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Encyclopedia Britannica

Volume 6, Part 2: Colebrooke to Damascius

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Culross
Culross (locally Pronounced Coo-rus), A Royal Burgh And Parish, Fifeshire, Scotland, 64 M. W. By South Of Dunfermline. There Is A Station On The L.n.e.r. From Dunfermline To Kin Cardine, And Another 24 Miles Away On The Line From Dunfermline To Stirling. Pop. 495. It Is Attractively Situated On A ...

Cultigen
Cultigen, The Horticultural Term Applied To A Plant Species Or Form Which Does Not Exist In The Wild State. Either Spontaneous Divergence Under Cultivation Or More Direct Human Agency May Have Brought About The Differentiation From More Or Less Related Species Or Forms In Nature. The Coco-nut, Date And Sugar ...

Cultivating Machinery
Cultivating Machinery. The Soil Contains Both Mineral And Organic Matter. The More Clay There Is In A Soil, The Heavier, Stiffer Or More Plastic It Is And The More Difficult To Work; The More Sand, The Lighter Or More Friable Or Crumbly It Is, And The Easier To Work. An ...

Cultivation
Cultivation. The Cultivation Of The Soil Is The Oldest Of The Arts. Neolithic Man Had Rude Implements Of Stone Or Flint Which Were The Primitive Precursors Of The Spade And Hoe, And Rudimentary Ploughs Were Devised In The Bronze Age. In Its Elementary Form Cultivation Consists In Preparing Land For ...

Culverin
Culverin, An Early Form Of Light Gun, Constructed Of Leather Or Bronze (from Fr. Couleuvre, A Serpent) . Culverins Were Classified Into The Grand Culverin, Weight About 4ocwt., Bore About 54in., And Throwing A Shot Of About 18 Lb. ; Bastard Culverin, Weight 3ocwt., Bore 5in., Weight Of Shot So ...

Culvert
Culvert. It Is Frequently Necessary To Make A Passage For Water Under Roads, Railways, Banks, Canals, Etc. The Drain Made To Carry The Water In Such Cases Is Called A Culvert. It May Be Either Flat Or Arched, And Is Usually Built Strongly Of Masonry Or Brickwork. The Introduction Of ...

Cumae
Cumae, An Ancient City On The West Coast Of Campania, Italy, About 12 M. W. Of Neapolis, On A Volcanic Eminence, Over Looking The Plain Traversed By The Volturno. Strabo Calls It (gr. Kv S,) The Oldest Of The Greek Colonies On The Mainland Of Italy Or In Sicily. We ...

Cumana
Cumana, A City And Port Of Venezuela, Capital Of The State Of Sucre, Situated On The Manzanares River About Im. Above Its Mouth, 52ft. Above Sea-level And 18om. E Of Caracas. It Is The Oldest Existing European Settlement On The South American Conti Nent, Having Been Founded By Diego Castellon ...

Cumans Or Comans
Cumans Or Comans, One Of The Most Important Of The Old Turkish Races. Their Origin Is Uncertain; They Were Prob Ably Closely Akin To The Seljuk Turks, And Perhaps Identical With The Qun Of Arabic Chroniclers; In Which Case They Were The Western Neighbours Of The Seljuks, And Preceded Their ...

Cumberland Gap
Cumberland Gap, A Pass In The Cumberland Mountains On The Border Between The States Of Kentucky And Tennessee, U.s.a., About 45 M. North-east Of The City Of Knoxville, Tennessee. The Altitude Of The Pass, Which Was An Important Strategic Point In The Civil War, Is 1,648 Feet. ...

Cumberland Mountains
Cumberland Mountains, The Westernmost Of The Three Great Divisions Of The Appalachian Uplift In The United States, Composed Of Many Small Ranges Of Mountains (of Which Cumberland Mountain In Eastern Kentucky Is One). It Extends From Pennsylvania To Alabama, Attaining Its Greatest Height (about 4,000ft.) In Virginia. The Plateau Is ...

Cumberland River
Cumberland River, A Large Southern Branch Of The Ohio River, U.s.a., Rising In The Highest Part Of The Cumberland Plateau In South-east Kentucky, And Emptying Into The Ohio In Kentucky (near Smithland) After A Devious Course Of 688m. Through That State And Tennessee. It Drains A Basin Of Somewhat More ...

