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Encyclopedia Brittanica

Volume 5, Part 1: Cast-Iron to Cole

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Earl Of Chatham
Chatham, Earl Of, William Pitt (1708-1778), Was Born At Golden Square, Westminster, On Nov. 15, 1708. His Father Was Robert, Son Of The Famous Governor Pitt Of Madras, Who Sold To The Regent Orleans His Great Diamond Still To Be Seen In The Louvre; His Mother Harriet Villiers, Daughter Of ...

Earls Of Chester
Chester, Earls Of. The Important Palatine Earldom Of Chester Was First Held By A Fleming Named Gherbod (11. 1070), And Then From 1071 By Hugh Of Avranches (d. '100, A Son Of Richard, Viscount Of Avranches. As The Friend Of St. Anselm, Hugh Showed The Customary Liberality To Religious Houses. ...

Edgar Algernon Robert Cecil
Cecil Of Chelwood, Edgar Algernon Robert Cecil, 1st Viscount (1864- ), British States Man, Known Before His Elevation To The Peerage As Lord Robert Cecil, Third Son Of The Third Marquess Of Salisbury, Was Born On Sept. 14, 1864. He Was Educated At Eton And University College, Oxford, And Was ...

Edith Louisa Cavell
Cavell, Edith Louisa (1865-1915), British Nurse, Was Born Dec. 4, 1865, At Swardeston, Norfolk. She Entered The London Hospital As A Probationer In 1895. In 5907 She Was Ap Pointed The First Matron Of The Berkendael Medical Institute, Brussels, Which Became A Red Cross Hospital On The Outbreak Of The ...

Edward Cave
Cave, Edward English Printer, Was Born At Newton, Warwickshire, On Feb. 27, 1691, And Died On Jan. 1o, '754. He Entered The Grammar School At Rugby, Where His Father Was A Cobbler, But Was Expelled For Robbing The Master's Hen Roost. After Many Vicissitudes He Became Apprentice To A London ...

Elizabeth Charles
Charles, Elizabeth (1828-1896), English Author, Was Born At Tavistock On Jan. 2 1828, The Daughter Of John Rundle, M.p., And Died At Hampstead On March 28 1896. In 1851 She Married Andrew Paton Charles. Her Best Known Book, The Chronicles Of The Schonberg-cotta Family, Was Published In 1862, And Was ...

Emilio Del Cavalieri
Cavalieri, Emilio Del (155o?-1599?), Italian Com Poser, Was Born In Rome About 155o Of A Noble Family And Became One Of The Famous Florentine Group Of Musical Reformers —peri, Rinuccini, Caccini And The Rest—who Had Such An Im Portant Influence On The Subsequent Developments Of The Art. Cavalieri's Style Is ...

Enrico Caviglia
Caviglia, Enrico ), Italian Soldier, Was Born At Finale Marina (genoa) On May 4, 1862. After Italy's Entry Into The World War, He Was Promoted To Major-general And Commanded The Bari Brigade. In June 1916 He Took Over The 29th Division And Later Was Promoted Lieutenant-general. In July 1917 He ...

Ephraim Chambers
Chambers, Ephraim (d. 1740), English Encyclopae Dist, Was Born At Kendal, Westmorland, And Apprenticed To A Globe-maker In London. The First Edition Of His Universal Dic Tionary Of Arts And Sciences Appeared By Subscription In 1728, In Two Vols., Fol., Dedicated To The King. The Encyclopedie Of Diderot And D'alembert ...

Eutyches
Eutyches And Ephesus, Council Of), Which Called Forth Vigor Ous Protests Both In The East And West, And A Loud Demand For A New General Council, A Demand That Was Ignored By The Eutychian Theodosius Ii., But Speedily Granted By His Successor, Marcian. In Response To The Imperial Summons, 50o ...

Felice Cavallotti
Cavallotti, Felice (1842-1898), Italian Politician, Poet And Dramatic Author, Was Born In Milan. In 186o And 1866 He Fought With The Garibaldian Corps, But He First Attained Noto Riety By His Anti-monarchical Lampoons In The Gazzetta Di Milano And The Gazzetta Roas Between 1866 And 1872. Elected To Parlia Ment ...

Flame
Flame) . 12. Retort Stand With Rings, Clamps, And Bosses. 13. Still (with Constant-level Device) And Condenser. 14. Drying Tower. Similar In Function To 16, But Used Where Gases Have To Be Passed Through Solids. 15. Aspirator. If This Is Filled With Water, And The Stopper Is Replaced By A ...

