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Encyclopedia Britannica

Volume 6, Part 2: Colebrooke to Damascius

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Dalmatia
Dalmatia, Formerly A Kingdom And Crownland Of The Austro-hungarian Empire, In The North West Of The Balkan Penin Sula, And On The Adriatic Sea. It Comprised An Area Of 4,923 Sq.m.: Was 210 M. Long And In Breadth 35 M. Since 1918, However, Dal Matia Forms A Part Of The ...

Dalmatic
Dalmatic, A Liturgical Vestment Of The Western Church, Proper To Deacons, As The Tunicle (tunicella) Is To Subdeacons. Dalmatic And Tunicle Are Now, However, Practically Identical In Shape And Size; Though, Strictly, The Latter Should Be Somewhat Smaller And With Narrower Arms. In Most Countries, E.g., Eng Land, France, Spain ...

Dalmellington
Dalmellington, Burgh Of Barony And Parish, Ayrshire, Scotland, 15 M. S.e. Of Ayr By A Branch Line, Of Which It Is The Terminus, Of The L.m.s.r. Pop. (1931) 6,151. The District Is Rich In Coal, Ironstone, Sandstone And Limestone. Though The Place Is Very Old, A Roman Road Running Near ...

Dalriada
Dalriada, The Name Of Two Ancient Gaelic Kingdoms, One In Ireland And The Other In Scotland. Irish Dalriada Was The Dis Trict Which Now Forms The Northern Part Of County Antrim, And From Which About A.d. 50o Some Emigrants Crossed Over To Scot Land, And Founded In Argyllshire The Scottish ...

Dalry
Dalry, Mining And Manufacturing Town And Parish, Ayr Shire, Scotland, On The Garnock, 234 M. S.w. Of Glasgow, By The L.m.s.r. (gaelic, "the Field Of The King"). Pop. (1931) 6,827. The Industries Consist Of Woollen Factories, Worsted Spinning, Brick-making, Dyeing, Machine-knitting, And Iron And Steel Works. Coal And Iron Are ...

Dalton In Furness
Dalton-in-furness, Urban District And Market Town Of Lancashire, England, 4 M. N.e. Of Barrow-in-furness. Pop. (1931) 10,338. The Church Of St. Mary Retains Ancient Fragments And A Font Believed To Have Belonged To Furness Abbey, Which Lies 3 M. S. Of Dalton (see Furness). Of Dalton Castle, Where The Manorial ...

Dalton System
Dalton System: See Education : Educational Experi Ments. ...

Dalton
Dalton, A City Of North-western Georgia, U.s.a., 4om. S.e. Of Chattanooga; The County Seat Of Whitfield County. It Is On Federal Highway 41, And Is Served By The Nashville, Chattanooga And St. Louis And The Southern Railways. The Population Was 5,222 In 1920, And Was 8,160 In 1930 By The ...

Daltons Law
Dalton's Law. In A Mixture Of Gases The Volumes Of The Individual Gases Are Equal To One Another And To The Volume Of The Containing Vessel (e.g., In A Flask Of 500 Cu.cm. Capacity, Containing A Mixture Of Oxygen And Nitrogen, The Volume Occupied By The Oxygen Is 500 Cu.cm. ...

Dalyell
Dalyell (or Dalziell Or Dalzell), Thomas (d. 1685), British Soldier, Was The Son Of Thomas Dalyell Of Binns, Linlith Gowshire. He Was Present At The Battle Of Worcester (sept. 3, 1651), When. His Men Surrendered, And He Himself Was Captured And Imprisoned In The Tower. In May He Escaped Abroad, ...

Damages
Damages, The Sum Of Money Claimed Or Adjudged To Be Paid In Compensation For Loss Or Injury Inflicted By A Wrongdoer. Compensation First Appears In Law As A Substitute For Retaliation. Primitive Systems Appear Universally To Have Had Detailed Scales Of Compensation For Each Particular Form Of Personal Injury, Like ...

Daman Or Damaun
Daman Or Damaun, Town, Portuguese India, Capital Of The Settlement Of Daman, On The East Side Of The Entrance Of The Gulf Of Cambay Within The Bombay Presidency With A Station On The Bombay, Baroda And Central India Railway. The Settlement, Which Has An Area Of 149 Sq.m. And A ...

Damanhur
Damanhur, A Town Of Lower Egypt, 38m. E.s.e. Of Alexandria By Rail, Capital Of The Richly-cultivated Province Of Bahera. It Is The Ancient Timenhor, "town Of Horus," Which In Ptolemaic Times Was Capital Of A Nome And Lay On The Canopic Branch Of The Nile. Its Name And Other Circumstances ...

