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Anastasius Iv
Anastasius Iv. Was Pope From I 1 S3 To I 154. He Was A Roman Named Conrad, Son Of Benedictus, And At The Time Of His Election, On July 9 11j3, Was Cardinal Bishop Of Sabina. He Had Taken Part In The Double Election Of 1130, Had Been One Of ...

Anastasius
Anastasius, The Name Of Four Popes. Anastasius I., Pope From 399 To 401. He It Was Who Condemned The Writings Of Origen Shortly After Their Translation Into Latin. ...

Anastomosis
Anastomosis, The Intercommunication Between Two Ves Sels; A Word Used Chiefly Of Blood-vessels And Other Tubes In Anatomy For The Communication Between Arteries And Veins Con Taining Fluid, And Also For The Communication Between The Veins Or Branches Of Leaves, Trees, Insect-wings Or River-connections, And By Analogy In Art-design. ...

Anatase
Anatase, One Of The Three Mineral Forms Of Titanium Dioxide. It Is Always Found As Small, Isolated And Sharply De Veloped Crystals, And Like Rutile, A More Commonly Occurring Modification Of Titanium Dioxide, It Crystallizes In The Tetragonal System; But, Although The Degree Of Symmetry Is The Same For Both, ...

Anathema
Anathema, Any Curse, But Especially One Uttered By The Church For Flagrant Offences Against Faith Or Morals, And Accom Panied By Exclusion From The Community. Such Exclusion Was Early Practised In Judaism (cf. Ezra X. 8) And Was Developed Into A Formidable Legal Instrument By The Rabbis (cf. "ban" And ...

Anatolia
Anatolia (gr. Avaroxii, Sunrise, I.e., Eastern Land), Ancient Geography, The Country East Of The Aegean, I.e.,, Asia Minor. It Is Now Used By The Turks In The Form Anadolu As The Equivalent Of The Western Part Of Asia Minor (q.v.). ...

Anatomy In Drawing
Anatomy In Drawing: See Drawing, Anatomical. See Also The Articles On Various Applications Of Anatomical Draw Ing, As Illustration, Pen Drawing, Portrait Painting, And The Articles Sculpture And Sculpture Technique. ...

Anatomy Nomenclature
Anatomy - Nomenclature There Is Still Much Confusion In The Nomenclature Of Anatomy. This Has Arisen From An Attempt To Revise And Improve The Terminology Which Had Previously Been In Common Use. At Present Either The Original Or The New "basle" Terminology Or A Combination Of Both Is Employed, A ...

Anatomy Of Plants
Anatomy Of Plants: See The Section Anatomy Under Plants; Also In The Same Article The Ensuing Sections On Vascu Lar System, Cambium And Cytology. See Further The Separate Articles On Root And Seed And Various Sections Under The Articles ...

Anatomy Radiography
Anatomy - Radiography The Skull.—an Instructive Radiogram Of The Skull Is Obtained By Placing The Tube Generating The Rays On One Side Of The Head And By Laying The Photographic Plate Flat Against The Other. Fig. I On Plate Shows A Lateral View Of The Head Resting Upon The Upper ...

Anatomy Superficial Andartistic
Anatomy - Superficial And Artistic The Objects Of The Study Of Superficial Anatomy Are To Show, First, The Fcrm And Proportions Of The Human Body And, Second, The Surface Landmarks Which Correspond To Deeper Structures Hidden From View. This Study Blends Imperceptibly With Others, Such As Physical Anthropology, Physiognomy, Phrenology ...

Anatomy
Anatomy, Literally Dissection Or Cutting Asunder, A Term Always Used To Denote The Study Of The Structure Of Living Things, Animal Or Vegetable. Animal Anatomy May Include The Study Of The Structure Of Different Animals (comparative Anatomy Or Ani Mal Morphology), Or It May Be Limited To One Animal Only ...

Anau
Anau, Site Of An Abandoned Settlement Tom. E.s.e. From Ashkhabad In The Turkmenistan S.s.r. There Are Indications Of Four Different Cultures, The Two Earlier From A Kurgan (mound) About A Mile West Of The Ruins And Z Mile South Of The Trans Caspian Railway And The Two Later From A ...

Anaxagoras
Anaxagoras, Greek Philosopher, Born Probably About 500 B.c. (apollodorus Ap. Diog. Laert. Ii. 7) At Clazomenae In Asia Minor. He Went To Athens, Which Was Rapidly Becoming The Headquarters Of Greek Culture (c. 464-462 B.c.). There He Is Said To I Ave Remained For 3o Years. Pericles Learned To Love ...