Flavius Sosipater Charisius
Charisius, Flavius Sosipater, Latin Gramma Rian, Flourished About The Middle Of The 4th Century A.d. He Was Probably An African By Birth, Summoned To Constantinople To Take The Place Of Euanthius, A Learned Commentator On Terence. The Ars Grainnnatica Of Charisius, Part Of Which Is Still Extant, Is Valuable As ...

Formulae And Nomenclature
Formulae And Nomenclature A Chemical Formula Is A Collection Of Letters And Numerals Indi Cating The Elementary Composition Of A Compound Substance. The Symbol For An Atom Of An Element Is Either The Capital Letter Of Its English Or Latin Name, As C For Carbon And K For Potassium (latin, ...

France
France. Paris, Fed. Nat. Des Assoc. De Chim; Cercle De La Chimie (1917), Revue; Un. Internat. De La Chim. (1919). ...

Francesco Cavalli
Cavalli, Francesco (1602-1676), An Early Italian Operatic Composer Of Note, Was Born At Crema In 1602. His Real Name Was Pietro Francesco Caletti-bruni, But He Is Better Known By That Of Cavalli, The Name Of His Patron, A Venetian Nobleman. He Became A Singer At St. Mark's In Venice In ...

Francis Charmes
Charmes, Francis (1848-1916), French Journalist And Politician, Was Born At Aurillac, Cantal, On April 21, 1848. He Was Educated At Aurillac And At The Lycees Of Clermont-ferrand And Poitiers. He Was Editor Of The Journal Des Debats From 1872 To 188o, And From 1889 To 1907. During The Interval He ...

Francis James Chavasse
Chavasse, Francis James The Son Of Thomas Chavasse, Of Sutton Coldfield, And Brother Of Sir Thomas Chavasse, The Birmingham Surgeon, Was Born On Sept. 27, He Was Educated Privately, And Later At Corpus Christi College, Oxford. He Was Ordained In 1870, And In 1878 Became Vicar Of St. Peter-le-bailey, Oxford, ...

Francis James Child
Child, Francis James American Scholar And Educator, Was Born In Boston (mass.), Feb. 1, 1825. He Graduated At Harvard In 1846, Taking The Highest Rank In His Class; Was A Tutor In Various Subjects, And After Two Years Of Study In Europe Succeeded Edward T. Charming In 1851 As Boyl ...

Francis Rawdon Chesney
Chesney, Francis Rawdon British General And Explorer, The Son Of Capt. Alexander Chesney, Was Born At Annalong, Co. Down, Ireland, On March 16, 1789. He Received A Cadetship At Woolwich, And Was Gazetted To The Royal Artillery In 18o5. But Though He Rose To Be Colonel-commandant Of The 14th Brigade ...

Francois Chasseloup Laubat
Chasseloup-laubat, Francois, Marquis De French General And Military Engineer, Was Born At St. Sernin (lower Charente), And Entered The French Engineers In 1774. In 1 791 He Was Promoted Captain, And His Ability Was Recognized In The Campaigns Of 1792. After Serving As Chief Engi Neer At The Siege Of ...

Francois Louis De Rousselet
Chateau-renault, Francois Louis De Rousselet, Marquis De (1637-1716), French Admiral, En Tered The Army In 1658, But In 1661 Was Transferred To The Navy. His Early Services Were Mostly Performed In Cruises Against The Barbary Pirates (1672). When War Broke Out Between England And France After The Revolution Of 1688, ...

Frank M Chapman
Chapman, Frank M. (1864— ), American Ornithol Ogist, Was Born At Englewood, N.j. On June 12, 1864. From 1887 1908 He Served As Associate Curator Of Ornithology And Mammal Ogy, And From Then Until The Present Time As Curator Of Ornithol Ogy, American Museum Of Natural History. In 1897 He ...

Frederic Thesiger Chelmsford
Chelmsford, Frederic Thesiger, 1st Baron Lord Chancellor Of England, Was The Third Son Of Charles Thesiger, And Was Born In London On April 15, 1794. Young Frederic Thesiger Was Originally Destined For A Naval Career, And He Served As A Midshipman On Board The "cambrian" Frigate In 1807 At The ...

Frederick Chamier
Chamier, Frederick (1796-1870), English Novelist, Was The Son Of An Anglo-indian Official, And Served In The Navy From 1809 To 1856. Captain Chamier Wrote Several Popular Sea Stories, Including The Life Of A Sailor (1832), Ben Brace (1836), The Arethusa (1837), Jack Adams (1838), Tom Bowling (1841), And Jack Malcolm's ...

Frederick Rudolph Lambart Cavan
Cavan, Frederick Rudolph Lambart, Ioth Earl Of (1865— ), British General, Was Born Oct. 16, 1865, And Succeeded To The Title In 1900. Commissioned In The Grenadier Guards 1885, He Was A.d.c. To The Governor-general Of Canada 1891-93; Served In The South African War 19o1. Retiring From The Army In ...