Damaraland
Damaraland, A Region Of South-western Africa, Bounded West By The Atlantic, East By The Kalahari, North By Ovampoland, And South By Great Namaqualand. It Forms The Central Portion Of South-west Africa. Damaraland Is Alternatively Known As Herero Land, Both Names Being Derived From The Tribes Inhabiting The Region. The So-called ...

Damascening Or Damaskeening
Damascening Or Damaskeening, A Term Some Times Applied To The Production Of Damask Steel, But Properly The Art Of Incrusting Wire Of Gold (and Sometimes Of Silver Or Copper) On The Surface Of Iron, Steel Or Bronze. The Surface Upon Which The Pattern Is To Be Traced Is Finely Undercut ...

Damascius
Damascius, The Last Of The Neoplatonists, Was Born In Damascus About A.d. 480. In His Early Youth He Went To Alex Andria, Where He Studied Rhetoric, Philosophy And Science And Was A Professor Of Rhetoric. Later On In Life He Migrated To Athens. He Became A Close Friend Of Isidore ...

Daniele Crespi
Crespi, Daniele Italian Historical Painter, Was Born Near Milan, And Studied Under Giovanni Battista Crespi And Giulio Procaccini. His Best Work, A Series Of Pictures From The Life Of Saint Bruno, Is In The Monastery Of The Carthusians At Milan. Other Paintings Of His Are At Brera And At Pavia. ...

Dare Or Dart Dace
Dace, Dare Or Dart (leuciscus Leuciscus), A Cyprinid Fish Of The Rivers Of Siberia, Europe North Of The Alps And Pyrenees, And England. It Is Closely Related To The Chub, But Has A Smaller Head And Smaller Mouth. It Is A Graceful Fish, Silvery In Coloration, And An Active Swimmer; ...

David Cox
Cox, David (1783-1859), English Painter, Was Born On April 29, 1783, In Deritend, Near Birmingham. Joseph Cox, His Father, Was Both Blacksmith And Whitesmith, And David Was Early Taken From School And Set To The Anvil. Later, He Became An Art Teacher, And Secured Fame In London In 1835-4o, Years ...

David Crockett
Crockett, David (1786-1836), American Frontiers Man, Son Of An Irish Immigrant, Was Born In Greene County, Tenn., On Aug. 17, 1786. His Education Was Obtained Chiefly In The Rough School Of Experience In The Tennessee Backwoods, Where He Ac Quired A Wide Rep'utation As A Hunter, Trapper And Marksman. In ...

David Dale
Dale, David (1739-1806), Scottish Manufacturer And Philanthropist, Was Born At Stewarton On Jan. 6, 1739, The Son Of A Grocer. He Began Business By Buying Up Homespun Linen And Yarn, And Then Imported French And Dutch Yarn. Together With Arkwright In 1785 He Opened A Cotton Mill At New Lanark ...

Decipherment
Decipherment Old Persian,---niebuhr Drew Up An Alphabet Of One Class Of Inscriptions (that Contained In The First Column), Consisting Of 42 Characters (whereas There Are In Fact Only 32), And Considered This Kind Of Writing Persian. The Number Of Correct Values Assigned Was Gradually Increased, Many Names Were Correctly Ascertained, ...

Deportation
Deportation.) The Punishments Now In Use Under The English Law For Indict Able Offences Are : I. Death, Inflicted By Hanging, And Carried Out Within Prison Walls Since 1868, With A Provision That Decapitation May Be Author Ized By Royal Warrant In Cases Of High Treason. 2. Penal Servitude, Which ...

Dihexagonal Pyramidal Class
Dihexagonal Pyramidal Class (hemimorphic-hemihedral.) Six Planes Of Symmetry Of Two Kinds In Tersect In The Hexad Axis. The Hexad Axis Is Uniterminal And All The Forms Are Open Forms. The General Form { Hikl } Consists Of Twelve Faces At One End Of The Crystal, And Is A Dihexagonal Pyramid. ...

Dinah Maria Craik
Craik, Dinah Maria (1826-1887), Author Of John Halifax, Gentleman, Was The Daughter Of Thomas Mulock, An Eccentric Religious Enthusiast Of Irish Extraction, And Was Born On April 20, 1826 At Stoke-upon-trent, Staffordshire. John Halifax, Gentleman (18j7), Placed Her In The Front Rank Of The Women Novelists Of Her Day. A ...