Anaximander
Anaximander, The Second Of The Physical Philosophers Of Ionia, Was A Citizen Of Miletus And A Companion Or Pupil Of Thales. The Computations Of Apollodorus Have Fixed His Birth In 6ii, And His Death Shortly After 547 B.c. He Taught The Obliquity Of The Ecliptic, Is Said To Have Introduced ...

Anaximenes
Anaximenes, Of Lampsacus (c. 38o-32o B.c.), Greek Rhetorician And Historian, Was A Favourite Of Alexander The Great, Whom He Accompanied In His Persian Campaigns. He Wrote His Tories Of Greece And Of Philip, And An Epic On Alexander (frag Ments In Muller, Scriptores Rerum Alexandri Magni). As A Rhetorician, He ...

Anaximenes_2
Anaximenes, Of Miletus, Greek Philosopher In The Latter Half Of The 6th Century, Said To Have Been The "associate Of Anaxi Mander." He Held That Air Is The Primary Substance; It Expands With Heat Or Contracts With Cold, And By These Changes Of Density Is The Source Of All That ...

Anazarbus
Anazarbus, An Ancient Cilician City, Situated In The Aleian Plain About Iom. W. Of The Main Stream Of The Pyramus (jihun) And Near Its Tributary, The Sempas Su. A Lofty Isolated Ridge Formed Its Acropolis. Under The Early Roman Empire The Place Was Known As Caesarea, And Was The Metropolis ...

Ana_2
Ana, A Latin Neuter Plural Termination Appropriated To Vari Ous Collections Of The Observations And Criticisms Of Eminent Men, Delivered In Conversation And Recorded By Their Friends, Or Discov Ered Among Their Papers After Their Decease. Though The Term Ana Is Of Comparatively Modern Origin, The Introduction Of This Species ...

Anbar
Anbar (originally Firuz Shapur Or Perisopora), A Ruined Town On The Left Bank Of The Euphrates In N., 50' E., Below The Modern Ramadi (q.v.) And Between 4o And 5om. From Baghdad. The Town Lies Just South Of The Sakhlawiye Canal, The Most Northerly Of The Canals Which Link With ...

Ancachs
Ancachs, A Department Of Central Peru, Between The Pacific And The Valley Of The Maranon, With The Department Of La Liber Dad On The North, And That Of Lima On The South (area 14,705 Sq.m., Estimated Population 480,000, Doubtless Somewhat Below The Actual Figure). Lying Partly On The Arid Coast, ...

Ancaeus
Ancaeus, In Greek Legend, Son Of Zeus Or Poseidon, King Of The Leleges Of Samos. In The Argonautic Expedition, After The Death Of Tiphys, Helmsman Of The "argo," He Took His Place. It Is Said That, While Planting A Vineyard, He Was Told By A Sooth Sayer That He Would ...

Ancestor Worship
Ancestor-worship. In Savage And Barbarian Belief, As In Civilized Sentiment, Death Does Not Make A Person Cease To Belong To His Social Unit (family, Clan, Tribe, Village, Nation) . Hence, Since The Living And The Dead Of Any Given Community Are As Much One As Any Other Two Classes Thereof—for ...

Anchises
Anchises, In Greek Legend, Son Of Capys And Themis, Grandson (according To Hyginus, Son) Of Assaracus, Of The Junior Branch Of The Royal Family Of Troy, King Of Dardanus On Mt. Ida. Here Aphrodite Met Him And, Enamoured Of His Beauty, Bore Him Aeneas. For Revealing The Name Of The ...

Anchor
Anchor. The Most Ancient Anchors Consisted Of Large Stones, Baskets Full Of Stones, Sacks Filled With Sand, Or Logs Of Wood Loaded With Lead. Of This Kind Were The Anchors Of The Ancient Greeks; They Held The Vessel Merely By Their Weight And By The Friction Along The Bottom. When ...

Anchorite
Anchorite, A Hermit Or Recluse, One Who Has Withdrawn Himself From The World, Usually For Religious Reasons. The Name Is Specially Used For The Hermits Of The East In The Early Christian Era. ...

