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Encyclopedia Britannica

Volume 7, Part 1: Damascus to Education in Animals

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Dog
Dog. Although The Word "dog" Is Believed To Have Been Originally Applied To A Particular English Breed, It Is Now Used In A General Sense To Connote All The Domesticated Varieties Of The Zoological Genus Canis, Of Which The Wolf (canis Lupus) And The Northern Jackal (canis Aureus) Of Europe ...

Dogfish
Dogfish, A Name Applied To Several Species Of The Smaller Sharks, And Given Owing To The Habit These Fishes Have Of Pursuing Or Hunting Their Prey In Packs. The Small-spotted Dog-fish Or Rough Hound (scyllium Canicula) And The Large-spotted Or Nurse Hound (scyllium Catulus) Are Also Known As Ground-sharks. They ...

Dogger Bank
Dogger Bank, An Extensive Shoal In The North Sea, About 6o M. E. Of The Coast Of Northumberland, England. The Depth Of Water, In Some Parts Only 6 Fathoms, Is Generally From Io To 20 Fathoms. It Is Well Known As A Fishing Ground. The Origin Of The Name Is ...

Dogmatic Theology Dogma
Dogma, Dogmatic Theology. Theology, Like Political Economy, Has No Technical Terminology, But Seeks To Use The Language Of Ordinary Life In A Specialized Sense. Colloquially, To Assert Dogmatically Is Contrasted With Speaking Tentatively. But Also, Dogmatism Is Contrasted With Proof. "i'm Not Arguing With You, I'm Telling You"—he Who So ...

Dogmatism
Dogmatism Is The Uncritical Acceptance And Application Of Any Belief, Especially Of Those Ultimate Or Fundamental Beliefs Known As Principles. In Philosophy The Term Has Been Applied By Kant (q.v.) Rather Sweepingly To Most Preceding Systems Of Philosophy On Account Of Their Alleged Neglect To Examine "criti Cally" The Nature ...

Dogon
Dogon, A Light-skinned Patrilineal People Of Medium Stat Ure (also Known As Habe) In The Bandiagara Highland And Hom Bori Hills Districts Of The French Sudan. Their Language, With Many Dialects, Is Related To Mandinga. The Villages Are Independent And Ruled By An Elected Sacerdotal Headman (hogon), Assisted By A ...

Dogra
Dogra, An Inhabitant Of The Duggar Tract In The Foothills, Now Mostly Comprised In The Jammu Territory Of Kashmir, India. Duggar Appears To Mean The "land Between Two Lakes." Sanskrit Ized As Drigarh-desh, It Is Unknown To Literature. The Duggar Is Inhabited By A Number Of Castes, Including Brahmans, About ...

Dogs Mercury
Dog's Mercury, A Perennial Herb Of The Family Euphor Biaceae, Mainly Found In Europe And Northern Africa. It Has A Creeping Root And Lance-shaped Leaves And Grows To A Height Of About One Foot. The Root Contains Certain Colouring Substances And Is Highly Poisonous. The Term Is Sometimes Used To ...

Dogs Tooth Violet
Dog's-tooth Violet, The Name Given To A Genus (erytlironium) Of Beautiful Plants Of The Lily Family (liliaceae) Comprising About 15 Species, All, Except One, North American. They Are Low Herbs With Unbranched Stems Which Spring From Deep Corms And Bear Near The Surface Of The Ground A Pair Of Unequal ...

Dogwood
Dogwood, The Name Applied To Shrubs And Small Trees Of The Genus Cornus, Of The Family Cornaceae, Comprising Some 6o Species Found Chiefly In North Temperate Regions. They Are Mostly Hardy Shrubs Usually With Handsome Foliage And Attractive Flowers And Fruits. Several Are Widely Cultivated As Summer And Autumn Ornamentals ...

Dol
Dol, A Town Of North-western France, In The Department Of Ille-et-vilaine, 36 M. N. Of Rennes On The Ouest-ttat Railway. Pop. (1931), 3,345. The Town Was Unsuccessfully Besieged By William The Conqueror, Taken By Henry Ii. In 1164 And By Guy De Thouars In 1204. In 1793 The Vendeans There ...