Ditetragonal Pyramidal Class
Ditetragonal Pyramidal Class (hemimorphic-hemihedral.) Here There Are Two Pairs Of Vertical Planes Of Symmetry Inter Secting In The Tetrad Axis. The Pyramids { All And And The Bipyramid { Hkl} Are All Hemimorphic. Examples Are Silver Fluoride And Penta-erythrite No Examples Are Known Amongst Minerals. ...

Ditrigonal Bipyramidal Class
Ditrigonal Bipyramidal Class Here There Are Three Similar Planes Of Symmetry Intersecting In The Triad Axis, And Perpendicular To Them Is A Fourth Plane Of Symmetry; At The Intersection Of The Three Vertical Planes With The Horizontal Plane Are Three Similar Dyad Axes ; There Is No Centre Of Symmetry. ...

Ditrigonal Pyramidal Class
Ditrigonal Pyramidal Class (hemimorphic-hemihedral.) Here There Are Three Similar Planes Of Symmetry Intersecting In The Triad Axis; There Are No Dyad Axes And No Centre Of Symmetry. The Triad Axis Is Uniterminal And Polar, And The Crystals Are Differently Developed At The Two Ends; Crystals Of This Class Are Therefore ...

Dukes And Earls Of
Cumberland, Dukes And Earls Of. The Earl Dom Of Cumberland Was Held By The Family Of Clifford (q.v.) From 1525 To 1643, When It Became Extinct By The Death Of Henry, The 5th Earl. The 1st Earl Of Cumberland Was Henry, R Ith Lord Clifford (1493-1542), A Son Of Henry, ...

Earls Of Crawford
Crawford, Earls Of. The House Of Lindsay, Of Which The Earl Of Crawford Is The Head, Traces Its Descent To The Barons Of Crawford Who Flourished In The 12th Century. Sir James Lindsay (d. 1396), Oth Lord Of Crawford, In Lanarkshire, Was Descended From Sir Alexander Lindsay Of Luffness (d. ...

Edmund Curll
Curll, Edmund (1675-1747), London Bookseller, Is Remembered For His Long Quarrel With Pope Over The Anonymously Published Court Poems 0716). Pope Took His Revenge By Immor Talizing Curll In The Dunciad. Curll Became Notorious For His In Decent Publications, So Much So That "curlicism" Was Regarded As A Synonym For ...

Edouard Daladier
Daladier, Edouard (1884— ), French Politician, Was In Early Life A Secondary-school Teacher. He Was Elected Radical-socialist Deputy For Vaucluse In 1919. He Was Minister For The Colonies In The Herriot Cabinet Of 1924, Minister Of War In The Reconstructed Painleve Cabinet Of Oct. 1925 And Of Public Instruction In ...

Edward Byles Cowell
Cowell, Edward Byles English Sanskrit Scholar, Was Born At Ipswich On Jan. 23, 1826. He Entered The Business Of His Father, Who Was A Merchant And Maltster, Em Ploying His Leisure In Oriental And Other Studies. He Was A Friend And Correspondent At This Period Of Edward Fitzgerald (q.v.). He ...

Edward Gordon Craig
Craig, Edward Gordon ), English Stage Designer And Writer On The Art Of The Theatre, Was Born On Jan. 16, 1872. He Began Life As An Actor, Appearing First In 1889 At The Lyceum Theatre, London, Under The Direction Of Sir Henry Irving. As A Young Man He Designed Several ...

Elliott Coues
Coues, Elliott (1842-1899), American Naturalist, Was Born In Portsmouth, N.h., Sept. 9, 1842. He Was Graduated In 1861 From Columbian (now George Washington) University, Washington, D.c., And From The Medical School Of That Institution In 1863. In 1864 He Was Appointed Assistant Surgeon In The U.s. Army. At The Age ...

Elliott Daingerfield
Daingerfield, Elliott , American Painter, Was Born At Harper's Ferry, Va. (now W. Va.), March 26, 1859. He Received His Early Education At Fayetteville, N.c., And Went To New York City In 188o To Study Art. He Exhibited First At The National Academy Of Design In 1880. Among His Best ...

Emile Code
Code, Emile (18s7-1926), French Psychotherapeutist, Was Born At Troyes, France, On Feb. 26, 1857. From 1882 To 191 O He Was A Chemist At Troyes, And Studied Hypnotism And Suggestion From 1901 Onwards With Bernheim And Liebault. He Then Developed His Own Psychotherapeutical Method Of Healing. In 191 O He ...

Enoch Herbert Crowder
Crowder, Enoch Herbert American Soldier, Was Born In Missouri On April 11, 1859. He Graduated At The U.s. Military Academy In 1881, And Was Com Missioned In The Cavalry. After Serving Four Years In Campaigns Against The Apache And Sioux In Dians, He Was Detailed As Com Mandant At The ...