Cumberland Road
Cumberland Road : See National Old Trails Road. Cumbraes, The, Two Islands Forming A Parish And Part Of The County Of Bute, Scotland, Lying In The Firth Of Clyde, Be Tween The Southern Shores Of Bute And The Coast Of Ayrshire. Great Cumbrae Island, About Ii M. W.s.w. Of Largs, ...

Cumberland
Cumberland. The North-westernmost County Of Eng Land, Bounded North By Scotland, With The Boundary Deflected North Of The Esk-liddell Streams So As To Include Solway Moss In England, East By Durham And Northumberland Leaving The Pass Between Pennines And The Cheviots In The Latter County, South-east By Westmorland Giving The ...

Cumberland_2
Cumberland, The Second Largest City Of Maryland, U.s. A., On The Potomac River, In The North-western Part Of The State; The County Seat Of Allegheny County. It Is On Federal Highways 40 And 220; Has An Aeroplane Landing Field, Mexico Farms; And Is Served By The Baltimore And Ohio, The ...

Cumberland_3
Cumberland, A Town Of Providence County, Rhode Island, U.s.a., In The North-eastern Part Of The State, On The Blackstone River And Served By The New York, New Haven And Hartford Railroad. The Population In 193o (federal Census) Was 10,304. Within Its Borders Are Ten Villages, Which Manufacture Cotton Goods And ...

Cumin Or Cummin
Cumin Or Cummin (cuminum Cyminum), An Annual Herbaceous Plant Of The Family Umbelliferae, Probably A Native Of Western Asia, But Scarcely Known At The Present Time In A Wild State. It Was Early Cultivated In Arabia, India And China, And In The Countries Bordering The Mediterranean. Its Stem Is Slender ...

Cumnock With Holmhead
Cumnock With Holmhead, Police Burgh, Ayrshire, Scotland, On The Lugar, 33a M. S. Of Glasgow By Road, With Two Stations (cumnock Ana Old Cumnock) On The L.m.s.r. Pop. 3,653. It Is In The Parish Of Old Cumnock (pop. 5,491). Coal And Ironstone Are Extensively Mined In The Neighbourhood, And The ...

Cumulative Preference Share
Cumulative Preference Share, A Share Which Carries With It The Right, Not Only To A Preferential Dividend, But To A Lien Upon Future Profits For Any Or All Arrears Of Deferred Or Unpaid Preferential Dividend. That Is To Say, If The Cumulative Preference Dividend For Any Period Cannot Be Paid, ...

Cundinamarca
Cundinamarca, Till 1909 A Department Of The Eastern Plateau Of Colombia, South America, Pop. (1918) 812,036, Com Posed Chiefly Of Indians And Mestizos. A Considerable Part Of Its Area Consists Of Plateaux From 8,000 To 9,000f T. Above Sea-level Enjoying A Temperate Climate And Producing The Fruits And Cereals Of ...

Cuneiform
Cuneiform. This Name Was First Applied By Engelbert Kampfer, At The Beginning Of The 18th Century, To Those Rock Inscriptions From Persia, And To Inscriptions On Brick And Stone From Babylon, Which Are Distinguished By The Use Of Characters Made Up Of Triangles Or Wedge-shaped Incisions. This Kind Of Writing ...

Cuneo
Cuneo, A Town And Episcopal See Of Piedmont, Italy, The Capital Of The Province Of Cuneo, 55m. By Rail South Of Turin, 1 7 2 2 F T. Above Sea-level. Cuneo Lies On The Railway From Turin To S. Dalmazzo Di Tenda, Whence The Road Goes On To Airole (tom. ...

Cup
Cup, A Drinking Vessel, Usually In The Form Of A Half Sphere, With Or Without A Foot Or Handles. The Footless Type With A Single Handle Is Preserved In The Ordinary Tea-cup. The Cup On A Stem With A Base Is The Usual Form Used In The Celebration Of The ...

Cupar
Cupar, Royal, Municipal And Police Burgh, Parish And Capital Of The County, Fife, Scotland, I I M. W. By S. Of St. Andrews By The L.n.e.r. Pop. 4,596. It Is Situated On The Left Bank Of The Eden, In The East Of The Howe (hollow) Of Fife, And Is Sometimes ...