Doldrums
Doldrums, The Shifting Zone Of Equatorial Calms Or Vari Able Airs Between The Trade Winds. The Weather Is Hot, Moist And Extremely Dispiriting With Heavy And Frequent Rainfall Usually Accompanied By Thunderstorms. In The Old Days, Sailing Vessels Sometimes Lay Helplessly Becalmed For Weeks With The Crew "in The Doldrums" ...

Dole
Dole, A Town Of Eastern France, Capital Of An Arrondissement In The Department Of Jura, 29 M. S.e. Of Dijon On The Paris-lyon Railway. Pop. 0931), 14,86i. Dole, The Ancient Dola, Was In Roman Times The Meeting Place Of Several Roads, And Considerable Remains Have Been Found There; In The ...

Dolerite
Dolerite Is A Word Which Has Carried More Than One Meaning. It Was Originally Applied By Haiiy (from Gr. 3oxepos Deceptive) To Coarse-grained Basalts With Little Or No Glass, But It Is Now Usually Taken To Indicate Intrusive Rocks, Of Basic Compo Sition Belonging To The Hypabyssal Group, And Therefore ...

Dole_2
Dole, A Portion, A Distribution Of Gifts, Especially Of Food And Money, Given In Charity (0.e. Dal, Cf. Mod. "deal"). The Distribution Of Alms To The Local Poor At Funerals Was A Universal Custom In The Middle Ages. Thus In 139g Eleanor, Duchess Of Gloucester, Ordered In Her Will That ...

Dolgelly
Dolgelly, A Market And County Town Of Merionethshire, Wales, Situated On The Streams Wnion And Aran, At The North Base Of Cador Idris, On The G.w. Railway. Pop. Of Urban District (1931) , 2,261. It Consists Of Small Squares And Narrow Streets, With A Grammar School (1665), Market Hall And ...

Dolhain
Dolhain, The Most Eastern Town Of Belgium, Situated On The Vesdre, North-east Of Verviers And Close To The Prussian Frontier. It Is Quite A Modern Town, Occupying The Site Of The Lower Town Of The Ancient City Of Limburg, Which Was Destroyed By Louis Xiv. In 1675. On A Rocky ...

Dolichocephalic
Dolichocephalic (long-headed), A Term Denoting Skulls The Diameter Of Which From Side To Side, Or The Transverse Diameter, Is 75% Or Less Of The Longitudinal Diameter Or That From Front To Back Taken As 1 Oo. ...

Dollar Stabilization
Dollar Stabilization. Under The Existing Currency System, The So-called "level Of Prices" Is Largely At The Mercy Of Monetary And Credit Conditions. The Purchasing Power Of Money Has, In The Past, Always Been Unstable, Because A Unit Of Money Was Not Determined As A Unit Of Purchasing Power But Only ...

Dollar
Dollar, Burgh And Parish, Clackmannanshire, Scotland, 6 M. N.e. Of Alloa By The L.n.e.r., Not Far From The Devon. Pop. 1,485. The Village Is Beautifully Situated. It Has A Well Known School, The Academy, Housed In A Fine Mass Of Build Ings Of The Grecian Order (opened About 1819). ...

Dollar_2
Dollar, A Silver Coin At One Time Current In Many European Countries, And Adopted Under Varying Forms Of The Name Else Where. The Word "dollar" Is A Modified Form Of Thaler, Which, With The Variant Forms (daler, Dalar, Daalder, Tallero, Etc.), Is Said To Be A Shortened Form Of Joachimsthaler. ...

Dolls
Dolls. The Doll, The Familiar Toy Puppet Of Childhood, Is One Of The Oldest Of Human Institutions. Common Among Both Savage And Civilized People, Its Antiquity Is Attested By Egyptian, Greek And Roman Remains, Among Which Small Figures Of Clay, Wood, Bone And Ivory Are Identified As Dolls From Being ...

Dolman
Dolman, Originally A Long, Loose Garment Left Unfastened In Front, And With Narrow Sleeves. It Is Worn Generally By The Turks, And Is Not Unlike A Cassock In Shape. The Name Was Given To The Uniform Jacket, Worn By Hussars, And Slung From The Shoulders With The Sleeves Hanging Loose. ...

Dolmen
Dolmen, The Term Used Of A Certain Type Of Prehistoric Monuments, Which Usually Consists Of Several Great Stone Slabs Set Edgewise In The Earth To Support A Flat Stone Which Serves As A Roof. The Structure Was Designed As A Burial Chamber And Is Typical Of The Neolithic Period In ...