Epic Of Creation
Creation, Epic Of. The Babylonian Epic Of Creation Consisted Originally Of Six Books Or Tablets, The Longest Being Tab Let I., 161 Lines, And The Shortest, Tablet Ii., 129 Lines; Latterly A Hymn On The Divine Titles Of Marduk, The Hero Of The Epic, In 142 Or More Lines Was ...

Erik Johansen Dahlberg Dahlbergh
Dahlberg (dahlbergh), Erik Johansen, Count (1625-1703), Swedish Soldier And Engineer, Was Born At Stockholm On Oct. 20, 1625. As Adjutant-general And Engineer Adviser To Charles X. (gustavus) He Had A Great Share In The Famous Crossing Of The Frozen Belts, And At The Sieges Of Copen Hagen And Kronborg He ...

Ernst Curtius
Curtius, Ernst (1814-1896), German Archaeologist And Historian, Was Born At Lubeck On Sept. 2, After Travel Ling In Greece He Became, In 5844, An Extraordinary Professor At The University Of Berlin, And In The Same Year Was Appointed Tutor To Prince Frederick William (afterwards The Emperor Frederick Iii.)—a Post Which ...

Ernst Robert Curtius
Curtius, Ernst Robert (1886— ), German Scholar, Was Born At Thann, Alsace, On April 4, 1886. From 1913 19 He Taught At The University Of Bonn, From 192o-24 At Mar Burg, And In 1924 Was Appointed Professor Of French History And Romance Philology At Heidelberg. ...

Etry
Etry.) Endocranial Casts Afford Precious Indications Of The Conforma Tion Of The Brain Itself. No One Feature, No Single Index, Can Be Held Sufficient By Itself For Definitive Classification. Many Of The Data Yielded By Craniometry Can Be Contrasted Usefully With Anal Ogous Measurements On Living Subjects Which Allow Information ...

Evelyn Baring Cromer
Cromer, Evelyn Baring, I St Earl British Statesman And Diplomatist, Was Born On Feb. 26, 184r, The Ninth Son Of Henry Baring, M.p., And Cecilia Anne, Eldest Daughter Of Admiral Windham Of Felbrigge Hall, Norfolk. He Passed Through Woolwich Academy Into The Royal Artillery In 1858, And Was Appointed In ...

Ex Dividend Cum Dividend
Cum Dividend, Ex Dividend. Prices Of Stock Exchange Securities Are Called Cum Dividend When They Include The Payment Of A Dividend In The Near Future To A Purchaser Of Those Securities, And Provided That The Quotations Have Not Been Already Marked Ex Dividend. Literally, A Price Becomes Cum Dividend From ...

Exchequer Court Of Common
Exchequer; Court Of Common Pleas ; Court Of King's Bench ; Court Of Chancery ; Court Of Star Chamber; Court Of High Commissions ; Judicial Committee Of The Privy Council. The Courts Exercising Jurisdiction In England Are Divided By Certain Features Which May Here Be Briefly Indicated. We May Dis ...

Fanny Crosby
Crosby, Fanny (mrs. Frances Jane Crosby Van Al Styne) (18 2o-1915) , American Hymn Writer, Was Born In South East, Putnam County, N. Y., On March 24, 182o. As The Result Of An Illness At The Age Of Six Weeks, She Lost Her Sight. In March 1835, She Entered The ...

Fox Maule Ramsay Dalhousie
Dalhousie, Fox Maule Ramsay, I I Th Earl Of (1801-1874), Was The Eldest Son Of William Ramsay Maule, 1st Baron Panmure (i 7 71-185 2) , And A Grandson Of George, 8th Earl Of Dalhousie. Born On April 22, 1801, And Christened Fox As A Compliment To The Great Whig, ...

Francesco Crispi
Crispi, Francesco (1819-1901), Italian Statesman, Was Born At Ribera In Sicily On Oct. 4, 1819. In 1846 He Estab Lished Himself As Advocate At Naples. On The Outbreak Of The Sicilian Revolution At Palermo (jan. 12, 1848) He Hastened To The Island And Took An Active Part In Guiding The ...

Francesco Dall Ongaro
Dall' Ongaro, Francesco (1808-1873), Italian Writer, Born In Friuli, Was• Educated For The Priesthood, But Aban Doned His Orders, And Founded The Favilla At Trieste In The Liberal Interest. In 1848 He Enlisted Under Garibaldi, And Next Year Was A Member Of The Assembly Which Proclaimed The Republic In Rome, ...

