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Encyclopedia Britannica

Volume 10, Part 1: Game to Gun-Metal

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Gauchos
Gauchos, A Nomadic South American Race Inhabiting The Argentine Republic And Uruguay Of Mixed Spanish And Indian Descent. They Are Tall, Handsome, Strikingly Dressed And Of Great Endurance, With A Combination Of Dignity And Arrogance In Their Bearing. Their Chief Occupation Is Leather Making And Ranching, The Wild Conditions Under ...

Gaudy
Gaudy, As A Noun, In The Sense Of Rejoicing Or Feast, A Word Used Of A Commemoration Dinner At An Oxford College. ...

Gauhati
Gauhati, A Town Of British India, Headquarters Of The Kamrup District Of Assam, Mainly On The Left Or South, But Partly On The Right Bank Of The Brahmaputra. Pop. (1931) 21,797. Gau Hati Is The Headquarters Of The District And Of The Brahmaputra Valley Division. It Is Beautifully Situated, With ...

Gaul
Gaul, Lat. Gallia, The Name Of The Two Chief Districts Known To The Romans As Inhabited By Celtic-speaking Peoples, (a) Gallia Cisalpina Or Citerior, I.e., North Italy Between Alps And Apen Nines And (b) The Far More Important Gallia Transalpine Or Ul Terior, Usually Called Gallia Simply, The Land Bounded ...

Gaur Or Lakhnauti
Gaur Or Lakhnauti, A Ruined City Of British India, In The Malda District Of Bengal. The Ruins Are Situated About 8 M. South Of English Bazar, The Civil Station Of The District Of Malda, And On The Eastern Bank Of An Old Channel Of The Ganges. It Is Said To ...

Gaur
Gaur (bibos Gaurus), The Wild Ox Of India. The Gaur, Which Extends Into Burma And The Malay Peninsula, Is The Typical Repre Sentative Of An Indo-malay Group Of Wild Cattle Characterized By A Ridge On The Withers, Compressed Horns, And White Legs. The Gaur, Which Reaches A Height Of Nearly ...

Gautier Darras
Gautier D'arras, French Trouvere, Flourished In The Second Half Of The 12th Century. Nothing Is Known Of His Biog Raphy Except What May Be Gleaned From His Works. He Dedicated His Romance Of Eracle To Theobald V., Count Of Blois (d. 1191) ; Among His Other Patrons Were Marie, Countess ...

Gauze
Gauze, A Light, Transparent Fabric, Originally Of Silk, And Now Sometimes Made Of Linen Or Cotton, Woven In An Open Manner With Very Fine Yarn. It Is Said To Have Been Originally Made At Gaza In Palestine, Whence The Name. Some Of The Gauzes From Eastern Asia Were Brocaded With ...

Gavelkind
Gavelkind, A Peculiar System Of Tenure Associated Chiefly With The County Of Kent, But Found Also In Other Parts Of England. In Kent All Land Was Presumed To Be Holden By This Tenure Until The Contrary Was Proved, But Some Lands Have Been Disgavelled By Particular Statutes. It Is More ...

Gavotte
Gavotte, Properly The Dance Of The Gavots Or Natives Of Gap, A District In The Upper Alps, In The Old Province Of Dauphine. It Is A Dance Of A Brisk And Lively Character, Somewhat Resembling The Minuet, But Quicker And Less Stately (see Dance) ; Hence Also The Use Of ...

Gavriil Ivanovich Golovkin
Golovkin, Gavriil Ivanovich, Count (166o , Russian Statesman, Was Attached (1677), While Still A Lad, To The Court Of The Tsarevitch Peter, Afterwards Peter The Great, With Whose Mother Natalia He Was Connected, And Vigilantly Guarded Him During The Regency Of Sophia. He Accompanied The Young Tsar Abroad On His ...

Gawain
Gawain, Son Of King Loth Of Orkney, And Nephew To Arthur On His Mother's Side, The Most Famous Hero Of Arthurian Romance. The First Mention Of His Name Is In A Passage Of William Of Malmesbury, Recording The Discovery Of His Tomb In The Prov Ince Of Ros In Wales. ...