Dolomite
Dolomite, A Mineral Species Consisting Of Calcium And Magnesium Carbonate, And Occurring As Rhombo Hedral Crystals Or Large Rock-masses. Analyses Of Most Well Crystallized Specimens Correspond Closely With The Above Formula, The Two Carbonates Being Present In Equal Molecular Proportions (caco3,54.35; Normal Dolomite Is Thus Not An Isomorphous Mixture Of ...

Dolphin
Dolphin, A Name For The Cetacean Delphinus Delphis, And Extended To Include Its Allies. The Dolphins Or Porpoises Inhabit Seas And Large Rivers. They Rarely Exceed 1 1 Ft. In Length. They Feed Chiefly On Fish And Are Mostly Gregarious. They Show Great Agility And Grace In The Water, And ...

Dombes
Dombes, A District Of Eastern France, Formerly Part Of The Province Of Burgundy, Now Comprised In The Department Of Ain, And Bounded On The West By The Saone, South By The Rhone, East By The Ain And North By The District Of Bresse. The Region Forms An Undulating Plateau With ...

Dome
Dome, In Architecture, An Ovoidal Or Hemispherical Vault ; Also Any Vault Of Polygonal Plan That Approaches The True Dome In Shape. The Origin Of The Term Lies In The Fact That Such A Vault Was A Common Feature Of The Italian Cathedrals—duomo. The Dome Is An Obvious Type Of ...

Domenichino
Domenichino (or Domenico), Zampieri (1581 1641), Italian Painter, Was Born At Bologna, On Oct. 21, 1581, And Died At Naples On April 15, 1641. He Was A Pupil In The Academy Of The Caracci, Under Agostino. Towards The Beginning Of The I7th Century He Went To Rome To Study Under ...

Domenico Veneziano
Domenico Veneziano, Italian Painter Of The Floren Tine School (working 1438-61), Probably Venetian By Birth. Very Little Is Known About Him. He May Have Acquired The Rudiments Of Art In Venice; His Style Was Formed Under The Influence Of Donatello, Masaccio And Fra Angelico. He Is First Heard Of In ...

Domestic Appliances
Domestic Appliances : See Household Appliances. Domestic Architecture: See Social Architec Ture. ...

Domestic Relations
Domestic Relations, A Term Used To Express The Legal Relations Subsisting Between The Various Units That Compose The Family Or Domestic Group. See Husband And Wife; Master And Servant; Children-protective Laws; Infant. ...

Domestic Science
Domestic Science: See Housekeeping; Household Appliances ; Budget ; Family ; Etc. ...

Domestic Service
Domestic Service, Employment In Household Service. In This Branch Of Employment In Great Britain, Females Outnum Ber Males By About Five To One. At The Census Of 1921, This Group Was Included Under The Heading "personal Service" In The Occupa Tional Classification, The Figures Being As Follows:— Nearly One-third Of ...

Domette
Domette. A Term Applied To A Loosely-woven Fabric Of Light Texture Of The Plain Calico Weave And Finished With A Nap On Both Sides, Similar To Flannelette (q.v.). It Is Sometimes Woven Either Plain Or Striped As An All-cotton Fabric ; And Sometimes With A Cot Ton Warp And Woollen ...

Domfront
Domfront, A Town Of North-western France, Capital Of An Arrondissement In The Department Of Orne, 43 M. W.n.w. Of Alencon By Rail. Pop. (193i) 2,290. The Town, Situated On A Bluff Overlooking The Varenne, Has A Church, Notre-dame-sur L'eau, Dating From The Iith Century. Domfront Is Said To Have Grown ...

Dominant
Dominant, In Music, The Fifth Degree Of The Diatonic Scale, E.g., G In The Key Of C ; A In That Of D, And So On; So Called From Its Exceptional Influence And Importance In Relation To The Tonic, Or Key-note, And The Harmony In General. Dominant Was Used By ...

Dominica
Dominica, The Largest Of The Five Presidencies In The Colony Of The Leeward Islands, British West Indies. It Lies In 15° 30' N. And 61° 2o' W., Between The French Islands Of Martinique And Guadeloupe, At A Distance Of About 25 M. From Each, Is 29 M. Long, Has A ...