Francis Marion Crawford
Crawford, Francis Marion Ameri Can Author, Was Born At Bagni Di Lucca, Italy, Aug. 2, 1854, Being The Son Of The American Sculptor, Thomas Crawford (q.v.), And The Nephew Of Julia Ward Howe, The American Poet. The Cosmo Politanism Of His Work Is Foreshadowed By His Early Training At St. ...

Francois Couperin
Couperin, Francois French Composer, Was The Most Famous Member Of A Family Of Musicians Which May Be Traced From The Generation Born In 1626 To The Death Of Mlle. Celeste Couperin, Organist At St. Gervais, 185o. Francois Couperin (dubbed "le Grand") Is The Chief Of The Many French Clavecinists Whose ...

Francois Crequy
Crequy, Francois, Chevalier De, Marquis De Marines (1625-1687), Marshal Of France, Grandson Of The Preceding, Took Part As A Boy In The Thirty Years' War. At The Age Of 26 He Was Made Marechal De Cam* And Lieutenant-general Before He Was Thirty. He Won The Favour Of Louis Xiv. By ...

Francois De Cuvilles
Cuvilles, Francois De (1698-1767), French Archi Tect And Engraver. He Helped To Carry The French Rococo Taste To Germany—he Was Summoned About 172o To Cologne By The Elector James Clement; In 1738 He Became Architect To The Elector Of Bavaria, And Afterwards Occupied The Same Position Towards The Emperor Charles ...

Franz Valery Marie Cumont
Cumont, Franz Valery Marie ), Belgian Historian Of Religion, Was Born On Jan. 3, 1868, At Alost. After Studying At Ghent, Bonn, Berlin, Vienna And Paris, He Was From 1892 To 191 O Professor In Ghent University, And From 1899 To 1912 Curator Of The Brussels Royal Museum. His Chief ...

Friedrich Christoph Dahlmann
Dahlmann, Friedrich Christoph (1785 186o), German Historian And Politician, Was Born At Wismar On May 13, 1785; He Came Of An Old Hanseatic Family Of Wismar, Which Then Belonged To Sweden. He Studied Classical Philology At Copenhagen And Halle, And Again At Copenhagen. After Finish Ing His Studies, He Translated ...

Fryderyk Michal Czartoryski
Czartoryski, Fryderyk Michal, Prince Polish Statesman, Completed His Education At Paris, Florence And Rome; He Then Attached Himself To The Court Of Dresden And Obtained The Vice-chancellorship Of Lithuania. Czar Toryski Was One Of The Nobles Who, On The Illness Of Augustus Ii. In 1727, Signed The Secret Guarantee Of ...

Gaius Scribonius Curio
Curio, Gaius Scribonius, Roman Statesman And Orator, Son Of A Distinguished Orator Of The Same Name, Flourished During The 1st Century B.c. He Was Tribune In 90 B.c., And Served In Sulla's Army In Greece Against Archelaus, General Of Mithri Dates, And As His Legate In Asia, Where He Was ...

Gaspard De Grayer
Grayer, Gaspard De (1582-166g), Flemish Painter, Was Born At Antwerp, Nov. 18, 1582, And Was A Pupil Of Raphael Coxcie. He Matriculated In The Guild Of St. Luke At Brussels In 1607, Resided In The Capital Of Brabant Till After 166o, And Finally Settled At Ghent. Amongst The Numerous Pictures ...

Gathorne Gathorne Hardy Cranbrook
Cranbrook, Gathorne Gathorne-hardy, 1st Earl Of (1814-1906), British Statesman, Was Born At Brad Ford On Oct. I, 1814. After Graduating At Oxford He Was Called To The Bar. In 1856 He Was Returned For Leominster, And In 1865 Defeated Mr. Gladstone At Oxford. In 1866 He Became President Of The ...

Georg Friedrich Creuzer
Creuzer, Georg Friedrich (1771-1858), German Philologist And Archaeologist, Was Born On March Io, 1771 At Marburg, The Son Of A Bookbinder. He Was Professor Of Philology And Ancient History At Heidelberg For Nearly 45 Years, With The Exception Of A Short Time Spent At The University Of Leyden. He Died ...

George Armstrong Custer
Custer, George Armstrong Ameri Can Cavalry Soldier, Was Born In New Rumley, Ohio. He Graduated From West Point In 1861, And Was Sent At Once To The Theatre Of War In Virginia, Joining His Regiment As It Was Going Into The First Battle Of Bull Run. He Served Afterwards On ...