Anchovy Eggs
Anchovy Eggs, A Savoury Dish. To Make It, Beat Three Eggs Slightly And Stir Them Over A Fire, Together With A Oz. Of Butter, A Tablespoonful Of Milk, -teaspoonful Of Anchovy Essence, Pepper, Salt, Capers Or Other Seasoning. When The Mixture Thickens, Pour Gape Being Behind The Eyes. The Pointed ...

Anchovy Pear
Anchovy Pear (grias Cauliflora), The Common Name For A Tall Slender Tree Cultivated In The West Indies And Belonging To The Family Lecythidaceae. The Russet-brown Fruit, Which Is About Sin. Long, Is Eaten Pickled. ...

Anchovy Toast
Anchovy Toast, A Pleasant Savoury Dish, Best Made As Follows: Chop Coarsely Six Boned Anchovies, Fry In Butter With A Finely Chopped Small Onion And The Yolk Of An Egg. Add, If I Desired, Chopped Parsley And Cayenne Pepper. When The Mixture Thickens, Pour On To Hot Buttered Toast. ...

Anchovy
Anchovy (engraulis Encrasicholus), A Fish Of The Herring Family Distinguished By Its Deeply Cleft Mouth, The Angle Of The Transparent. The So-called "norwegian Anchovies" Imported Into England In Little Wooden Kegs Are Sprats Pickled In Brine With Bay-leaves And Pepper. ...

Ancient Lights
Ancient Lights, A Phrase In English Law For A Negative Easement (q.v.) Consisting In The Right To Prevent The Owner Or Occupier Of An Adjoining Tenement From Building Or Placing On His Own Land Anything Which Has The Effect Of Illegally Obstructing Or Obscuring The Light Of The Dominant Tenement. ...

Ancient Or Antient
Ancient Or Antient, Old Or In Olden Times. "ancient History" Is Distinguished From Mediaeval And Modern, Generally As Meaning Before The Fall Of The Western Roman Empire. "the Ancient Of Days" Is A Biblical Phrase For God. In The London Inns Of Court The Senior Barristers Used To Be Called ...

Ancillary
Ancillary (lat. Ancilla, A Handmaid), An Adjective Mean Ing "subordinate To" Or "merely Helping," As Opposed To "essen Tial." Thackeray And Some Other Writers Have Also Employed It Rather Affectedly In Its Primary Meaning Of "pertaining To A Maid Servant." ...

Ancon
Ancon, A Small Village And Bathing-place On The Coast Of Peru, 22m. N. Of Lima By Rail. The Bay Is Formed By Two Pro Jecting Headlands And Is One Of The Best On The Coast. It Has A Gently Sloping Beach Of Fine Sand And Has Been A Popular Bathing ...

Ancona
Ancona, The Marches, Italy, An Episcopal See And Capital Of The Province Of Ancona, On The North-east Coast Of Italy, 185m. N.e. Of Rome By Rail And 132m. Direct, And 12 7m. S.e. Of Bo Logna. Pop. (1931) S3,112 (town) 84,390 (commune). The Town Stands On And Between The Steep ...

Ancona_2
Ancona, A Variety Of Domestic Fowl, Very Similar To The Leghorn. The Ancona Originated In Port Ancona, Italy, And Was Imported Into England About The Middle Of The Last Century, And Thence To America. It Lays A White-shelled Egg, And Is A Non-broody Breed. There Are Two Varieties, The Single ...

Ancon_2
Ancon, The Anatomical Name For "elbow" (from The Gr. I Yrccvv); "ancones" In Architecture Are The Projecting Bosses Left On Stone Blocks Or On Drums Of Columns, To Allow Of Their Being Either Hoisted Aloft Or Rubbed Backwards And Forwards To Obtain A Fine Joint; The Term Was Also Given ...

Ancren Riwle
Ancren Riwle, A Middle English Prose Treatise Written For A Small Community Of Three Religious Women And Their Serv Ants. It Is Generally Supposed To Date From The First Quarter Of The 13th Century, But E. Kolbing Is Inclined To Place The Corpus Christi Ms. About The Middle Of The ...

Ancrum
Ancrum, A Village On Ale Or Alne Water, A Tributary Of The Teviot, Roxburghshire, Scotland. Pop. (i 93i) 858. The Name Has A Gaelic Root And The Village Is Of Considerable Antiquity ; A Roman Road Forms The North-east Boundary Of The Parish. Ancrum Moor, 2m. N.w., Was The Scene ...