Cupboard
Cupboard, A Fixed Or Movable Closet Usually With Shelves. As The Name Suggests, It Is A Descendant Of The Credence Or Buffet, The Characteristic Of Which Was A Series Of Open Shelves For The Reception Of Drinking Vessels And Table Requisites. After The Word Lost Its Original Meaning—and Down To ...

Cupid
Cupid, The Latin Name For The God Of Love, Eros (q.v.). Cupid Is Generally Identical With Amor (cupido, "desire"). The Idea Of The God Of Love In Roman Poetry Is Due To The Influence Of Alexandrian Poets And Artists, In Whose Hands He Became A Mis Chievous Boy With Essentially ...

Cupola
Cupola, In Metallurgy, A Tall Tubular Structure Built Of Steel Plates And Lined With Firebrick. It Is Employed In Iron Foundries To Melt Pig And Scrap For The Castings, Or Pig-iron In Steel Works For The Bessemer Converter. Dwarf Cupolas For Small Requirements Are About Aft. 6in. In Diameter And ...

Cupping
Cupping, A Method, Now Obsolete, Whereby Blood Was Drawn To Some Cutaneous Region By The Partial Vacuum Within A Heated Cupping Glass (dry Cupping). In Wet Cupping The Skin Was Incised. In Both Instances, As In The Action Of Leeches, There Was Local Abstraction Of A Small Quantity Of Blood ...

Cupra
Cupra, The Name Of Two Ancient Italian Municipia In Pice Num. (i) Cupra Maritima (civita Di Marano Near The Modern Cupra Marittima), On The Adriatic Coast, 48 M. S.s.e. Of Ancona, Erected In The Neighbourhood Of An Ancient Temple Of The Sabine Goddess Cupra, Which Was Restored By Hadrian In ...

Cuprite
Cuprite, A Mineral Consisting Of Cuprous Oxide, Crys Tallizing In The Cubic System, And Forming An Important Ore Of Copper, Of Which It Contains 88.8%. The Name Cuprite (from Lat. Cuprum, Copper) Was Given By W. Haidinger In 1845 ; Earlier Names Are Red Copper Ore And Ruby Copper, Which ...

Cupuliferae
Cupuliferae, A Group Name Used To Include Two Families Of Familiar Trees (fagaceae And Betulaceae), Which Resemble One Another In Many Features. The Plants Are Trees Or Shrubs With Simple Leaves Alternately Arranged And Small Unisexual Flowers Gen Erally Arranged In Catkins And Pollinated By Wind-agency. The Generally One-seeded Nut-like ...

Curacao Or
Curacao Or Cura40a, A Dutch West Indian Island 4om. From The North Coast Of Venezuela, In 12° N. And 69° W., 4om. Long From North-west To South-east; Average Width Loin.; Area 212 Sq. Miles. It Is Flat, With South-west Hills Rising To 1,200 Feet. There Are Deeply Dented Natural Harbours, ...

Curassow
Curassow, A Group Of Gallinaceous Birds Forming One Of The Subfamilies Of Cracidae (cracinae), Which Includes The Finest Game Birds Of S. America. They Are Large Heavy Birds, With Short Wings, Long Broad Tail And Strong Bill. The Hind Toe Is Placed On A Level With The Others, Unlike The ...

Curate
Curate, Properly A Presbyter Who Has The Cure Of Souls Within A Parish (from The Lat. Curare, To Take Care Of). The Term Is Used In This General Sense In The English Book Of Common Prayer; And In Continental Europe The Cognate Term (fr. Cure, Ital. Curato, Span. Cura, Etc.) ...

Curator
Curator, In Roman Law The "caretaker" Or Guardian Of A Spendthrift (prodigus) Or Of A Person Of Unsound Mind (furiosus), And, More Particularly, One Who Takes Charge Of The Estate Of An Adolescens, I.e., Of A Person Sui Juris, Above The Age Of A Pupillus, 14 Or 12 Years, According ...

Curb Market Or Street
Curb Market Or Street Market, A Name Given To Any Stock Market Which Either Now Transacts Or Originally Transacted Its Business In The Open, Presumably In The Streets Or Upon The Curbs. At The Outset, The Curb Markets Of The Various Cities Were Entirely Unorganized And Operated Only Through The ...

Curdle
Curdle, The Epithet Applied In Rome To The Chair Of Office, Sells Curulis (lat. Currus, "chariot"), Used By The "curule" Or Higher Magistrates, And By The Emperors. This Chair Seems To Have Been Originally Placed In The Magistrate's Chariot. It Was Inlaid With Ivory Or Made Of It, Had Curved ...