George Crabbe
Crabbe, George (1754-1832), English Poet, Was Born At Aldeburgh, Suffolk, The Son Of A Customs Officer. His Father Wanted To Make His Clever Boy A Doctor, And Crabbe Became An Apothecary's Assistant At Wickham Brook, Near Newmarket, And Then A Surgeon's Assistant At Woodbridge, Where He Met Sarah Elmy, His ...

George Croly
Croly, George (178o-186o), British Divine And Author, Son Of A Dublin Physician, Was Born On Aug. 17, 1780. He Was Educated At Trinity College, Dublin, And After Ordination Was Ap Pointed To A Small Curacy In The North Of Ireland. About 181 O He Came To London, And Occupied Himself ...

George Cruikshank
Cruikshank, George (1792-1878), English Artist, Caricaturist And Illustrator, Was Born In London, Sept. 27, 1792. By Natural Disposition And Collateral Circumstances He May Be Accepted As The Type Of The Born Humoristic Artist. His Grand Father Had Taken Up The Arts, And His Father, Isaac Cruikshank, Was A Painter. The ...

George Lillie Craik
Craik, George Lillie (1798-1866), British Man Of Letters, The Son Of A Schoolmaster, Was Born At Kennoway, Fife Shire. He Studied At The University Of St. Andrews With The Inten Tion Of Entering The Church, But Became The Editor Of A Local News Paper, And Went To London In 1824 ...

George Mackenzie Cromarty
Cromarty, George Mackenzie, 1st Earl Of (163o-1714), Scottish Statesman, Joined The Scottish Rising On Behalf Of Charles Ii. In 1654 And Was In Exile Until The Restora Tion When He Became A Lord Of Session With The Title Of Lord Tarbat. His Opposition To Lauderdale Kept Him Out Of Official ...

George Mifflin Dallas
Dallas, George Mifflin An Ameri Can Statesman And Diplomat, Was United States Minister To Eng Land (1856-61) On The Eve And At The Outbreak Of The American Civil War, And The Immediate Predecessor Of Charles Francis Adams. He Was The Son Of Alexander James Dallas (q.v.). In 1813, Just After ...

George Ticknor Curtis
Curtis, George Ticknor American Lawyer, Legal Writer And Constitutional Historian, Was Born In Watertown, Mass., On Nov. 28, 1812. He Graduated At Harvard In 1832, Was Admitted To The Bar In 1836, And Practised In Worcester, Boston, New York And Washington, Appearing Before The U.s. Su Preme Court In Many ...

George Washington Crile
Crile, George Washington ), Amer Ican Surgeon, Was Born In Chili, O., On Nov. Ii, 1864. He Graduated At Ohio Northern University (1884), And In Medicine At Wooster University In 1887. Later He Studied In London, Vienna And Paris. He Lectured And Held Various Professorships At Wooster And Western Reserve ...

George William Curtis
Curtis, George William American Man Of Letters, Was Born In Providence, R.i., U.s.a., Feb. 24 Of Old New England Stock. The Most Significant Factor In His Early Life Was His Two Years' Stay With His Brother James As A Boarder At The Brook Farm Community And School. Then Came Two ...

Georges Couthon
Couthon, Georges , French Revolutionist, Was Born In Orcet, Puy-de-dome, And Was Admitted Advocate At Clermont In 1785. On The Outbreak Of The Revolution, Couthon, Who Was Then A Member Of The Municipality Of Clermont-ferrand, Published His L'aristocrate Converti, Advocating Constitutional Monarchy. He Became President Of The Tribunal Of The ...

Georges Leopold Chretien Fred
Cuvier, Georges Leopold Chretien Fred Eric Dagobert, Baron ( 1769-183 2 ), French Naturalist, Was Born On Aug. 23, 1769, At Montbeliard. After Spending Four Years At The Academy Of Stuttgart, He Became Tutor In The Family Of The Comte D'hericy, Who Was In The Habit Of Spending The Sum ...

Giovanni Battista Crespi
Crespi, Giovanni Battista (155 ), Called I1 Cerano, Italian Painter, Sculptor And Architect, Was Born At Cerano In The Milanese. He Was Head Of The Milanese Academy, Founded By Cardinal Frederigo Borromeo, And Was The Teacher Of Guercino. He Is Best Known As A Painter. ...

Giovanni Mario Crescimbeni
Crescimbeni, Giovanni Mario Italian Critic And Poet, Was Born At Macerata On Oct. 9, 1663. In 169o, In Conjunction With 14 Others, He Founded In Rome The Academy Of The Arcadians To Combat The Affectations Of The School Of Marini. Crescimbeni Was Secretary To The Arcadians For 38 Years. He ...