Gabriello Chiabrera
Chiabrera, Gabriello (1552-1638), Italian Poet, Was Born At Savona On June 8, 1552. He Studied Philosophy At The Jesuits' College In Rome, And Entered The Household Of A Cardinal. He Mixed In The Literary Society Of His Day, But Presently Was Drawn Into A Quarrel Which Compelled Him To Leave ...

Gaius Valerius Catullus
Catullus, Gaius Valerius (84?-54 B.c.), Rome's Greatest Lyric Poet. According To St. Jerome, In His Continuation Of The Eusebian Chronicle, Catullus Was Born At Verona In 87 B.c., And Died In 57 B.c. At Rome, Aged 3o. His Names, As Given Above, May Be Regarded As Certain, But Internal Evidence ...

Gas Analysis
Gas Analysis The General Principles Involved In The Various Processes Of Gas Analysis Are Best Exemplified By A Consideration Of The Quanti Tative Estimation Of The Constituents Of Fuel Gases, Such Analytical Tests Being The Chief Task Of Gas Examiners. Gasometric Methods Are, Strictly Speaking, Branches Of Volumetric Analysis, One ...

Gausses
Gausses, A Natural Region In The South Of The Central Plateau Of France, Chiefly In The Departments Of Lozere And Aveyron, West Of The Curving Cevennes And South Of The Lot Valley. This Vast Plateau Of Jurassic Limestone, Sloping Westwards, Is Divided Into Several Sections By Deep-cut River Channels. These ...

Geoffrey Chaucer
Chaucer, Geoffrey (1340?–i400), English Poet, Was Born, About 134o, Of A Family Which Had Been Settled In Lon Don For At Least Two Generations, But Probably Came From The Eastern Counties. His Father, John Chaucer, Lived At One Time In Cordwainer Street, The Quarter Of The Shoemakers, With Which The ...

George Catlin
Catlin, George (1796-1872), American Ethnologist, Was Born At Wilkes-barre (pa.), In 1796. He Was Educated As A Lawyer And Practised In Philadelphia For Two Years; But Art Was His Favourite Pursuit, And Forsaking The Law He Established Himself At New York As A Portrait Painter. In 1832, Realizing That The ...

George Cattermole
Cattermole, George (180o-1868), English Painter, Chiefly In Water-colours, Was Born At Dickleburgh, Near Diss, Norfolk, In August 1800. At The Age Of 16 He Began Working As An Architectural And Topographical Draughtsman. Cattermole Was A Painter Of No Inconsiderable Gifts, Of Great Facility In Picturesque Resource, And Also A Book ...

George Cave Cave
Cave, George Cave, 1st Viscount English Lord Chancellor, Was Born In London Feb. 23, 1856, And Educated At Merchant Taylors' School, London, And St. John's College, Oxford. Called To The Bar In 188o, He Became K.c. In 1904. In 1906 He Entered Parliament As Conservative Member For Kingston. In 1915 ...

George Chalmers
Chalmers, George Scottish Antiquarian And Political Writer, Was Born At Fochabers, Moray, And Emi Grated To Maryland In 1763, Where He Practised As A Lawyer Until The Outbreak Of The War Of American Independence, When He Re Turned To England. In 1786 He Was Appointed Chief Clerk To The ' ...

George Chambers
Chambers, George (1803-1840), English Marine Painter, Born At Whitby, Yorkshire, Was The Son Of A Seaman, And For Several Years He Pursued His Father's Calling. He Then Took Lessons From A Drawing-master, And Found A Ready Sale For Small And Cheap Pictures Of Shipping. Coming To London, He Was Employed ...

George Chapman
Chapman, George English Poet And Dramatist, Translator Of Homer, Was Born Near Hitchin. There Is No Record Of His University Career, Though Anthony Wood (athen. Oxon. Ii. 575) Claims That He Spent Some Time In Oxford. He Had Become A Play-writer In London, And Had Published Some Poems When He ...

George I Cavendish
Cavendish, George (i 5oo—i 562 ?), The Biographer Of Cardinal Wolsey, Was The Elder Son Of Thomas Cavendish, Clerk Of The Pipe In The Exchequer. About 1527 He Entered The Service Of Cardinal Wolsey As Gentleman-usher, And For The Next Three Years He Was In The Closest Personal Attendance On ...