Ancus Marcius
Ancus Marcius (64o-616 B.c.), Fourth Legendary King Of Rome. Like Numa, His Reputed Grandfather, He Was A Friend Of Peace And Religion, But Was Obliged To Make War To Defend His Territories. He Conquered The Latins, And Some Of Them Whom He Settled On The Aventine Formed The Origin Of ...

Ancylopoda Or Chalicotheroidea
Ancylopoda Or Chalicotheroidea, A Group Of Extinct Large-bodied Herbivorous Mammals Distinguished By The Combination Of Large Claws On The Feet With Herbivorous Molar Teeth Of The Type Technically Known As Buno-lopho-selenodont (cone-ridge-crescent Tooth). The First Known Remains Of These Animals Consisted Of A Large Claw-like Bone Found In The Upper ...

Ancyra
Ancyra, An Ancient City Of Galatia (mod. Angora, Q.v.), In Asia Minor, On A Tributary Of The Sangarius. Originally A Pros Perous Phrygian City, Ancyra Became The Centre Of The Tectosages, One Of The Three Gaulish Tribes That Settled In Galatia About 232 B.c. In 189 B.c. Ancyra Was Occupied ...

Ancyra_2
Ancyra), Situated Upon A Steep, Rocky Hill, Which Rises Soo Ft. Above The Plain, On The Left Bank Of The Enguri Su, A Tributary Of The Sakaria (sangarius), About 220m. E.s.e. Of Constantinople. The Hill Is Crowned By The Ruins Of The Old Citadel, Which Add To The Picturesqueness Of ...

And Interest
And Interest, A Term Used In The Bond Market Meaning That Upon The Sale Of A Bond The Quoted Price Must Be Supple Mented By The Payment Of An Amount Equal To The Accrued In Terest To Date Of Sale (see Accrued Interest). ...

Andalusia
Andalusia (span. Andalucia), One Of The Old Provinces Of Spain, Broken Up In 1833 Into The Eight Modern Provinces Of Almeria, Cadiz, Cordova, Granada, Huelva, Jaen, Malaga And Seville (q.v.). The Arab Name Al-andalus Designated The Entire Peninsula, But Was Used Also Specifically For The Muslim Area And Especially For ...

Andalusia_2
Andalusia, A City Of Southern Alabama, U.s.a., On The Central Of Georgia And The Louisville And Nashville Railways; The County Seat Of Covington County, And The Commercial Centre Of A Farming And Lumbering Region. The Population Was 551 In 190o; 4,023 In 1920; 5,154 In 1930. The City's Manufactures Include ...

Andalusite
Andalusite, A Mineral With The Same Chemical Compo Sition As Kyanite And Sillimanite, Being Aluminium Silicate, As In Sillimanite, Its Crystalline Form Is Referable To The Orthorhombic System. Crystals Of Andalusite Have The Form Of Almost Square Prisms, The Prism-angle Being 89° As A Rule The Crystals Are Roughly Developed ...

Andaman Islands History
Andaman Islands - History Andaman First Appears Distinctly In The Arab Notices Of The 9th Century. But It Seems Possible That The Agathou Daimonos Pesos (good Spirit Island) Of Ptolemy Was Really A Misunder Standing Of Some Form Like Agdamdn. The Islands Are Briefly Noticed By Marco Polo (who Probably ...

Andaman Islands
Andaman Islands, A Group Of Islands In The Bay Of Bengal. Large And Small, They Number 204, And Lie 590m. From The Mouth Of The Hugli, 12om. From Cape Negrais In Burma, The Nearest Point Of The Mainland, And 340m. From The Northern Extremity Of Sumatra. The Extreme Length Of ...

Andamanese
Andamanese. The Andaman Islands In The Bay Of Bengal Are Inhabited By A Pigmy Stock. The Men Average 4ft. Iozin., The Women, 4ft. 6in. They Are Markedly Round Headed, Broad Nosed, With Hair Generally Sooty Black Or Yellowish Brown. The Skin Varies In Colour From An Intense Sheeny Black To ...

Andamento
Andamento (ital.), A Musical Term Signifying The Longer And More Extended Type Of Fugal Subject, As Distinguished From That Of The Shorter And More Compact Kind, Or Soggetto, Consisting Of A Single Brief Theme. By German Writers However The Term Is More Often Applied, Not To A Fugue's Subject Matter, ...