Curecanti Needle
Curecanti Needle, A Natural Pyramid Of Granite In Colorado; Some Boo Or Goof T. High, At The Mouth Of Blue Creek, A Small Stream That Joins The Gunnison From The South. The Needle Is A Striking Object As Seen From The Railway (denver And Rio Grande Western) , Which Here ...

Curel
Curel, Francois, Vicomte De (1854-1928), French Dramatist And Academician, Was Born In Metz On June Io, He Was Educated At The Ecole Centrale As A Civil Engineer, The Family Wealth Being Derived From Smelting Works. But For The War Of 1870 And The Consequent Separation Of Lorraine From France, Curel ...

Cures
Cures, A Sabine Town Between The Left Bank Of The Tiber And The Via Salaria, About 26m. From Rome. According To The Legend, It Was From Cures That Titus Tatius Led To The Quirinal The Sabine Settlers, From Whom The Whole Roman People Took The Name Quirites. It Was Also ...

Curetes
Curetes Is Said To Mean "young Men" (gr. Kovpifres Koi Rims). (i) A People Who Fight The Calydonians In The Quarrel Arising Out Of The Boar-hunt. (see Meleager.) Later Writers Placed Them In Aetolia, Acarnania, Or Chalcis. (see Homer, Iliad, Ix., 529 Ff.; Strabo, X., 3, I ; Schol. Hom., ...

Curetus
Curetus, A Tribe Of South American Indians, Inhabiting The Country Between The Rivers Of Japura And Uaupes, North Western Brazil. ...

Curfeu Or Couvre Feu Curfew
Curfew, Curfeu Or Couvre-feu, A Signal, As By Toll Ing A Bell, To Warn The Inhabitants Of A Town To Extinguish Their Lights And Fires Or Cover Them Up And Retire To Rest. This Was A Common Practice Throughout Europe During The Middle Ages. In Mediaeval Venice The Barbers' Quarter ...

Curia Romana
Curia Romana, The Name Given To The Whole Body Of Administrative And Judicial Institutions, By Means Of Which The Pope Carries On The General Government Of The Church ; Also Applied By An Extension Of Meaning To The Persons Who Form Part Of It, And Sometimes To The Holy See ...

Curia
Curia, A Section Of The Roman People, An Ancient Division Traditionally Ascribed To Romulus, Who Divided The People Into Three Tribes, And Subdivided Each Of These Into Ten Curiae, Each Of Which Contained A Number Of Families (gentes). It Is More Probable That The Curiae Were Not Artificial Creations But ...

Curico
Curico, Formerly A Province Of Central Chile, Lying Be Tween The Provinces Of Colchagua And Talca And Extending From The Pacific To The Argentine Frontier, Now A Department Of The Province Of Talca. The Eastern And Western Sections Are Moun Tainous, And Are Separated By The Fertile Valley Of Central ...

Curiegram
Curiegram, A Unit Of Measurement For Radium Emanation. It Is Named In Honour Of Marie Curie, The Discoverer Of Radium. It Is Defined As Follows: The Quantity Of Radium Emanation In Equilibrium With One Gram Of Radium. This Unit Is Subdivided Into The Millicuriegram And The Microcuriegram, Representing The Amount ...

Curityba
Curityba (also Corityba And Curitiba), Cap Ital Of The State Of Parana, Brazil, Situated On An Elevated Plateau (2,916 Ft. Above Sea-level) 68 M. West Of Its Seaport Paranagua, With Which It Is Connected By A Railway, Remarkable For The Engi Neering Difficulties Overcome And For The Beautiful Scenery Through ...

Curlew
Curlew, The Name Given To Several Birds Allied To The Snipes, Sandpipers And Plovers. The Common Curlew (numenius Arquata) Of The Snipe Family, Charadriidae, Is About 2 Ft. Long, Drab Coloured Above, Mottled With Dark Brown, And White Beneath. The Bill Is 5 To 7 Ins. Long And Is Curved; ...

Curling
Curling, A Game In Which The Players Propel Large Rounded Stones Upon A Rink Or Sheet Of Ice, Towards A Mark Called The Tee. Where The Game Originated Is Not Precisely Known ; But It Has Been Popular In Scotland For Three Centuries At Least. Some Writers, Looking To The ...