George Paul Chalmers
Chalmers, George Paul Scottish Portrait And Landscape Painter, Was Born At Montrose And Studied At Edinburgh. The Best Of His Works Are "the End Of The Harvest" (1873), "running Water" (1875), And "the Legend" (in The National Gallery, Edinburgh) . He Became An Associate (1867) And A Full Member (18 ...

George William Childs
Childs, George William American Publisher, Was Born In Baltimore (md.), On May 12, 1829. In 1847 He Established A Book-shop In Philadelphia, And Two Years Later Organized The Publishing House Of Childs And Peterson. In 1864, With Anthony J. Drexel, He Purchased The Public Ledger. He Died At Philadelphia, Feb. ...

Georges Chastellain
Chastellain, Georges (c. Burgundian Poet And Chronicler, Was A Native Of Alost, In Flanders. He Saw Active Service In The Anglo-french Wars And Elsewhere. In He Received A Gift From Philip The Good, Duke Of Burgundy, For His Military Service. After The Peace Of Arras 5) He Abandoned Soldiering For ...

Georghy Vasilievich Chicherin
Chicherin, Georghy Vasilievich (1872 1936), Russian Statesman, The Son Of An Official In The Ministry For Foreign Affairs, Was Born In Karaul, Province Of Tambov. He Was Educated At A Russian Higher School, And At St. Peters Burg (leningrad) University, And Entered The Diplomatic Service In The Archives Department Of ...

Germany
Germany. Berlin, Deutsch. Chem. Gesell. (1867), Chem. Zentralbl (1897, Etc.); Verein Deutsch. Chem. E. V. (1887), Zeitschr. F. Angewandte Chem., Die Chem. Fabrik And Geschichte Des Vereins Deutsch, Chem.; Verein Deutsch. Nahrungsmittel Chemiker (1902), Zeitschr. F. Untersuch. D. Nahrungs- U. Genuss Mittel; Justus Lie Big-gesell. (19 2o) ; Adolf-baeyer-gesell. (192o). ...

Gilbert Keith Chesterton
Chesterton, Gilbert Keith , Eng Lish Journalist And Author, Was Born In London On May 29, 1874. He Was Educated At St. Paul's School, Where, At An Unusually Early Age, He Gained The "milton" Prize For English Verse. He Left School In 1891 With The Idea Of Studying Art. But ...

Giovanni Battista Cavalcaselle
Cavalcaselle, Giovanni Battista (1820 1897 ), Italian Writer On Art, Was Born At Legnago On Jan. 22, 182o. He Became A Student At The Academia Delle Belle Arti In Venice, And From Early Youth Studied The Art Treasures Of Italy. His Relations Sent Him To Padua, Hoping That He Might ...

Giuseppe Cerutti
Cerutti, Giuseppe (1738-1792), French Author And Politician, Was Born At Turin. He Taught At The Jesuit College At Lyons And Wrote An Apologie (1762) For His Order. His Memoire Pour Le Peuple F Rancais (1788) Advocates The Claims Of The Tiers Etat. He Was A Member Of The Legislative Assembly ...

Giuseppe Cesari
Cesari, Giuseppe (1568?-164o), Called I1 Cavaliere D'arpino, Also I1 Giuseppino, Italian Painter, Born In Rome. His Father Was A Native Of Arpino. Cesari Ranks As The Head Of The So-called "idealists" Of His Period, As Opposed To The "natural Ists," Of Whom Michelangelo Da Caravaggio Was The Leader. Lanzi Stigmatized ...

Gonzalo De Cespedes Y
Cespedes Y Meneses, Gonzalo De (1585? 1638), Spanish Novelist, Was Born At Madrid, And Published His Celebrated Romance, The Poema Trdgico Del Espanol Gerardo, Y Desengano Del Amor Lascivo In 1615-17. His Treatment Of Political Questions In The Historia Apologetica En Los Sucesos Del Reyno De Aragon, Y Sit Ciudad ...

Guages
Guages. The Population Of Aboriginal America North Of Mexico (about 1,15o,000), At The Time Of The Discovery Of America By Columbus, Spoke An Astonishing Number Of Languages, Most Of Which Are Still Spoken, Though In Many Cases By Only A Bare Hand Ful Of Individuals. Certain Of Them, Like Sioux ...

Guido Cavalcanti
Cavalcanti, Guido (c. 1250-1300), Italian Poet And Philosopher, Was The Son Of A Philosopher Whom Dante, In The Inferno, Condemns To Torment Among The Epicureans And Atheists; But He Himself Was A Friend Of The Poet. By Marriage With Be Atrice, Daughter Of Farinata Uberti, He Became Head Of The ...