Andante
Andante, A Musical Term To Indicate Pace, Coming Between Adagio And Allegro; It Is Also Used Of An Independent Piece Of Music Or Of The Slow Movement In A Sonata, Symphony, Etc. The Diminutive Form Andantino Is Used, Confusingly Enough, To Signify Both Less Slow And Less Fast. ...

Andaquian
Andaquian, A Small Independent Linguistic Stock Of South American Indians, So Called From The Andaquis, Its Most Important Tribe. The Andaquis Live On The Eastern Slope Of The Cordillera Oriental In Southern Colombia, On The Fragua And Orteguaza Rivers, Which Form The Sources Of The Caqueta. They Are Said To ...

Anderida
Anderida, An Ancient Roman Fort At Pevensey, Near Eastbourne In Sussex (england), Built About A.d. 30o As Part Of A Scheme Of Land-defence Against Saxon Pirates ; Repaired Probably By Stilicho, About A.d. 400; And Utilized By William The Con Queror For A Norman Castle. Its Massive Roman Enceinte Still ...

Andermatt
Andermatt, A Swiss Health Resort And Centre For Winter Sports, Lying At A Height Of 4, 7oof T. At The Foot Of The Giirschen, In The Urseren Valley. The Settlement Is First Mentioned In The 14th Century, But Remained Unimportant Until The Opening Of The St. Gotthard Railway From Lucerne ...

Andernach
Andernach, A Town In Rhenish Prussia, Germany, On The Left Bank Of The Rhine, Iom. N.w. Of Coblenz. Pop. 12,528. Antunnacum, The Roman Frontier Station, Was Founded By Drusus. In Ii09, Andernach Received Civic Rights; In 1253 It Joined The Confederation Of The Rhine Cities, And Was The Most Southern ...

Anders Jonas Angstrom
Angstrom, Anders Jonas Swedish Physicist, Was Born On Aug. 13, 1814, At Logdo, Medelpad, Sweden. He Was Educated At Uppsala University, Where In 1839 He Became Privatdozent In Physics. In 1843 He Became Observer At Uppsala Observatory. In 1858 He Succeeded Adolph Ferdinand Svanberg (1806-1857) In The Chair Of Physics ...

Anderson
Anderson, A City In The North-western Part Of South Caro Lina, U.s.a.; The County Seat Of Anderson County. It Is On Four Transcontinental Highways, And Is Served By The Blue Ridge, The Charleston And Western Carolina, And The Piedmont And North Ern (electric) Railways. Between 1900 And 1910 The Population ...

Andersonville
Andersonville, A Village Of Sumter County, Georgia, U.s.a., On The Central Of Georgia Railway, About 60m. S.w. Of Macon. The Population In 1930 Was 231. From Nov. 1863 Until The Close Of The Civil War A Confederate Military Prison Was Main Tained In An Open Stockade Of 26-lac. Near The ...

Anderson_2
Anderson, A City Of Indiana, U.s.a., On The West Fork Of The White River, About 38 M. N.e. Of Indianapolis, In A Rich Wheat And Corn-producing Region; The County Seat Of Madison County. It Is Served By The Big Four And The Pennsylvania Railways, By The Central Indiana (for Freight ...

Andes
Andes, The Name Applied To The Great Mountain System Which Extends The Full Length Of The Western Part Of South Amer Ica. The Origin Of The Name Is Obscure. It Has Been Suggested That It Is Derived From Anti, The Quechua Word For East, A Name Applied By The Quechua ...

Andesine
Andesine (named By W. H. Abich In Allusion To Its Oc Currence In The Andes Mountains), A Mineral Of The Plagioclase Group Of Felspars (q.v.) And Occupying A Position About Midway In The Isomorphous Series, Albite-anorthite. In Petrology The Name Is Arbitrarily Restricted To Solid Solutions Between And Andesine Is ...

Andesite
Andesite, A Name First Applied By C. L. Von Buch To A Series Of Lavas, Investigated By Him, From The Andes, Which Has Passed Into General Acceptance As The Designation Of A Great Family Of Rocks Playing An Important Part In The Geology Of Most Of The Volcanic Areas Of ...

Andijan
Andijan. (1) A Province In Uzbek S.s.r. Area 7,314 Sq.km. Pop. (1926) 792,297 (144,718 Urban); (2) A Town, The Cap Ital Of The Province; Pop. (1933) 97,700; Sit.: 40° 55' N. 72° 16' E.; Alt. 1,63oft. It Is The Terminus Of The Transcaspian Railway, On The Left Bank Of The ...