Dominical Letters Or Sunday
Dominical Letters Or Sunday Letters, Let Ters Employed In The Construction Of The Calendar To Mark The Sundays Throughout The Year. The First Seven Letters Of The Alphabet Are Taken To Mark The First Seven Days Of The Year, The Following Sets Of Seven Following On According To This Marking. ...

Dominicans
Dominicans, Otherwise Called Friars Preachers, And In England Black Friars, From The Black Mantle Worn Over A White Habit, An Order Of Friars Founded By St. Dominic (q.v.). Their First House Was In Toulouse, Where The Bishop Established Them At The Church Of St. Romain, 1215. Dominic At Once Went ...

Dominique Vivant Denon
Denon, Dominique Vivant, Baron De (1747– '825), French Artist And Archaeologist, Was Born At Chalon-sur Saone On Jan. 4, I747. He Studied Law In Paris, And In His Twenty Third Year Produced A Comedy, Le Bon Pere, Which Obtained A Succes D'estime. Louis Xv. Entrusted Him With The Collection And ...

Dominoes
Dominoes, A Game Unknown Until The 18th Century, And Probably Invented In Italy, Played By Two Or More Persons, Usually With 28 Oblong Pieces, Or Dominoes, Known Also As Cards Or Stones (called Pieces Or Men In America), Having Ivory Faces Backed With Ebony; From This Backing, As Resembling The ...

Dominus
Dominus, The Latin Word For Master Or Owner. As A Title Of Sovereignty The Term Under The Republic At Rome Had All The Asso Ciations Of The Greek Tvpavvos; Refused During The Early Princi Pate, It Finally Became An Official Title Of The Roman Emperors Under Diocletian. Dominus, The French ...

Domitian Titus Flavius Domitianus
Domitian (titus Flavius Domitianus), Roman Em Peror A.d. 81-96, The Second Son Of Vespasian, Was Born At Rome On Oct. 24, A.d. 51. When Vespasian Was Proclaimed Emperor At Alexandria, Domitian Escaped With Difficulty From The Temple Of The Capitol, Which Had Been Set On Fire By The Vitellians, And ...

Domremy La Pucelle
Domremy-la-pucelle, A Village Of Eastern France, In The Department Of Vosges, On The Left Bank Of The Meuse, 7 M. N. Of Neuf Chateau By Road. Pop. (1931) 210. Domremy Was The Birthplace Of Joan Of Arc, And The Cottage In Which She Was Born Still Stands. Above The Door ...

Don Benito
Don Benito, A Town Of Western Spain, In The Province Of Badajoz; Near The Left Bank Of The River Guadiana, On The Ma Drid-badajoz-lisbon Railway. Pop. (193o) 21,196. Don Benito, Centre Of A Fertile District, Dates From The I5th Century, When It Was Founded By Refugees From Don Llorente, Driven ...

Don
Don, River, South Aberdeenshire, Scotland, Rising In Peat-moss To The East Of Glen Avon On The Borders Of Banffshire, At A Height Of Nearly 2,00o F T. It Follows A Generally Easterly Course, Roughly Parallel With That Of The Dee, And A Few Miles North Of It, Falling Into The ...

Donaghadee
Donaghadee, A Market Town Of Co. Down, Ireland, Near The South Of Belfast Lough, 25 M. E. By N. Of Belfast By Rail. Pop. (1926), 2,534. It Is 212 M. S.w. Of Portpatrick In Wigtown Shire, With Which It Is Connected By Telegraph And Telephone Cables. To The North-east Is ...

Donatello
Donatello (diminutive Of Donato) (c. 1386-1466), Italian Sculptor, Was The Son Of Niccolo Di Betto Bardi, A Member Of The Florentine Woolcombers' Gild, And Was Born In Florence Probably In 1386. It Is Certain That Donatello Received His First Training In A Goldsmith's Workshop, And That He Worked For A ...

Donatio Mortis Causa
Donatio Mortis Causa (grant In Case Of Death), In Law, A Gift Of Personal Property Made In Contemplation Of Death And Intended Either Expressly Or Impliedly To Take Complete Effect Only If The Donor Dies Of The Illness Affecting Him At The Time Of The Gift. The Conception As Well ...