Guillaume Amfrye De Chaulieu
Chaulieu, Guillaume Amfrye De (1639 1720), French Poet And Wit, Was Born At Fontenay, Normandy. His Father, Maitre Des Comptes Of Rouen, Sent Him To Study At The College De Navarre. Louis Joseph, Duke Of Vendome, And His Brother Philippe, Grand Prior Of The Knights Of Malta In France, At ...

Guillen De Castro Y
Castro Y Bellvis, Guillen De Spanish Dramatist, Was A Valencian By Birth, And Early Enjoyed A Reputation As A Man Of Letters. At One Time A Captain Of The Coastguard, At Another The Governor Of Scigliano, Near Naples, Castro Was Nominated A Knight Of The Order Of Santiago In 1623. ...

Gutierre De Cetina
Cetina, Gutierre De (151 ?_.-1572?), Spanish Poet And Soldier, Was Born At Seville. He Served Under Charles V. In Italy And Germany, But Retired From The Army In 1545 To Settle In Seville. Soon Afterwards, However, He Sailed For Mexico, Where He Spent Most Of The Rest Of His Life, ...

Guy De Glido De
Chauliac, Guy De (gl'ido De Cauliaco) (c. 1300 1368), French Surgeon, Was Born At Chauliac (auvergne). He Studied At Toulouse, Montpellier And Paris, And Then Went To Bologna To Study Anatomy Under Nicolo Bertuccio. Chauliac Was One Of The Most Learned Men Of His Time, And His Book, Chirurgia Magna ...

Heinrich Moritz Chalybaus
Chalybaus, Heinrich Moritz Ger Man Philosopher, Was Born At Pf Aff Roda In Saxony. He Lectured At Dresden On The History Of German Philosophy, And In Became Professor In Kiel University. His First Published Work Historische Entwickelung Der Spekulativen Philosophie Von Kant Bis Hegel (1837, Eng. Tr. 1854), Still Ranks ...

Henri Cazalis
Cazalis, Henri (1840-1909), French Poet And Man Of Letters, Was Born At Cormeilles-en-parisis (seine-et-oise). He Wrote Under The Pseudonyms Of Jean Caselli And Jean Lahor. His Oriental Habits Of Thought Earned For Him The Title Ot The "hindou Du Parnasse Contemporain." His Works Include: Chants Populaires De L'italie (1865) ; ...

Henri Cernuschi
Cernuschi, Henri (1821-1896), Italian Politician And Economist, Was Born At Milan. He Played A Part In The Revolu Tionary Movement And Was Compelled To Leave Italy In 185o. He Then Settled In France, Where He Made A Large Fortune. Cernuschi Is Best Known As An Ardent Champion Of Bimetallism, And ...

Henri Chantavoine
Chantavoine, Henri (1850-1918), French Man Of Letters, Was Born At Montpellier On Aug. 6, 185o, And Died At Galuire (rhone) On Aug. 15, 1918. He Was Associated With The Nouvelle Revue From Its Foundation In 1879, And He Joined The Journal Des Debats In 1884. His Poems Include Poemes Sinceres ...

Henri Chapu
Chapu, Henri (1833-1891), French Sculptor And Medal List, Born In Le Mee (seine Et Marne) On Sept. 29, 1833. He Studied At The Ecole Des Beaux-arts Under Pradier And Duret, And, Having Gained The Prix-de-rome In 1855, Spent Five Years In Rome. He Was Famous As A Portrait Medallist, And ...

Henry Chaplin Chaplin
Chaplin, Henry Chaplin, 1st Viscount (184o 1923), English Statesman, Son Of The Rev. Henry Chaplin, Of Blankney, Lincolnshire, Was Born Dec. 22, 1840, And Died May 29, 1923. He Was Educated At Harrow And Christ Church, Oxford. Entering Parliament In 1868, He Sat As Conservative Member, First For Mid-lincolnshire (1868-1906), ...

Henry Chettle
Chettle, Henry (c. 156o-16o7), English Dramatist And Miscellaneous Writer, Was The Son Of Robert Chettle, A Lon Don Dyer. He Was Apprenticed In 1577 To A Printer, And In 1 589 Became A Partner With William Hoskins And John Danter. In I 592 He Published Robert Greene's Groatsworth Of Wit. ...

Henry Chicheley
Chicheley, Henry (1364-1443), English Archbishop, Founder Of All Souls College, Oxford, Was Born, The Son Of A Yeo Man, At Higham Ferrers, Northamptonshire. He Seems To Have Passed From Winchester College To New College, Oxford, Where He Took His B.a. In 1392. He Was Then Ordained Sub-deacon, But He Already ...