Andiron
Andiron (older Form Anderne), One Of A Pair Of Horizontal Iron Bars Upon Which Logs Are Laid For Burning In An Open Fireplace. Andirons Stand Upon Short Legs And Are Usually Connected With An Upright Guard, Giving The Grotesque Appearance Of A Dog (hence Fire-dogs, Q.v.). This Guard, Being A ...

Andkhui
Andkhui, Northern Khanate In Afghan Turkistan, Allotted To Afghanistan By The Russo-afghan Boundary Commission (1885). Also The Chief Town Of The Khanate, Loom. W. Of Balkh On The Edge Of The Low Turkoman Desert, Said To Have Been Founded By Alexander The Great. Having Been For A While Subject To ...

Andocides
Andocides, One Of The "ten" Attic Orators, Was Born About B.c. Implicated In The Mutilation Of The Hermae Although He Saved His Life By Turning Informer (see Thuc. Vi. 27, 6o) He Was Condemned To Partial Loss Of Civil Rights And Went Into Exile. He Became A Merchant, And After ...

Andorra
Andorra, A Small Autonomous And Semi-independent State On The Franco-spanish Frontier Between The Central And East Ern Pyrenees. Pop. About 5,20o. Area, 191 Sq.m. ; With Greatest Length About 18m., East To West, And Greatest Breadth 17m. It Is A Cluster Of Mountain Valleys, Uniting To Form The Valira, A ...

Andover
Andover, Municipal Borough, Hampshire, England, Situ Ated Among Low Chalk Hills On The River Anton, A Tributary Of The Test. Population (1931) 9,692. The Neighbourhood Is Rich In Prehistoric Earthworks And Tumuli. The Importance Of The Saxon Village (andefeian, Andieura, Andever) Is Probably Related To The Proximity Of The Roman ...

Andover_2
Andover, A Town Of Essex County, Massachusetts, U.s.a., Situated On The South Side Of The Merrimac Valley. The Population Was Io,291, 1925 (state Census), 9,969 In 1930 (federal Census). The Shawsheen River Supplies Power For A Considerable Manufac Turing Industry. Twine, Woollens And Rubber Goods Are Produced In Andover, Ballardville, ...

Andre Le Chapelain Andreas
Andre Le Chapelain (andreas Capellanus), Mediaeval French Writer And Chaplain At The French Court (whence His Surname), Was Born In The Second Half Of The 12th Century, And Probably Held His Office Under Philip Augustus (118o-1223). His Famous Treatise, Liber De Arte Honeste Amandi Et De Repro Batione Inhonesti Amoris, ...

Andre Marie Ampere
Ampere, Andre Marie French Physi Cist, Was Born At Polemieux, Near Lyons, Jan. 22, When Lyons Was Taken By The Army Of The Convention In 1793, The Father Of Ampere, Holding The Office Of Juge De Paix, Was Thrown Into Prison, And Soon After Perished On The Scaffold. This Event ...

Andrea Alciati
Alciati, Andrea (1492-155o), Italian Jurist, Was Born In Alzano, Near Milan, On Jan. 12, 1492. He Was One Of The First To Interpret The Civil Law By The History, Languages And Literature Of Antiquity, And To Substitute Original Research For The Servile Interpretations Of The Glossators. His Emblems, A Collec ...

Andrea Andreani
Andreani, Andrea, Italian Engraver On Wood, In Chiaroscuro, Was Born At Mantua About 1s4o (brulliot Says 156o) And Died At Rome In 1623. His Engravings Are Scarce And Valu Able, And Are Chiefly Copies Of Mantegna, Diirer, And Titian. ...

Andrea Del Sarto
Andrea Del Sarto (1486-1530), Italian Painter, Was Born In Florence On July 16, 1486. There Were Four Other Children. His Surname Has Been Given As Vanucchi; His Name "del Sarto" Was Given Him Because His Father, Agnolo, Was A Tailor. In Andrea Was Put To Work Under A Goldsmith. He ...

Andreas Achenbach
Achenbach, Andreas (1815-191o), German Land Scape Painter, Was Born At Cassel On Sept. 29, 1815, And Died On March 31, 191o. He Was A Pioneer Of The German Realistic School. He Studied At Diisseldorf Under Schirmer, But Emancipated Himself From The Contemporary School Of Landscapists Which Delighted In The Representation ...