Giuseppe Maria Crespi
Crespi, Giuseppe Maria Italian Painter, Called "lo Spagnuolo" From His Fondness For Rich Ap Parel, Was Born At Bologna, And Was Trained Under Angelo Toni, Domenico Canuti And Carlo Cignani. He Was A Clever Portrait Painter And A Brilliant Caricaturist; And His Etchings After Rem Brandt And Salvator Are In ...

Gregor Csiky
Csiky, Gregor (1842-1891), Hungarian Dramatist, Was Born On Dec. 8, 1842, At Pankota, In The County Of Arad. He Studied Roman Catholic Theology At Pest And Vienna, And Was Professor In The Priest's College At Temesvar From 187o To 1878. In The Latter Year, However, He Joined The Evangelical Church, ...

Gulf Of Cutch
Cutch, Gulf Of, An Inlet On The West Coast Of India Heading In The Runn Of Cutch. The Recent Completion Of A Safe Ocean Port At Okha At Its Entry, And Half Way Between Karachi And Bombay, Is Noteworthy. ...

Gunno Dahlstjerna
Dahlstjerna, Gunno (1661-1709), Swedish Poet, Whose Original Surname Was Eurelius, Was Born At Ohr, Dalsland, Where His Father Was Rector. He Studied At Uppsala, Became A Land-surveyor, And In 1681 Was Sent On Professional Business To Livonia, Then Under Swedish Rule. Returning To Sweden He Became In 1699, Head Of ...

Gustaf Dalen
Dalen, Gustaf 7) , Swedish Inventor, Was Born At Stenstorp Nov. 3o, 1869. After Passing His Examination As An Engineer At Goteborg In 1896 He Completed His Studies At Zurich. On His Return Home He Invented Hot-air Turbines, Milking And Other Machines. In 1906 He Became Chief Engineer To The ...

Gustaf Dalman
Dalman, Gustaf (1855– ), German Theologian And Orientalist, Was Born At Niesky, Silesia, On June 19, 1855. He Became Professor At Leipzig In 1895 And At Halle In 1900. From 1902 To 1917 He Was Director Of The German Evangelical Institute For Archaeology In Jerusalem, And For The Next Five ...

Gustaf Filip Creutz
Creutz, Gustaf Filip, Count Swedish Poet, Was Born In Finland And Educated At Abo. He Received A Post In The Court Of Chancery At Stockholm In 1751. Here He Met Count Gyllenborg, With Whom His Name Is Indissolubly Connected. They Were Closely Allied With Fru Nordenflycht, And Their Works Were ...

Gustave Courbet
Courbet, Gustave (1819-1877), French Painter, Was Born At Ornans (doubs) On June Io, 1819. He Went To Paris In 1839 And Worked At The Studio Of Steuben And Hesse; But He Preferred To Work Out His Own Way By The Study Of Spanish, Flemish, And French Painters. He Painted His ...

Gustave Crauck
Crauck, Gustave (1827-19°5), French Sculptor, Was Born And Died At Valenciennes, Where A Special Museum For His Works Was Erected In His Honour. At Paris His "coligny" Monu Ment Is In The Rue De Rivoli, His "victory" In The Place Des Arts Et Metiers, And "twilight" In The Avenue De ...

Hannah Cowley
Cowley, Hannah (1743-1869), English Dramatist, And Poet, Daughter Of Philip Parkhouse, A Bookseller At Tiverton, Devonshire, Was Born In 1743 And Died At Tiverton, March Ii, 1809. She Married A Captain In The East India Dock Company's Service, Who Died In 1797. Between 1776 And 1795 She Wrote 13 Plays, ...

Hans Dahl
Dahl, Hans (1849-1910), Norwegian Painter, Was Born At Hardanger On Feb. 19, 1849. After Serving In The Swedish Army He Studied Art At Karlsruhe And At Dusseldorf In Germany, Being A Notable Painter Especially Of Landscape And Genre. In 1889 He Settled In Berlin. His Work Had Considerable Humour, But ...

Harvey Cushing
Cushing, Harvey (1869— ), American Surgeon, Fourth In Direct Line Of A Family Of Physicians, Was Born At Cleve Land (0.), On April 8, 1869. He Graduated From Yale University In 1891 And From The Harvard Medical School In 1895. After Four Years At Johns Hopkins Hospital He Studied Abroad ...

Hasdai Ben Abraham Crescas
Crescas, Hasdai Ben Abraham Jewish Philosopher, Was Born At Barcelona And Lived All His Life In Spain. He Is Best Known For His "or Adonai" (the Light Of The Lord), Which Is Of Importance As Having Affected Spinoza, Especially In The Distinction Between Attributes And Properties And On The Subjects ...