Gawler
Gawler, A Town Of Gawler County, South Australia, On The Para River, 244 M. By Rail N.e. Of Adelaide. It Is One Of The Most Thriving Places In The Colony, Being The Centre Of A Large Wheat Growing District ; It Has Also Engineering Works, Foundries, Flour Mills, Breweries And ...

Gaya
Gaya, A Town And District Of British India, In The Patna Division Of Bihar And Orissa, With A Station On The Grand Chord Line Of The East Indian Railway. With A Population (1931) Of 88,005 It Is, Next To Patna, The Most Populous Town In The Province. Gaya Is A ...

Gayal
Gayal, A Domesticated Ox Allied To The Gaur (q.v.) But Dis Tinguished By The More Conical And Straighter Horns, And The Straight Line Between Them. Gayal Are Kept By The Natives Of The Hill-districts Of Assam, Tenasserim, And Upper Burma. French Chemist And Physicist, Was Born At St. Leonard, In ...

Gaza
Gaza, The Most Southerly City Of The Philistine Pentapolis, Separated From The Sea By 3 M. Of Sand Dunes. It Was A Centre Where Ancient Trade Routes Met, And Through It Passed The Frankin Cense From Arabia On Its Way To The Mediterranean World. It Is Now The First Town ...

Gazaland
Gazaland, A District Of Portuguese East Africa. Formerly Indicating A Large Region Between Delagoa Bay And The Pungwe River, The Name Is Now Confined To The Lower Limpopo District. The Modern Territory Of Gaza, Part Of The District Of Lourenco Marques, Is 73,584 Sq.km. In Extent, Comprising 5 Sub-districts. It ...

Gazelle
Gazelle, The Name Given To A Group Of Antelopes Forming The Genus Gazelle (see Antelope). ...

Gazette
Gazette, A Name Given To News-sheets Or Newspapers Hav Ing An Abstract Of Current Events (see Newspapers). ...

Gbandi
Gbandi, A People Of Liberia West Of The Loma Or Toma, With Whom (and With The Kpelle) (q.v.) They Have Many Affinities. See D. Westermann, Die Kpelle, Ein Negerstamm In Liberia (1921) . ...

Gbe
Gbe, A People Physically And Socially Resembling The Kpelle, Living In Liberia North Of The Krumen Folk And Speaking An Idiom Akin To The Krumen Dialects. ...

Gdynia
Gdynia, A Polish Seaport And Naval Base, On The Bay Of Gdynia, Opening Out Into Danzig Bay, On The Baltic. It Is 12 M. N.w. Of Danzig, With Which It Is Connected By Railway. The Polish Government In Building A Railway To The Port Passing Over Territory Entirely Polish, Has ...

Gear
Gear, An Outfit, Applied To The Wearing Apparel Of A Person, Or To The Harness And Trappings Of A Horse Or Any Draft Animal, As Riding-gear, Hunting-gear, Etc. ; Also To Household Goods Or Stuff. The Phrase "out Of Gear," Though Now Connected With The Me Chanical Application Of The ...

Geber Or Jabir
Geber Or Jabir, More Fully Abu Musa Jabir Ibn Hayyan, Was The Most Celebrated Chemist Of Mediaeval Times. There Is Reason To Believe That He Belonged To The Famous South Arabian Tribe Of Al-azd, Some Members Of Which Settled In The Town Of Kuf A Shortly Of Ter Its Foundation ...

Gebhard Truchsess Von Waldburg
Gebhard: Truchsess Von Waldburg 1601), Elector And Archbishop Of Cologne, Second Son Of William, Count Of Waldburg, Was Born On Nov. Io. 1547, At Cologne, Studied At Ingolstadt, Perugia And Louvain, And Took Orders. He Held Various Positions At The Cathedrals Of Augsburg, Strasbourg, Cologne, And Again At Augsburg, And ...

Gecko
Gecko, A General Term Applied To Any Lizard Of The Family Geckonidae. For The Most Part Geckoes Are Small Creatures With A Soft Skin, A Short, Stout Body, Large Head And Weak Limbs ; The Most Salient Constant Characteristic Of The Group Is The Absence Of Connivent Eyelids, The Eyes, ...