Andreini
Andreini (ahn"dra-a'ne), Francesco, Italian Actor, Was Born At Pistoia In The Latter Half Of The I6th Century. He Was A Member Of The Company Of The Gelosi Which Henry Iv. Sum Moned To Paris To Please His Bride, Marie De' Medici. His Wife Isabella Andreini (1562-1604) Was A Distinguished Actress, ...

Andreossy
Andreossy, Antoine-francois, Count (i761 1828), French Artillery Officer And Diplomatist, Was Born March 6 1761. He Served In The French Revolutionary Wars On The Rhine, In Italy And In Egypt, And Took Part In The Coup D'etat Of The I8th Brumaire. During The Short Peace Which Fol Lowed The Treaties ...

Andrew Ii
Andrew Ii. (1 1 7 5-123 5) , King Of Hungary, Son Of Bela Iii., Succeeded His Nephew, The Infant Ladislas Iii., In 1205. By His Reckless Generosity Andrew Impoverished The Crown, And Made The Monarchy Dependent On The Great Feudatories, Who Reduced Hungary To A State Bordering On Anarchy. ...

Andrew Leith Adams
Adams, Andrew Leith (t827-1882), Scottish Natu Ralist And Palaeontologist. An Army Surgeon, He Studied Natural History In India And Kashmir, In Egypt, Malta, Gibraltar And Canada; And His Observations On The Fossil Vertebrata Of The Maltese Islands Made Him A Recognized Authority On Fossil Elephants. See His Notes Of A ...

Andrew Of Longjumeau
Andrew Of Longjumeau (longumeau, Lonjumel, Etc.), A French Dominican, Explorer And Diplomatist. He Accom Panied The Mission Under Friar Ascelin, Sent By Pope Innocent Iv. To The Mongols In 1247; At The Tartar Camp Near Kars He Met A Certain David, Who Next Year (1248) Appeared At The Court Of ...

Andria
Andria, A Town And Episcopal See Of Apulia, Italy, In The Province Of Bari; 35m. W. Of The Town Of Bari By Steam Tramway And 6m. S.e. Of Barletta. Population Of Andria (1931) Was 53,882. It Was Founded Probably About 1046 By Peter, The First Norman Count Of Andria. It ...

Andriscus
Andriscus, "pseudo-philip," A Fuller Of Adramyttium, Claimed To Be A Son Of Perseus, Last King Of Macedonia. He Seized The Macedonian Throne In 149 B.c., After Defeating The Roman Praetor, And His Conquest Of Thessaly And Alliance With Carthage Made The Situation Dangerous. In 148 He Was Defeated By Q. ...

Androcles
Androcles, More Correctly Androclus, A Roman Slave, Who Lived About The Time Of Tiberius. He Is The Hero Of A Story By Aulus Gellius (v. 14) , Which Tells That Androclus Had Taken Refuge From The Cruelties Of His Master In A Cave In Africa, When A Lion Entered The ...

Andromache
Andromache, In Greek Legend, The Daughter Of Eetion, Prince Of Thebes In Mysia, And Wife Of Hector (q.v.). All Her Relations Perished In Or Shortly After The Taking Of The Town By Achilles (iliad, Vi. 414). After The Capture Of Troy Her Son Astyanax (or Scamandrius) Was Hurled From The ...

Andromeda
Andromeda, In Greek Legend, The Daughter Of Cepheus • And Cassiopeia (q.v.). To Satisfy Poseidon, Who Had Been Offended, Andromeda, Chained To A Rock, Was Exposed To A Sea Monster. Perseus, Returning From Having Slain The Gorgon, Found Her, Slew The Monster, Set Her Free, And Married Her In Spite ...

Andronicus I Comnenus
Andronicus I. (comnenus), Emperor Of The East, Son Of Isaac, And Grandson Of Alexius I. Comnenus, Was Born About The Beginning Of The 12th Century. In 1141 He Was Taken Captive By The Turks (seljuks) And Remained In Their Hands For A Year. On Being Ransomed He Went To Constantinople ...

Andronicus Ii Palaeologus
Andronicus Ii. (palaeologus) Eastern Roman Emperor, Was The Elder Son Of Michael Palaeologus, Whom He Succeeded In 1282. He Allowed The Fleet, Which His Father Had Organized, To Fall Into Decay; And The Empire Was Thus Less Able Than Ever To Resist The Exacting Demands Of The Rival Powers Of ...

