Served By Motor-coach And Electric Lines, Connecting ...

Chauvigny
Chauvigny, A Town Of Western France In The Department Of Vienne, 20 M. E. Of Poitiers By Rail. Pop. (1931) 2,57o. The Town Is Finely Situated Overlooking The Vienne, And Has Two Interesting Romanesque Churches, Both Restored In Modern Times. It Was A Strong Fortress In The Middle Ages, And ...

Chauvinism
Chauvinism, A Term For Unreasonable And Exaggerated Patriotism, The French Equivalent Of "jingoism." The Word Origi Nally Signified Idolatry Of Napoleon, Being Taken From A Much Wounded Veteran, Nicholas Chauvin, Who, By His Adoration Of The Emperor, Became The Type Of Blind Enthusiasm For Military Glory. ...

Chavantean
Chavantean, A Small Independent Linguistic Stock Of South American Indians, So Called From The Chavantes Or Cain Gangs, Its Most Important Tribe. The Chavantean Tribes Are Found To-day On The Upper Parana And Lower Paranapanema Rivers, In The State Of Sao Paulo, Brazil. They Formerly Occupied A Some What Larger ...

Chaves
Chaves, A Town Of Northern Portugal, In The District Of Villa Real, 8m. S. Of The Spanish Frontier. Pop. (1930), 7,682. Chaves Is The Ancient Aquae Flaviae, Famous For Its Hot Saline Springs, Which Are Still In Use. A Fine Roman Bridge Of 18 Arches Spans The Tamega. Chaves Was ...

Cheadle
Cheadle, A Small Town In The Urban District Of Cheadle And Gatley (pop. 1931, 18,469), In Cheshire, England, 6m. S. Of Man Chester. The Name Occurs In The Formerly Separate Villages Of Cheadle Hulme, Cheadle Bulkeley And Cheadle Moseley. Cheadle Is One Of The Numerous Townships Of Modern Growth Which ...

Cheadle_2
Cheadle, Market Town Of North Staffordshire, England, 13 M. N.n.e. Of Stafford, On The L.m.s.r. Pop. (1921) 6,178. The Roman Catholic Church Of St. Giles, With A Lofty Spire, Was Designed By Pugin And Erected In 1846. There Are Collieries In The Neighbourhood, And Silk And Other Textile Works In ...

Cheating
Cheating, "the Fraudulently Obtaining The Property Of Another By Any Deceitful Practice Not Amounting To Felony, Which Practice Is Of Such A Nature That It Directly Affects, Or May Directly Affect, The Public At Large" (stephen, Digest Of Criminal Law). Cheating Is Either A Common Law Or Statutory Offence, And ...

Cheboygan
Cheboygan, A City Of Michigan, U.s.a., On South Channel Of The Strait Of Mackinac, At The Mouth Of The Cheboygan River; A Port Of Entry And The County Seat Of Cheboygan County. It Is On Federal Highways 23 And 27, And Is Served By The Michigan Central And The Detroit ...

Checkers
Checkers, The Name By Which The Game Of Draughts (q.v.) Is Known In America. The Origin Of The Name Is The Same As That Of "chess" (q.v.). ...

Cheddar
Cheddar, Town, Somersetshire, England, 22m. S.w. Of Bristol By G.w.r. Pop. (1921) 2,007. To The West Lies The Low Axe Valley, To The East Rise Immediately Southwest The Mendip Cliffs (60o-800ft.) Of Cheddar Gorge, With Beautiful Stalactitic Caverns, Of Which Cox's And Gough's Are Best Known. The Remains Discovered In ...

Cheduba Or
Cheduba Or An Island In The Bay Of Bengal, Situated 1 O M. From The Coast Of Arakan, Between 28° 40' And 18° 56' N., And Between 93° And 50' E. It Forms Part Of The Kyaukpyu District Of Arakan. It Extends About 20 M. In Length From North To ...

Cheering
Cheering, The Uttering Or Making Of Sounds Encouraging, Stimulating Or Exciting To Action, Indicating Approval Or Acclaiming Or Welcoming Persons, Announcements Of Events And The Like. The Word "cheer" Meant Originally Face, Countenance, Expression (low Lat. Cara), And Was At First Qualified With Epithets, Both Of Joy And Sorrow; Compare ...