Donation Of Constantine
Donation Of Constantine (donatio Constantini), The Supposed Grant By The Emperor Constantine, In Gratitude For His Conversion By Pope Silvester, To That Pope And His Successors For Ever, Not Only Of Spiritual Supremacy Over The Other Great Patriarchates And Over All Matters Of Faith And Worship, But Also Of Temporal ...

Donatists
Donatists, A Powerful Sect Which Arose In The Christian Church Of Northern Africa At The Beginning Of The 4th Century. In Its Doctrine It Sprang From The Same Roots, And In Its History It Had In Many Things The Same Character, As The Earlier Novatians. The Predisposing Causes Of The ...

Donauworth
Donauworth, A Town Of Germany In The Land Of Ba Varia, On The Left Bank Of The Danube, At The Confluence Of The Wornitz, 25 M. N. Of Augsburg By Rail And At The Junction Of Lines To Ulm And Ingolstadt. Pop. (1925) 4,821. It Grew Up During The Nth ...

Doncaster
Doncaster, Market Town, County Borough, Doncaster Parliamentary Division, South Yorkshire, England, 156m. N. Of London. Pop. (1931) 63,308. It Lies Astride The Ridge Dividing The Watershed Of The Rivers Don And Trent. It Is The Centre Of A Rapidly Developing Coal-mining Area And An Important Station On The L.n.e. Railway, ...

Donegal
Donegal, A County In The Extreme North-west Of Ireland, Bounded North And West By The Atlantic Ocean, East By Lough Foyle And The Counties Londonderry And Tyrone, And South By Donegal Bay And The Counties Fermanagh And Leitrim. The Area Is 1,193,641 Acres. Pop. (1926), 152,511. ...

Donegal_2
Donegal, A Small Seaport And Market Town Of Co. Donegal, Ireland, At The Head Of Donegal Bay And The Mouth Of The River Eask. Pop. (1926), 1,104. There Are Ruins Of A Jacobean Castle (i6io) On The Site Of A Fortress Of The O'donnells Of Tyr Connell, And Of A ...

Don_2
Don, A River Of European Russia (anc. Tanais), Called Tuna Or Duna By The Tatars, Rising In Lake Ivan (58o Ft. Above Sea Level) In The Province Of Tula, Where It Has Communication With The Volga By Means Of The Yepifan Canal, Which Links It With The Upa, A Tributary ...

Dorothea Lynde Dix
Dix, Dorothea Lynde (1802-1887), American Phil Anthropist, Was Born At Hampden (me.), April 4, 1802. About 1821 She Opened A School In Boston. From 1824 To 183o She Wrote Books Of Devotion And Stories For Children. Her Conversa Tions On Common Things (1824) Had Reached Its Both Edition By 1869. ...

Earl Of Dartmouth
Dartmouth, Earl Of, An English Title Borne By The Family Of Legge From 171 O To The Present Day. ...

Earl Of Derwentwater
Derwentwater, Earl Of, An English Title Borne By The Family Of Rauclyffe Or Radcliffe From 1688 To 1716, When The 3rd Earl Was Attainted And Beheaded, And Claimed By His Descendants, Adherents Of The Exiled House Of Stuart, From That Date Until The Death Of The Last Male Heir In ...

Earls And Dukes Ok
Devonshire, Earls And Dukes Ok The De Vonshire Title, Now In The Cavendish Family, Had Previously Been Held By Charles Blount (1563-1606), 8th Lord Mountjoy, Great Grandson Of The 4th Lord Mountjoy (d. 1534), The Pupil Of Eras Mus; He Was Created Earl Of Devonshire In 1603 For His Services ...

Earls Of Derby
Derby, Earls Of. The St Earl Of Derby Was Probably Robert De Ferrers (d. 1139), Who Is Said By John Of Hexham To Have Been Made An Earl By King Stephen After The Battle Of The Standard In 1138. Robert And His Descendants Retained The Earl Dom Until 1266, When ...

Earls Of Devon
Devon, Earls Of. From The Family Of De Redvers (de Ripuariis; Riviers), Who Had Been Earls Of Devon From About 110o, This Title Passed To Hugh De Courtenay (c. But Was Subsequently Forfeited By Thomas Courtenay (1432– 1462 ), A Lancastrian Who Was Beheaded After The Battle Of Tow Ton. ...