Henry I Cavendish
Cavendish, Henry (i 731—i 81o), English Chemist And Physicist, Elder Son Of Lord Charles Cavendish, Brother Of The 3rd Duke Of Devonshire, And Lady Anne Grey, Daughter Of The Duke Of Kent, Was Born At Nice On Oct. Io, 1731. He Was Sent To School At Hackney In 1742, And ...

Hester Chapone
Chapone, Hester English Essayist, Daughter Of Thomas Mulso, A Country Gentleman, Was Born At Twywell, Northamptonshire, On Oct. 27, 5727. At The Age Of Nine She Wrote A Romance Entitled The Loves Of Amoret And Melissa. While On A Visit To Canterbury She Met The Learned Mrs. Elizabeth Carter, And ...

Heterocyclic Division
Heterocyclic Division The Subject Of Heterocyclic Compounds, Comprising As It Does A Large Group Of Substances Occurring In Nature (alkaloids, Antho Cyans, Uric Acid, Etc.), Is One Of Fundamental Importance Not Only From The Chemist's Point Of View In Particular, But From The More General Aspect Having As Its Object ...

History Of Chemistry
History Of Chemistry Chemistry As A Science Had Its Origin In Egypt (see Alchemy) —the Product On The One Hand Of Much Practical Experience Of Workers In Metals, Glass And Pottery, Of Users Of Dyeing And Tan Ning Materials ; And On The Other Of Greek And Eastern Specula Tion ...

History Of Chess
History Of Chess The Origin Of Chess Is Lost In Obscurity. Its Invention Has Been Variously Ascribed To The Greeks, Romans, Babylonians, Scythians, Egyptians, Jews, Persians, Chinese, Hindus, Arabians, Arauca Nians, Castilians, Irish And Welsh. Some Have Endeavoured To Fix Upon Particular Individuals As The Originators Of The Game; Amongst ...

Homocyclic Division
Homocyclic Division Organic Compounds May Be Classified On The Basis Of Molecular Structure Into Two Main Divisions : Open-chain, Aliphatic Or Acyclic Compounds, And (2) Closed-chain, Or Cyclic Compounds. The Latter Division Presents A Great Diversity Of Types : Oxygen, Nitrogen, Sulphur And Other Elements May Participate With Carbon In ...

Houston Stewart Chamberlain
Chamberlain, Houston Stewart German Writer, Was Born At Portsmouth On Sept. 9, 1855, The Son Of A British Admiral. He Was Educated In Geneva, And At Dresden, Where He Studied Music, Aesthetics, And Philosophy. In 1908 He Settled In Bayreuth, Where He Became A Devotee Of Wag Ner. He Began ...

Hugh Culling Eardley Childers
Childers, Hugh Culling Eardley (1827 1896), British Statesman, Was Born On June 25, 1827. On Leaving Cambridge He Went Out To Australia In 185o. In 1852 He Was Appointed Auditor-general In Melbourne, And In 1853 Collector Of The Customs; He Carried Through A Bill For The Establishment Of The University ...

Illustrative Games
Illustrative Games The Following Is A Selection Of Noteworthy Games Played By Great Masters: Opponent's Kb4, E.g., 15 ... Kt-r4; 16. B-k3, B X Kt ; Z7. P X B, Kt-b5; 18. R-b Sq, Q-q Sq ; 19. B X Qkt, P X B; 20. P-kt3, Followed By Playing His ...

Inez De Castro
Castro, Inez De (d. 1355), Mistress, And Perhaps Wife, Of Peter I. (pedro), King Of Portugal, Called Collo De Garza, I.e., "heron's Neck," Was Born In Spanish Galicia, In The Earlier Years Of The 14th Century, Daughter Of Don Pedro Fernandez De Castro, And Dona Aldonca Soares De Villadares, A ...

Inorganic Analysis
Inorganic Analysis Analytical Chemistry, Upon Which All Other Branches Of The Sci Ence Are Ultimately Dependent, Has Its Source In The Writings Of The Chemist-pharmacists Of The Iatrochemical Period. Tachenius Rec Ognized Many Metals In Solution Together By Their Reactions In The Wet Way, But It Was Not Until The ...

Inorganic Chemistry
Inorganic Chemistry Inorganic Chemistry, Which Is Concerned With The Prepara Tion And Properties Of The Elements And Non-carbon Compounds, Was Primarily Developed Through The Investigation Of Minerals, And Was In Consequence Termed Mineral Chemistry, Whereas Or Ganic Chemistry Resulted From The Study Of Plant And Animal Products. Though It Was ...

International Child Welfare
International Child Welfare It Is Convenient To Consider International Child Welfare Work Under Three Divisions. Firstly, There Is The History Of Its Develop Ment, Which Includes Children's Charters; Secondly, There Is The Organization And Scope Of The Work Under The League Of Nations; And, Thirdly, There Is The Specialized Subject ...