Hemimorphic Class
Hemimorphic Class (sphenoidal.) In This Class The Only Element Of Symme Try Is A Single Dyad Axis, Which Is Polar In Character, Being Dissimilar At The Two Ends. The Form { 01o} Perpendicular To The Axis Of Symmetry Consists Of A Single Plane Or Pedion; The Parallel Face Is Dissimilar ...

Henry Chandler Cowles
Cowles, Henry Chandler American Botanist, Was Born In Kensington, Conn., On Feb. 27, 1869. He Graduated At Oberlin College In 1893 And Pursued Further Study At The University Of Chicago, From Which In 1898 He Received The Degree Of Doctor Of Philosophy. He Was Instructor In Botany From 1902 To ...

Henry Cromwell
Cromwell, Henry (1628-1674), Fourth Son Of Oliver Cromwell, Was Born At Huntingdon On Jan. 20, 1628, And Served Under His Father In The Latter Part Of The Civil War. In 1650 He Took Some Troops To Assist Oliver In Ireland And Was One Of The Irish Representatives In The Little, ...

Henry John Cockayne Oust
Oust, Henry John Cockayne Eng Lish Journalist, Was Born In London On Oct. Io, 1861, And Edu Cated At Eton And Trinity College, Cambridge. He Was Unionist Member For Stamford From 1890 To 1895, And For Bermondsey From 190o To 1906. From 1892 To 1896 He Was Editor Of The ...

Henry Octavius Coxe
Coxe, Henry Octavius (18 R 1-81), English Librarian And Palaeographer, Was Born At Bucklebury, Berkshire, And Educated At Westminster And Worcester College, Oxford. He Began Work In The Manuscript Department Of The British Museum, Became Sub-librarian Of The Bodleian, At Oxford, In 1838, And Was Head Librarian There, 186o-8r. He ...

Henry Tracey Coxwell
Coxwell, Henry Tracey (1819-1900), English Aeronaut, Was Born At Wouldham, Kent, On March 2, 1819, The Son Of A Naval Officer. In 1848 He Became A Professional Balloon Ist, Making Numerous Public Ascents In The Chief Continental Cities And In London. In 1862 In Company With Dr. James Glaisher, He ...

Henry Wellesley Cowley
Cowley, Henry Wellesley, 1st Earl (1804 1884), British Diplomatist, Eldest Son Of The 1st Baron Cowley And Nephew Of The Duke Of Wellington, Was Born On June 17, 1804. After Holding Various Diplomatic Posts He Succeeded The 1st Mar Quess Of Normandy As Ambassador In Paris In 1852. This Post ...

Henry William Crosskey
Crosskey, Henry William English Geologist And Unitarian Minister, Was Born At Lewes In Sussex, On Dec. 7, 1826. He Became An Authority On Glacial Geology, And In Conjunction With David Robertson Wrote Many Papers On The Post-tertiary F Ossilif Erous Beds Of Scotland (trans. Geol. Soc. Glasgow). He Also Prepared ...

Hermln Willem Daendels
Daendels, Hermln Willem Dutch General, Was Born On Oct. 21, 1762, At Hattem In Gelderland. He Began His Career As A Solicitor, But During The Revolution Of 1787 Went To France, And Fought Against Holland In 1793. When The Batavian Republic Was Proclaimed Three Years Later Daendels Was Made A ...

Hexagonal Division
Hexagonal Division In Crystals Of This Division Of The Hexagonal System The Prin Cipal Axis Is A Hexad Axis Of Symmetry. Hexagonal Axes Of Refer Ence Are Used : If Rhombohedral Axes Be Used Many Of The Simple Forms Will Have Two Sets Of Indices. ...

Hexagonal Pyramidal Class
Hexagonal Pyramidal Class (hemimorphic-tetartohedral.) No Other Element Is Here Associated With The Hexad Axis, Which Is Uniterminal. The Pyramids All Consist Of Six Faces At One End Of The Crystal, And Prisms Are All Hexagonal Prisms ; Perpendicular To The Hexad Axis Are The Pedions. Lithium Potassium Sulphate, Strontium Antimonyl ...

Hexagonal System
Hexagonal System Crystals Of This System Are Characterized By The Presence Of A Single Axis Of Either Triad Or Hexad Symmetry, Which Is Spoken Of As The "principal" Or "morphological" Axis. Those With A Triad Axis Are Grouped Together In The Rhombohedral Or Trigonal Divi Sion, And Those With A ...