East Devonport
Devonport, East And West, A Town Of Devon County, Tasmania, Situated On Both Sides Of The Mouth Of The River Mersey, 193 M. By Rail N.w. Of Hobart. Pop., East Devonport, C. 75o; West Devonport, C. 2,500. Devonport Ranks As The Third Port In Tasmania. ...

Edict Of Diocletian
Diocletian, Edict Of, An Imperial Edict (a.d. 301) Fixing A Maximum Price For Provisions And Other Articles, And A Maximum Rate Of Wages. Incomplete Copies Of It Have Been Dis Covered, The First (in Greek And Latin) In 1709, At Stratonicea In Caria, Containing The Preamble And The Beginning Of ...

Eduardo Dato
Dato, Eduardo (1856-1921), Spanish Politician, Was Born At Corunna On Aug. 12, 1856. He Graduated In Law At Ma Drid University And Was Elected Deputy In 1884. Under-secretary For The Home Department In 1892, He Became Minister For The Department In 1899, And Promoted Bills Regarding Accidents, In Surance And ...

Education And Welfare Of
Deaf And Dumb, Education And Welfare Of The. The Term "deaf" Is Frequently Applied To Those Who Are Deficient In Hearing Power In Any Degree, However Slight, As Well As To People Who Are Unable To Detect The Loudest Sounds. The Reference Here Is To Those Who Are So Far ...

Edward Dannreuther
Dannreuther, Edward (1844—i 905) , German Pianist, Teacher And Writer On Music, Was Born At Strasbourg On Nov. 4,1844, And Was Brought Up In The United States. He Stud Ied Music (1859-63) At Leipzig Under Moscheles, Hauptmann And Richter, And Settled In London In 1863. There He Rendered Great Service ...

Edward Dicey
Dicey, Edward (1832--1911), English Writer, Son Of T. E. Dicey Of Claybrook Hall, Leicestershire, Was Born On May 15, 1832, And Educated At Trinity College, Cambridge, Where He Took Mathematical And Classical Honours. He Visited The United States In 1862, And In 1863 Wrote Six Months In The Federal States, ...

Edward Divers
Divers, Edward English Chemist, Was Born In London On Nov. 27, 1837. He Was Educated At The City Of London School And The Royal College Of Chemistry And Then Stud Ied Medicine At Queen's College, Galway, Where He Also Acted As Assistant And Demonstrator. Between 1853 And 1873 He Held ...

Edward Douwes Dekker
Dekker, Edward Douwes Dutch Writer, Commonly Known As Multatuli, Was Born At Amsterdam On March 2, 1820. In 1838 He Went Out To Java, And Obtained A Post In The Inland Revenue. He Rose From One Position To Another, Until, In 1851, He Found Himself Assistant-resident At Amboyna, In The ...

Edward Geoffrey Smith Stanley
Derby, Edward Geoffrey Smith Stanley, 14th Earl Of Derby (1 J 99-1869), The "rupert Of Debate," Born At Knowsley In Lancashire On March 29, 1799, Grandson Of The I2th Earl And Eldest Son Of Lord Stanley, Subsequently (1834) 13th Earl Of Derby (1775-1851). He Was Educated At Eton And At ...

Edward Henry Stanley
Edward Henry Stanley, 15th Earl Of Derby (1826-1893), Eldest Son Of The I4th Earl, Was Educated At Rugby And Trinity College, Cambridge, Where He Took A High Degree And Became A Member Of The Society Known As The Apostles. In March 1848 He Unsuccessfully Contested The Borough Of Lancaster And ...

Edward Loomis Davenport
Davenport, Edward Loomis American Actor, Born In Boston, Made His First Appearance On The Stage In Providence In Support Of Junius Brutus Booth. After Wards He Went To England, Where He Supported Mrs. Anna Cora Mowatt (ritchie) (1819-7o), Macready And Others. In He Was Again In The United States, Appearing ...

Edward Marcus Despard
Despard, Edward Marcus Irish Conspirator, Was Born In Queen's Co., Ireland, In 1751. In 1766 He Entered The British Navy, Was Promoted Lieutenant In 1772, And Stationed At Jamaica. He Was Promoted Captain After The San Juan Expedition (1779), Then Made Governor Of The Mosquito Shore And The Bay Of ...