Curragh
Curragh, An Open Level Stretch Of Ancient Crown Land, Area Over 4,800 Acres, Co. Kildare, Ireland. The Right Of Pas Turage Is Possessed By The Landowners Of The District. The Liber Hymnorum (loth Century) Says The King Of Leinster Granted It To St. Bridget, Who Is Credited With Having Made ...

Currant
Currant. The Dried Seedless Fruit Of One Variety Of The Grapevine, Vitis Vini F Era, Cultivated Principally In Zante, Cepha Lonia And Ithaca, And Near Patras, In Greece, And In Recent Years In California (see Grape). The Currants Of Northern Europe And America—so-called From A Resemblance Of Dried Black Currants ...

Currency Note
Currency Note. This Familiar Form Of British Paper Money Is Issued By The State In Virtue Of The Powers Conferred By The Currency And Bank Notes Acts, 1914• This Legislation. Was Hurried Through At The Outbreak Of The World War, When Fears Were Entertained That Depositors Might Withdraw Large Amounts ...

Current Assets
Current Assets, Also Known As Liquid, Quick, Working, Or Floating Assets, Are Assets Consisting Of Cash And Other Items Which Can Readily Be Converted Into Cash Without Serious Deprecia Tion In Values. Ordinarily This Group Of Assets Includes Cash, Ac Counts Receivable, Notes Receivable, Accrued Interest Receivable And Merchandise Inventories. ...

Current Balance
Current Balance. The Current Balance Was First De Vised By Lord Kelvin In 1883 When He And Joule Made The Standard Current Weigher. A Highly Accurate Form Of Kelvin Cur Rent Balance Is The Primary Instrument Used At Standardizing Insti Tutions To Determine The Ampere (see Instruments: Electrical, Standard Instruments). ...

Current Liabilities
Current Liabilities, A Financial And Accounting Term Used To Designate Short-term Obligations; I.e., Obligations Which Mature Within A Period Of One Year. This Classification Of Accounts Normally Includes Such Items As Accounts Payable, Notes Payable, Acceptances Payable, Accrued Interest Payable, Salaries And Wages Accrued, And Other Items Of Like Character. ...

Currier
Currier. One Who Dresses And Prepares Leather Already Tanned. The Currier Pares Off Roughness And Inequalities, Makes The Leather Soft And Pliable, And Gives It The Necessary Surface And Colour. It Is Of Interest To Note That The Word "curry," Which De Scribes The Work Of The Currier, Also Means ...

Currier_2
Currier De Ives, American Lithographers Whose Prints Of Events And Scenes In The United States Of The Middle And Latter Part Of The 19th Century Are Much Sought After. Nathaniel Cur Rier (1813-1888) Was Born In Roxbury, Mass., Was Apprenticed To A Lithographer At 15 And At The Age Of ...

Cursor Mundi
Cursor Mundi, An English Poem In The Northern Dialect Dating From The Early 14th Century. It Is A Religious Epic Of 24,000 Lines "over-running" The History Of The World As Related In The Old And New Testaments. The Author Explains His Reason For Under Taking The Work. Men Desire To ...

Curtain Fire
Curtain Fire, A Barrier Of Shells Fired So As To Burst Along A Certain Line Just In Front Of One's Own Infantry To Protect Them From Enemy Attack, Or In Rear Of The Hostile Infantry To Prevent Their Retreat Or The Arrival Of Reinforcements (from O.fr. Cour Tine). Curtain Fire ...

Curtain
Curtain, A Screen Of Any Textile Material, Running By Means Of Rings Fixed To A Rod Or Pole. Curtains Are Now Used Chiefly To Cover Windows And Doors, But For Many Centuries Every Bed Of Importance Was Surrounded By Them, And Sometimes, As In France, The Space Thus Screened Off ...

Curtana
Curtana, The Pointless Sword Of Mercy, Known Also As Edward The Confessor's Sword, Borne At The Coronation Of The Kings Of England Between The Two Pointed Swords Of Temporal And Spiritual Justice (see Regalia). ...

Curter De Arges
Curter De Arges, An Old City In The Department Of Arges, Rumania, On The Right Bank Of The Arges, Where It Flows Through A Valley Of The Lower Carpathians, Terminus Of A Branch Railway From Pitesti. Pop. (193o) 6,831. Tradition Says It Was Founded Early In The I4th Century By ...