Gedymin
Gedymin (d. 1342), Grand-duke Of Lithuania, Was Supposed By Some To Have Been The Servant Of Witen, Prince Of Lithuania, But More Probably He Was Witen's Younger Brother And The Son Of Lutuwer, Another Lithuanian Prince. Gedymin Inherited A Vast Domain, Comprising Lithuania Proper, Samogitia, Red Russia, Polotsk And Minsk; ...

Geelong
Geelong, A Seaport Of Grant County, Victoria, Australia, Situated On A Land-locked Arm Of Port Phillip Known As Corio Bay, 45 M. By Rail S.w. Of Melbourne. Pop. (1933) 30,669. Gee Long Was Incorporated In 1849. As A Manufacturing Centre It Is Of Considerable Importance. The First Woollen Mill In ...

Geertgen Van Haarlem
Geertgen Van Haarlem (c. Dutch Painter Active In Haarlem. He Was Surnamed "tot Sint Jans," As He Lived With The Knights Of St. John At Haarlem. He Is One Of The Most Interesting Dutch Artists Of The 15th Century And He Is Important, As He Represents A School Of Which ...

Geez
Geez. The Name Given To The Language Of An Ancient Nomadic Semitic Race Of Ethiopia. See Ethiopia And Semitic Languages. ...

Gefle
Gefle, A Seaport Of Sweden On An Inlet Of The Gulf Of Both Nia, Chief Town Of The District (lan) Of Gefleborg, 112 M. N.n.w. Of Stockholm By Rail. Pop. It Is The Chief Port Of The District Of Kopparberg, With Its Iron And Other Mines And Forests. The Exports ...

Gegenschein Or
Gegenschein Or Counterglow, An Extremely Faint Lumi Nescence Of The Sky, Seen Opposite The Direction Of The Sun. Its Faintness Is Such That It Can Be Seen Only By A Practised Eye Under Favourable Conditions. It Is Invisible During The Greater Part Of June, July, December And January, Owing To ...

Geige
Geige, In Modern German The Violin ; ' In Mediaeval German The Name Applied To The First Stringed Instruments Played With A Bow, In Contradistinction To Those Whose Strings Were Plucked By Fingers Or Plectrum Such As The Cithara, Rotta, And Fidu13. ...

Geiler
Geiler (or Geyler), Von Kaisersberg, Johann "the German Savonarola," Was Born At Schaffhausen On March 16, 1445, But In 1448 Went To Live At Kaisersberg In Upper Alsace. He Studied At Freiburg University Where He Afterwards Lectured Until 1478 When He Accepted A Call To The Cathedral Of Strasbourg. There ...

Geisha
Geisha, The Name Of The Professional Dancing And Singing Girls Of Japan (a Sino-japanese Word Meaning "person Of Pleas Ing Accomplishments"). The Training Of The True Geisha Or Sing Ing Girl, Which Includes Lessons In Dancing, Begins Often As Early As Her Seventh Year. Her Apprenticeship Over, She Contracts With ...

Geislingen
Geislingen, A Town In The Land Of Wurttemberg, On The Thierbach, 38 M. By Rail E.s.e. Of Stuttgart. Pop. It Has Shops For The Carving And Turning Of Ivory And Wood, Besides Iron-works, Machinery Factories, Glass-works And Brewing. The Church Of St. Mary Contains Fine Wood-carving. Above The Town Lie ...

Gel
Gel, The Name Given By Graham (q.v.) To The Coagulated Precipitate From A So/ Or Colloidal Solution (see Colloids). ...

Gela
Gela, A Town Of Sicily On The S. Coast, Province Of Calta Nisetta, 74 M. By Rail And 41 M. Direct E.s.e. Of Girgenti. Pop. (1931) 30,008. The Poorly Built Modern Town Stands On A Sand Hill Near The Sea, With A Fertile Plain (the Ancient Campi Geloi) To The ...

Gelada
Gelada, A Large Species Of Baboon, Theropithecus Gelada, Differing From The Members Of The Genus Papio (see Baboon) By The Nostrils Being Situated Some Distance From The Tip Of The Muzzle. In The Heavy Mantle Of Long Brown Hair Covering The F Ore Quarters Of The Old Males, With The ...