Edward Stanley
Edward Stanley, 3rd Earl Of Derby 0508-1572), Was A Son Of Thomas Stanley, 2nd Earl And Grandson Of The Ist Earl, And Suc Ceeded To The Earldom On His Father's Death In May I521. During His Minority Cardinal Wolsey Was His Guardian, And As Soon As He Came Of Age ...

Effects Of The World
Effects Of The World War The Failure Of Diplomacy To Avert The Awful Disaster Of The World War Naturally Strengthened The Agitation, Which Had Begun Before The War, Against The Personnel And Methods Of The Tradi Tional Diplomacy. Diplomatists Were Accused Of Being In League With Capitalists And Munition-makers, Out ...

Elie Decazes
Decazes, Elie, Due (i780-1860), French Statesman, Was Born At Saint Martin De Laye (gironde) On Sept. 28, 1780. He Studied Law, Became A Judge In The Tribunal Of The Seine In 1806, Was Attached To The Cabinet Of Louis Bonaparte In 1807, And Was Counsel To The Court Of Appeal ...

Elie Delaunay
Delaunay, Elie (1828-1891), French Painter, Was Born At Nantes On June 12, 1828, And Died In Paris On Sept. 5, 1891. He Studied Under Flandrin And At The Ecole Des Beaux-arts. He Worked In The Classicist Manner Of Ingres Until, After Winning The Prix De Rome, He Went To Italy ...

Elijah Delmedigo
Elijah Delmedigo (1460-1497), Philosopher, Taught In Sev Eral Italian Centres Of Learning. He Translated Some Of Averroes' Commentaries Into Latin At The Instigation Of Pico Di Mirandola. In The Sphere Of Religion, Delmedigo Represents The Tendency To Depart From The Scholastic Attitude In Which Religion And Philoso Phy Were Identified. ...

Emile Deschamps
Deschamps, Emile (1791-1871), French Poet And Man Of Letters, Was Born At Bourges. In 1818 He Collaborated With Henri De Latouche In Two Verse Comedies, Selmours De Florian And Le Tour De Faveur. He And His Brother Were Among The Most En Thusiastic Disciples Of The Cenacle Gathered Round Victor ...

Emily Dickinson
Dickinson, Emily (183o-1886), American Poet, Was Born On Dec. 1o, 183o, At Amherst, Mass., Where Her Grandfather, Samuel Fowler Dickinson, Had Been One Of The Founders Of The Town, Church And College. Her Father, Edward Dickinson, Was A Lawyer And Treasurer Of The College; Her Mother, Emily Norcross Dickinson, A ...

Engelbert Dollfuss
Dollfuss, Engelbert Austrian Statesman, Born In Texing, Lower Austria, In 1892, Was Educated At The Universities Of Vienna And Berlin. During The World War He Served As An Officer In The Austrian Army. In October 1931 He Became President Of The Austrian Federal Railways, In March 1932 Minister Of Agriculture ...

Enrico Caterino Davila
Davila, Enrico Caterino Italian Historian, Was Descended From A Spanish Noble Family. His Im Mediate Ancestors Had Been Constables Of The Kingdom Of Cyprus For The Venetian Republic Since 1464. But In 1570 The Island Was Taken By The Turks ; And Antonio Davila, The Father Of The His Torian, ...

Epistle To Diognetus
Diognetus, Epistle To, One Of The Early Christian Apologies. Diognetus, Of Whom Nothing Is Known, Has Expressed A Desire To Know What Christianity Really Means—"what Is This New Race" Of Men Who Are Neither Pagans Nor Jews? "what Is This New Interest Which Has Entered Into Men's Lives Now And ...

Erasmus Darwin
Darwin, Erasmus (1731-1802), English Man Of Science And Poet, Was Born At Elton, Nottinghamshire. Educated At Cambridge And Edinburgh, He Settled In 1756 As A Physician At Nottingham, But Moved In '757 To Lichfield, And In 1781 To Derby, Where He Died Suddenly On April 18, 1802. His Fame As ...

Ernst Von Dohnanyi
Dohnanyi, Ernst Von ), Hungarian Composer, Pianist And Conductor, Was Born At Bratislava (press Burg) On July 27, 1877. He Studied At The Budapest Royal Academy, And Was For A Short Time A Pupil Of Eugen D'albert. He Attracted Notice By His First Pianoforte Quintet As Early As 1895. He ...