Curtilage
Curtilage, The Area Of Land Which Immediately Surrounds A Dwelling-house And Its Yard And Outbuildings. In Feudal Times Every Castle With Its Dependent Buildings Was Protected By A Surrounding Wall, And All The Land Within The Wall Was Termed The Curtilage; But The Modern Legal Interpretation Of The Word, I.e., ...

Curucanecan
Curucanecan, A Tribe Or Small Group Of Tribes Of South American Indians, Regarded On Very Insufficient Evidence As Consti Tuting An Independent Linguistic Stock. They Have Been Extinct Since The Early Part Of The I9th Century. The Curucanecas Lived In The Extreme North-east Corner Of The Present Province Of Chiqui ...

Curve
Curve. A Curve Is Most Easily Thought Of As The Path Of A Point Moving Continuously As To Both Position And Direction, Ex Cept At Special Points Where Discontinuities Of Any Kind May Occur. Formerly The Word Line Was Used To Include Both Curves And Straight Lines; In Modern Use ...

Curvilinear
Curvilinear, In Architecture, Any Form With Curved Or Flowing Lines. The Term Is Used Especially To Designate The Flowing Tracery (q.v.) Employed In The Later Decorated Style (see Deco Rated Period) Of English Gothic And Of The French Flamboyant (see Flamboyant Style), And Similar Styles (see Gothic ...

Curzola
Curzola (serbo-croatian, Korcula Or Karkar), An Island In The Adriatic, Forming Part Of Dalmatia, Yugoslavia. Pop. (1931) Of Island 28,492; Of Capital (same Name) 6,563. Length About 38m., Breadth (average) 5 Miles. The Island Lies 2m. W. Of Sabioncello Promontory. The Hilly Interior Has Prehistoric Grave Mounds, And Phoenicians May ...

Cush
Cush, The Eldest Son Of Ham, In The Bible, From Whom Seems To Have Been Derived The Name Of The "land Of Cush," Commonly Rendered "ethiopia" By The Septuagint And The Vulgate. The Exact Territory Thus Designated Is Uncertain, Some Maintaining That It Lies In Africa, In Which Case It ...

Cushendun
Cushendun, 1st Baron (the Rt. Hon. Ronald John M'neill, P.c.) , British Politician, Was Born April 3, 186i, The Son Of An Ulster Landowner, Edmund M'neill, And Educated At Harrow And Christ Church, Oxford. He Became A Barrister, But Found A Career In Journalism. In 1899 He Became Assistant Editor ...

Cushiog
Cushiog, A City Of Payne County, Oklahoma, U.s.a., Tom. N.e. Of Oklahoma City, Near The Cimarron River. It Is Served By The Missouri-kansas-texas And The Santa Fe Railways. In 190o The Population Was 826; In 192o, 6,326; And It Was 9,301 In 193o By The Federal Census. Cushing Is In ...

Cushion
Cushion, A Soft Bag Of Some Ornamental Material, Stuffed With Wool, Hair, Feathers Or Even Paper Torn Into Fragments. It May Be Used For Sitting Or Kneeling Upon, Or To Soften The Hardness Of A Chair Or Couch. It Is A Very Ancient Article Of Furniture, The Inventories Of The ...

Cushite Languages
Cushite Languages, The Name Given To A Group Of Hamitic Languages Spoken From The Red Sea Littoral To The Area South Of The Horn Of Africa. (see Hamitic Languages.) ...

Cusp
Cusp, Technically, The Intersection Of Two Curves; Hence, In Architecture, The Intersections Of Lobed Or Scalloped Forms, Par Ticularly In Arches (cusped Arches) And Tracery. Thus The Three Lobes Of A Trefoil (clover Leaf Form) Are Separated By Three Cusps. Cusped Forms Appear Commonly In Early Mohammedan Work (see Mohammedan ...

Custard Apple
Custard Apple, A Name Applied To The Fruit Of Various Species Of The Genus Anona (family Anonaceae). The Members Of This Genus Are Shrubs Or Small Trees Having Alternate, Exstipu Late Leaves, And Flowers With Three Small Sepals, Six Petals Arranged In A Double Row And Numerous Stamens. The Fruit ...