Andronicus Iii
Andronicus Iii. (1296?-1341), Eastern Roman Emper Or, Grandson Of Andronicus Ii. His Conduct During Youth Was So Violent That, After The Death Of His Father, Michael, In 13 2o, His Grandfather Resolved To Deprive Him Of His Right To The Crown. Andronicus Rebelled ; He Had A Powerful Party, And ...

Andronicus Of Cyrrhus
Andronicus Of Cyrrhus, Greek Astronomer, Flourished About Ioo B.c. He Built A Horologium At Athens, The So-called "tower Of The Winds," A Considerable Portion Of Which Still Exists. It Is Octagonal, With Figures Carved On Each Side, Representing The Eight Principal Winds. A Brazen Triton On The Summit, With A ...

Andronicus Of Rhodes
Andronicus Of Rhodes (c. 7o B.e.), The Iith Schol Arch Of The Peripatetics. He Edited The Writings Of Aristotle And Theophrastus, And Wrote Paraphrases Of Aristotle And Com Mentaries. Two Treatises Are Sometimes Erroneously Attributed To Him, One On The Emotions, The Other A Commentary On Aris Totle's Ethics (really ...

Androphagi
Androphagi, An Ancient Nation Of Cannibals Placed By Herodotus (iv. 18, Io6), Who Denies That They Are Scythians, Well To The North Of Scythia, Probably In The Forests Between The Upper Waters Of The Dnieper And Don. They Were Most Likely Finns (samoyed Has The Same Meaning) And Perhaps The ...

Andros Or Andro
Andros Or Andro, The Most Northerly Island Of The Cy Clades, 6m. S.e. Of Euboea, And About 2m. N. Of Tenos; Nearly 25m. Long ; Greatest Breadth 1 O Miles. Pop. About 18,000. It Is Mountainous, With Many Fruitful And Well-watered Valleys. An Dros, The Capital, On The East Coast, ...

Androtion
Androtion (c. 35o B.c.), Greek Orator, Was A Pupil Of Isocrates And A Contemporary Of Demosthenes. He Is Known To Us Chiefly From The Speech Of Demosthenes, In Which He Was Accused Of Illegality Against Androtion In Proposing The Usual Honour Of A Crown To The Council Of Five Hundred ...

Andujar
Andujar, The Ancient Isturgi, Town Of Spain, In The Pro Vince Of Jaen; On The Right Bank Of The River Guadalquivir. Pop. (193o) 21,094. Porous Jars, Called Alcarrazas, Which Keep Water Cool In The Hottest Weather, Are Made From A Whitish Clay Found At Andujar. ...

Anecdote
Anecdote, A Word Originally Meaning Something Not Pub Lished. It Has Now Two Distinct Significations. The Primary One Is Something Not Published, In Which Sense It Has Been Used To Denote Either Secret Histories—procopius, E.g., Gives This As One Of The Titles Of His Secret History Of Justinian's Court—or Portions ...

Anemometry
Anemometry, The Measurement Of Air Speed. It Is Difficult To Design Instruments To Measure Accurately The Speed Of Moving Air; And Although Recent Research Has Helped, Difficulties Still Persist, Particularly As Regards The Measurement Of Low Air Speeds. The Trouble Is Mainly Because Direct Methods Are Im Practicable, So It ...

Anemone Or Wind Flower
Anemone Or Wind-flower, A Genus Of The Buttercup Family (ranunculaceae), Containing About 120 Species In The Tem Perate Zones. Anemone Nemorosa, Wood Anemone, And A. Pulsa Tilla, Pasque-flower, Occur In Britain. The Plants Are Perennial Herbs With An Underground Rootstock And Radical, Deeply Cut, Leaves. The Elongated Flower Stem Bears ...

Anencletus Or Anacletus
Anencletus Or Anacletus, Second Bishop Of Rome. About The 4th Century He Is Treated In The Catalogues As Two Persons—anacletus And Cletus. According To The Catalogues He Occupied The Papal Chair For I A Years (c. 7 7-88) . ...

Aneroid Barometer
Aneroid Barometer. This Instrument Consists Essen Tially Of A Vacuum Chamber, Two Opposite Walls Of Which Are Thin Metal Membranes, Which Respond Elastically To Any Variation Of Pressure On Their Outer Faces, Their Movement Being Controlled By A Spring And Communicated To The Indicating Needle. An Instru Ment Depending On ...