Ionic Theory
Ionic Theory Relative Strengths Of Acids And Bases.—although Much Recent Work Has Been Concerned With The Precise Significance Of "active Mass," The Classical Interpretation Of This As Synonymous With Molecular Concentration Has Yielded Results Of The Greatest Importance In The Interpretation Of The Manifold Phenomena As Sociated With Aqueous Solutions ...

Ions And Electrons J
Ions And Electrons J. H. Van't Hoff First Explained Osmotic Pressure, The Molecular Depression Of The Freezing-point And Raising Of The Boiling-point Of Solutions By Showing That In Dilute Solution Substances Behaved Like A Gas. This Conception Was Widened By S. Arrhenius And W. Ostwald, Who Concluded That Salts And ...

Isaac Chauncey
Chauncey, Isaac (1772-1840), American Naval Com Mander, Was Born At Black Rock, Conn., Feb. 20, 1772. He Was Brought Up In The Merchant Service, And Entered The U.s. Navy As A Lieutenant In 1798. The Most Active Period Of His Life Was That Of His Command On The Great Lakes ...

Isabelle De Charriere
Charriere, Isabelle De Swiss Author, Was Dutch By Birth, Her Maiden Name Being Van Tuyll Van Seeroskerken Van Zuylen. She Married In 1771 Her Brother's Tutor, Saint-hyacinth De Charriere, And Settled With Him At Colombier, Near Lausanne. Her Lei Ires Neuchateloises (amster Dam, 1784) Offer A Simple And Attractive Picture ...

Jacopo Cavedone
Cavedone, Jacopo (1577-166o), Italian Painter, Born At Sassuolo In The Modenese, Was Educated In The School Of The Caracci, And Under Them Painted In The Churches Of Bo Logna. His Principal Works Are The "adoration Of The Magi," The "four Doctors," And The "last Supper" ; And More Especially The ...

Jacques Alexandre Cesar Charles
Charles, Jacques Alexandre Cesar (1746 1823), French Mathematician And Physicist, Was Born At Beau Gency, Loiret, On Nov. 12, 1746. From Being A Clerk In The Min Istry Of Finance, He Turned To Scientific Pursuits, And Became One Of The Most Acute Of Physical Researchers And Inventors. He Was The ...

Jacques Antoine Marie De
Cazales, Jacques Antoine Marie De 18o5 ), French Orator And Politician, Was Born At Grenade In Languedoc, Of A Family Of The Lower Nobility. Before 1789 He Was A Cavalry Officer, But In That Year Was Returned As Deputy To The States General. In The Constituent Assembly He Belonged To ...

Jacques Cathelineau
Cathelineau, Jacques 0759-1793), French Ven Dean Chieftain During The Revolution, Was Born On Jan. 5, At Tin-en-manges, Maine-et-loire. In The First Years Of The Revolution, Cathelineau Listened To The Exhortations Of Catholic Priests And Royalist Émigrés, And Joined The Insurrection Provoked By Them Against The Revolutionary Government. Collecting A Band ...

Jacques Cazotte
Cazotte, Jacques ), French Author, Was Born At Dijon. He Was Educated By The Jesuits, And At 27 Ob Tained A Public Office At Martinique, Returning To Paris In 1760 With The Rank Of Commissioner-general. The Most Famous Of His Works Is The Diable Amoureux (1772), A Tale With A ...

Jacques Joseph Champollion Figeac
Champollion-figeac, Jacques Joseph (1778-1867), French Archaeologist, Elder Brother Of Jean Fran Cois Champollion, Was Born At Figeac In The Department Of Lot, On Oct. 5, 17 78. He Became Keeper Of Manuscripts At The Bib Liotheque Nationale In Paris, And Professor Of Palaeography At The Ecole Des Chartes. In 1849 ...

Jacques Joseph Champollion Figeac_2
Champollion-figeac, Jacques Joseph (1778-1867), French Archaeologist, Elder Brother Of Jean Fran Cois Champollion, Was Born At Figeac In The Department Of Lot, On Oct. 5, 17 78. He Became Keeper Of Manuscripts At The Bib Liotheque Nationale In Paris, And Professor Of Palaeography At The Ecole Des Chartes. In 1849 ...

Jakob Cats
Cats, Jakob (1577-166o), Dutch Poet And Humorist, Was Born At Brouwershaven In Zeeland. He Studied Law At Leyden And At Orleans, And, Returning To Holland, Settled At The Hague, Where He Began To Practise As An Advocate. His Pleading In De Fence Of A Wretched Creature Accused Of Witchcraft Brought ...