Custer Battlefield Highway
Custer Battlefield Highway Extends From Des Moines, Iowa, To Glacier National Park, Montana, A Distance Of About 1,50o Miles. It Includes Along Its Course Six National Forests, Three National Monuments, Two National Parks, Two Indian Reservations And A Region Adapted To Camping, Hunting And Fish Ing. The Custer Battlefield National ...

Custom House
Custom House. The House Or Office Appointed By A Government Where The Taxes Are Collected Upon The Importation And Exportation Of Commodities, Where Bounties Or Drawbacks Receivable Upon Exportation Are Paid, Where Free Goods Imported Or Exported Are Declared, And Where Vessels Are Entered And Cleared. ...

Custom
Custom, In General, A Habit Or Practice. Thus A Tradesman Calls Those Who Deal With Him His "customers," And The Trade Re Sulting As Their "custom." The Word Is Also Used For A Toll Or Tax Levied Upon Goods (see Customs). In Law, Such Long-continued Usage As Has By Common ...

Customary Freehold
Customary Freehold, In English Law, A Species Of Tenure Which May Be Described As A Variety Of Copyhold. It Was Termed Privileged Copyhold Or Copyhold Of Frank Tenure. It Was A Tenure By Copy Of Court Roll, But Not Expressed To Be At The Will Of The Lord. It Was, ...

Customs Collector
Customs Collector, The Official Of The U.s. Treasury Department Who Is The Head Of The Customs Office In A Port Of Entry. The Collectors At The Principal Ports Are Named By The President With The Advice And Consent Of The Senate, And The Major Appointments Are Awarded To Active Party ...

Customs Union
Customs Union. The Idea Denoted By The Term Is Almost More Familiar In Its German Form Of "zollverein." Strictly Speaking, It Means Any Agreement Or Union Of A Number Of Separate States Affecting Their Arrangements With Regard To Tariffs, Either Among Themselves Or Against The Outside World. The Classic Instance ...

Customs
Customs (see Also Tariff). The Use Of The British Term "customs" Is Of Early Origin, And Arose As An Abbreviated Form Of "customary" Dues. It Was Anciently Used To Describe Any Cus Tomary Payment, Whether To King Or Church, But In Process Of Time It Came To Be Restricted To ...

Custos Rotulorum
Custos Rotulorum, One Of The Justices Selected To Keep The Rolls Of The Peace On The County. He Is Appointed By The Crown And Is Usually A Person Of Rank, Most Frequently The Lord Lieutenant Of The County. In Practice The Records Are In The Cus Tody Of The Clerk ...

Custozza
Custozza, A Village Of Italy, I R M. S.w. Of Verona, Famous As The Scene Of Two Battles Between The Austrians And The Italians In The Struggle For Italian Unity. The First Battle Of Custozza Was Fought In 1848, The Austrians Being Victorious. The Second Battle Was Fought In 1866, ...

Custrin
Custrin, A Fortified Town Of Germany, In The Prussian Province Of Brandenburg, At The Confluence Of The Oder And Warthe, 18 M. N.e. From Frankfort-on-oder And 51 M. N.e. Of Berlin By Rail. Pop. 21,274. About 1250 A Town Was Erected On The Site Of Ciistrin, Where A Fishing Village ...

Cutch
Cutch, A Native State Of India, In The Western Indian States Agency, With An Area Of 8,25o Square M. It Is A Peninsular Tract Of Land, Enclosed Towards The West By The Eastern Branch Of The Indus, On The South By The Indian Ocean And The Gulf Of Cutch, And ...

Cutha
Cutha, An Ancient City In Mesopotamia, Mentioned In The Bible But Not Certainly Identified With Any Site. Sir Henry Raw Linson Identified It With The Mound Tell Ibrahim, 20 M. N. Of Kish And 35 M. S.e. Of Sippar. The Mound Is 6o Ft. High And Two Miles In Circumference. ...

Cutlery
Cutlery, The Name Given To The Various Types Of Knives And Cutting Instruments Used For Domestic Purposes. It Also In Cludes Razors, Scissors, Carving Forks And Steels Used For Sharp Ening Knives. Table Forks Which Were Formerly Made From Steel Have Been Generally Superseded By The Nickel-silver Article, Which Along ...