Etc Dry Docks
Dry Docks, Etc. Provision Has Often To Be Made At Ports For The Repairs Of Ves Sels Frequenting Them. The Primitive Method Of Effecting Repairs And Cleaning Was By Careening The Vessel Or By Beaching. The Simplest Structure Designed For The Purpose Of Effecting Minor Under-water Repairs And Cleaning Is ...

Etienne Dolet
Dolet, Etienne French Scholar And Printer, Was Born At Orleans. After Studying At Paris And Padua, He Became Secretary In 153o To The Bishop Of Limoges, Who Was French Ambassador To The Republic Of Venice. He Then Studied Law At Toulouse. In 1535 He Entered The Lists Against Erasmus In ...

Eugene Victor Debs
Debs, Eugene Victor (1855-1926), American Social Ist Leader, Was Born At Terre Haute, Ind., On Nov. 5, 1855. On Leaving The Public Schools He Became In 1871 A Locomotive Fireman. In 1879 He Was Elected City Clerk Of Terre Haute And In 1881 Was Re-elected. During 1885 He Was A ...

Eustache Deschamps
Deschamps, Eustache, Called Morel (1346 ?-1406? ), French Poet, Was Born At Vertus, Champagne. He Studied At Reims, Where He Is Said To Have Received Some Lessons In The Art Of Versification From Guillaume De Machault, Who Is Stated To Have Been His Uncle. From Reims He Proceeded C. 136o ...

Events In The Balkans
Events In The Balkans And Evacuation These Projects Were Dropped Early In September, Owing Very Largely To The Threatening Aspect Of Affairs In The Balkans. (see ...

Existence Theorems And General
Existence Theorems And General Theory On The Theoretical Side The First Question That Presents Itself In Connection With A Given Differential Equation Concerns The Existence Of Solutions. Suppose That We Have The Equation Dy — =f(x, Y), Dx Where F(x , Y) Is An Analytic Function Of X And Y ...

Father Damien
Damien, Father, The Name In Religion Of Joseph De Veuster (1840-1389), Belgian Missionary, Born At Tremeloo, Near Louvain, On Jan. 3, 1840. In 1858, He Joined The Society Of The Sacred Heart Of Jesus And Mary (also Known As The Picpus Congregation), And While Still In Minor Orders, In 1863 ...

Felicien David
David, Felicien (1810-1876), French Composer, Was Born On April 13, 181o, At Cadenet (vaucluse). He Was A Preco Cious Child, And Composed A String Quartet At The Age Of 12. He Was Educated At The Jesuit College At Aix, And Became Choirmaster At St. Sauveur At Aix For A Year. ...

Ferdinand Victor Eugene Del
Del A C R O I X, Ferdinand Victor Eugene (1798-1863), French Historical Painter, Leader Of The Romantic Movement, Was Born At Charenton-st. Maurice, Near Paris, On April 26, 1798. His Father, Charles Delacroix (1741-1805), Was Foreign Minister Under The Directory. Eugene Was Educated At The Lycee Napoleon, And Then ...

Floating Docks
Floating Docks A Floating Dock Is A Steel, Iron Or Timber Floating Construction Designed To Raise Ships Out Of The Water, That Their Under-water Portions May Be Inspected And, If Need Be, Painted Or Repaired. The Earliest Known Form Was Evolved By An English Captain During The Reign Of Peter ...

Florent Carton Dancourt
Dancourt, Florent Carton French Dramatist And Actor, Was Born At Fontainebleau On Nov. 1, 1661. In 1685, In Spite Of The Strong Opposition Of His Family, He Appeared At The Theatre Francais. One Of His Most Famous Im Personations Was Alceste In The Misanthrope Of Moliere. His First Play, Le ...

Folk Dances
Folk Dances Folk Dances (des'i, I.e., "countrified") Still Are And No Doubt Have Always Been Found All Over India; Among Agriculturists And In Primitive Tribes Everything Is Celebrated And Solemnized With The Dance. It Should Be Observed That, As Col. Hodson Has Re Marked, Primitive Culture Is The Matrix Of ...

Forest Of Dean
Dean, Forest Of, A District In The West Of Gloucester Shire, England, Between The Severn And The Wye. It Is Oval In Form, 20 M. Long And Io M. Wide, And Still Retains Its True Forest Character. The Surface Is Undulating, Its Elevation Ranging From 120 To Nearly ',coo Ft., ...