James Brydges
James Brydges, 1st Duke Of Chandos (1673-1744), Son And Heir Of The Last-named, Had Been Member Of Parliament For Here Ford From 1698 To 1714, And, Three Days After His Father's Death, Was Created Viscount Wilton And Earl Of Carnarvon. For Eight Years, From To 1713, During The War Of ...

James Cattell
Cattell, James Mckeen ), American Psychologist And Editor, Was Born At Easton, Pa., On May 25, 1860. He Graduated At Lafayette College In 188o, And Took His Degree At Leipzig In 1886. After Having Been Lecturer At The Uni Versity Of Pennsylvania, Bryn Mawr College And The University Of Cambridge, ...

James Caulfeild Charlemont
Charlemont, James Caulfeild, 1st Earl Of (1728-1799), Irish Statesman, Son Of The Third Viscount Charle Mont, Was Born In Dublin On Aug. 18, 1728, And Succeeded His Father As Fourth Viscount In 1734• Lord Charlemont Is Histori Cally Interesting For His Political Connection With Flood And Grat Tan. For Various ...

James Chalmers
Chalmers, James (1841-1901), Scottish Missionary To New Guinea, Was Born At Ardrishaig In Argyll. He Was Appointed To Rarotonga In The South Pacific In 1866. After Ten Years' Service He Was Transferred To New Guinea. Chalmers Did Much To Open Up The Island, And, With His Colleague W. G. Lawes, ...

Jane Frances Chantal
Chantal, Jane Frances, Baroness De A French Saint And The Founder Of The Order Of The Visitation, Was Born On Jan. 28, 1572, At Dijon, The Daughter Of The Presi Dent Of The Parlement Of Burgundy. At The Age Of 20 She Married Baron De Chantal, But On His Death, ...

Jean Antoine Claude Chaptal
Chaptal, Jean Antoine Claude, Comte De Chanteloup (1756-1832), French Chemist And Statesman, Was Born In Nogaret, Lozere, On June 4, 1756. The Son Of An Apothe Cary, He Studied Chemistry At Montpellier. In 1781 The States Of Languedoc Founded A Chair Of Chemistry For Him At The School Of Medicine ...

Jean Baptiste Nompere De
Champagny, Jean Baptiste Nompere De, Duc De Cadore (1756-1834), French Politician, Was Born At Roanne On Aug. 4, 1756, And Entered The Navy In 1774. He Fought Through The War In America And Resigned In 1787. Elected Deputy By The Noblesse Of Forez To The States-general In 1789, He Went ...

Jean Cavalier
Cavalier, Jean (1681-174o), The Famous Chief Of The Camisards (q.v.), Was Born At Mas Roux, Near Anduze (gard), On Nov. 28, 1681. His Father, An Illiterate Peasant, Had Been Compelled By Persecution To Become A Roman Catholic Along With His Family, But His Mother Brought Him Up Secretly In The ...

Jean Champollion
Champollion, Jean Francois French Egyptologist, Called Le Jeune To Distinguish Him From Champollion-figeac (q.v.), His Elder Brother, Was Born At Figeac, In The Department Of Lot, On Dec. 23, 1790. At The Age Of 16 He Read Before The Academy Of Grenoble A Paper In Which He Main Tained That ...

Jean Chapelain
Chapelain, Jean (1595-1674), French Poet And Man Of Letters, Was Born In Paris And Spent 17 Years In The Service Of M. De La Trousse, Grand Provost Of France. He Was Employed By Richelieu In The Organization Of The Academie Francaise. In 1632, In A Conversation With The Cardinal, He ...

Jean Charles Cazin
Cazin, Jean Charles (184o-1901), French Land Scape-painter, Son Of A Well-known Doctor, F. J. Cazin (1788 1864), Was Born At Samer, Pas-de-calais. After Studying In France, He Went To England And Was Strongly Influenced By The Pre-raphaelite Movement. His Chief Earlier Pictures Have A Religious Interest; Such Are "the Flight ...

Jean Etienne Championnet
Championnet, Jean Etienne French General, Born At Valence, Enlisted In The Army At An Early Age And Served In The Great Siege Of Gibraltar. In May He Was Charged With The Suppression Of The Disturbances In The Jura, Which He Quelled Without Bloodshed. Under Pichegru He Took Part In The ...

Jean Franc Ois Champollion
Champollion, Jean Franc Ois French Egyptologist, Called Le Jeune To Distinguish Him From Champollion-figeac (q.v.), His Elder Brother, Was Born At Figeac, In The Department Of Lot, On Dec. 23, 1790. At The Age Of 16 He Read Before The Academy Of Grenoble A Paper In Which He Main Tained ...