Cuttack
Cuttack, Town And District Of British India In The Orissa Division Of Behar And Orissa. The Town Is Situated On The River Mahanadi. Pop. (193i) 65,263. It Is The Centre Of The Orissa Canal System, And A Station On The Bengal Nagpur Railway From Madras To Calcutta. It Contains A ...

Cuttlefish
Cuttlefish, A Marine Invertebrate Animal Related To The Octopus And Placed In The Molluscan Class Cephalopoda (q.v.). The Name Has Been Regularly Given To Members Of The Family Sepiidae; But It Has Also Been Ap Plied To Other Cephalopods, E.g., To Various Kinds Of Squid. It Is Considered To Be ...

Cuxhaven Or Kuxhaven
Cuxhaven Or Kuxhaven, A Seaport Town Of Ger Many, The Foreport Of Hamburg, Situated On The West Side Of The Elbe, 71 M. By Rail N.w. Of Hamburg. Pop. 22,234. The Town Dates Only From 1873, Having Been Formed By Uniting The Villages Of Ritzebuttel And Cuxhaven, Which Had Belonged ...

Cuyaba Or Cuiaba
Cuyaba Or Cuiaba, Capital Of The Inland State Of Matto Grosso, Brazil, About 972 M. N.w. Of Rio De Janeiro, On The Cuyaba River Near Its Discharge Into The Sao Lourenco, The Prin Cipal Brazilian Tributary Of The Paraguay. Pop. (192o) 14,367. Cuyaba Has Uninterrupted Steamer Communication With Monte Video, ...

Cuyahoga Falls
Cuyahoga Falls, A City Of Summit County, Ohio, U.s.a., On The Cuyahoga River, 5m. N.e. Of Akron. It Is Served By The Baltimore And Ohio And The Pennsylvania Railways And The Electric Lines Of The Northern Ohio Power And Light Com Pany. The Population Was 10,200 In 192o (91.8% Native ...

Cuyapo
Cuyapo, A Municipality (with Administration Centre And 34 Barrios Or Districts) Of The Province Of Nueva Ecija, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 28 M. N.n.w. Of San Isidro, The Provincial Capital. Rice Is The Principal Product. Pop. (1918) 19,344, Of Whom 9,887 Were Males. In 1918 There Were Ten Household In Dustry ...

Cuyp
Cuyp, The Name Of A Dutch Family Which Produced Two Generations Of Painters. The Cuyps Were Long Settled At Dord Recht, In The Neighbourhood Of Which They Had A Country House, Where Albert Cuyp (the Most Famous) Was Born. ...

Cuzco
Cuzco, An Inland Department And City Of Southern Peru. The Department Is Bounded By Those Of Apurimac, Ayacucho, Junin, Loreto, Madre De Dios, Puno And Arequipa, And Touches Brazil (area 55,731 Sq.m.). It Consists Of Mountains, A Network Of High Valleys Tributary To Great Rivers, Apurimac And Urubamba, And Low, ...

Cyanamide
Cyanamide Forms White Crystals, Melting At 40° C. And Readily Soluble In Water, Alcohol And Ether. It Is The Amide Of Normal Cyanic Acid, Nc.oh, Having The Formula Nc•nh.2. It Is Obtained By Acting On Cyanogen Chloride, Bromide Or Iodide With Ammonia, Or Generally By Desulphurizing Thiourea With Mercuric Oxide. ...

Cyanic Acid And Cyanates
Cyanic Acid And Cyanates. Cyanic Acid, Nc.oh, Was Discovered By F. W0hler In 1824 Who Employed Its Salt, Ammonium Cyanate, In His Famous Synthesis Of Urea (1828) Which Served To Break Down The Distinction Between Compounds Arising Only From The Intervention Of Vital Forces And Com Pounds Producible Artificially In ...

Cyanide Process
Cyanide Process. When The Cyanide Process Was In Vented In 1887 There Was Pressing Need For Improvement In The Treatment Of Gold Ores. The Industry, After Languishing For Many Years, Had Received A Fillip From The Discovery Of The Rand Gold Field And Was Attracting Great Attention. The Mining Of ...

Cyanide
Cyanide, In Chemistry, A Salt Of Prussic Or Hydrocyanic Acid, The Name Being More Usually Restricted To Inorganic Salts, I.e., The Salts Of The Metals; The Organic Salts (or Esters) Being Termed Nitriles. The Properties Of Cyanides Are Treated In The Article Prussic Acid; Reference Should Also Be Made To ...