Gelasius I
Gelasius I., Pope From 492 To 496, Was The Successor Of Felix Iii. He Confirmed The Estrangement Between The Eastern And Western Churches By Insisting On The Removal Of The Name Of Acacius, Bishop Of Constantinople, From The Diptychs. He Is The Author Of De Duabus In Christo Naturis Adversus ...

Gelasius Ii
Gelasius Ii. (giovanni Coniulo), Pope From Jan. 24, '1'8, To Jan. 29, 1119, Was Born At Gaeta Of An Illustrious Family. He Became A Monk Of Monte Cassino, Was Taken To Rome By Urban Ii., And Made Chancellor And Cardinal-deacon Of Sta. Maria In Cosmedin. Shortly After His Unanimous Election ...

Gelati
Gelati, A Village In The Georgian S.s.r., Ii M. East Of The Town Of Kutais, On A Rocky Spur 705 Ft. Above Sea Level In The Valley Of The Rion, Which Is Growing In Importance Because Of Coal Mines. It Was An Ancient Monastery And Its Principal Church, A Sandstone ...

Gelatin
Gelatin, A Familiar Protein (q.v.) ; It Is Derived From Sub Stances In The Supporting Structures Of Vertebrate Animals By Boil Ing With Water Or Dilute Acids. These Precursors Are Known As "col Lagens," And Belong To The Class Of Proteins Called "scleropro Teins" Or "albuminoids." They Are Characteristically Deposited ...

Gelderland
Gelderland (guelders), A Province Of Holland, Bounded S. By Rhenish Prussia And North Brabant, W. By Utrecht And South Holland, N. By The Zuider Zee, N.e. By Overysel And S.e. By The Prussian Province Of Westphalia. It Has An Area Of 1,940 Sq.m. And A Pop. (1933) Of 829,293, The ...

Geldern
Geldern, A Town In Rhenish Prussia, On The Niers, 28 M. N.w. Of Dusseldorf, At The Junction Of Railways To Wesel And Cologne. Pop. ( 7,006. The Town Dates From About 11 Oo And Was An Important Fortified Place ; Until 1371 It Was The Resi Dence Of The Counts ...

Gelimer Or Geilamir
Gelimer Or Geilamir (}l. 530-534), Last King Of The Vandals In Africa, A Great-grandson Of Gaiseric, Succeeded When Hilderic Was Deposed In 53o. Justinian Invited Him To Allow The Old King To Remain Sovereign In Name And To Content Himself With The Actual Power ; He Was In Reality Desirous ...

Gellert Or Killhart
Gellert Or Killhart, In Welsh Traditional History, The Dog Of Llewellyn, Prince Of Wales. The Dog, A Greyhound, Is Left To Guard The Cradle In Which The Infant Heir Sleeps. A Wolf Enters, And Is About To Attack The Child, When Gellert Flies At Him. In The Struggle The Cradle ...

Gellivara Gellivare
Gellivara [gellivare], A Mining Town Of Sweden In The District (lan) Of Norrbotten, 815 M. N. By E. Of Stockholm By Rail. It Lies In The Well-nigh Uninhabited Region Of Swedish Lapland, 43 M. N. Of The Arctic Circle. It Owes Its Importance To The Iron Mines In The Mountain ...

Gelnhausen
Gelnhausen, A Town In The Prussian Province Of Hesse Nassau, On The Kinzig, 27 M. E.n.e. Of Frankfort-on-main, On The Railway To Bebra. Pop. 4,838. Gelnhausen Became An Imperial Town In 1169, And Here Diets Of The Empire Were Fre Quently Held. In 1803 The Town Became The Property Of ...

Gelon
Gelon, Son Of Deinomenes, Tyrant Of Gela And Syracuse. On The Death Of Hippocrates, Tyrant Of Gela (491 B.c.), Gelon, Who Had Been His Commander Of Cavalry, Succeeded Him, And In 485, His Aid Having Been Invoked By The Gamori (the Oligarchical Landed Proprietors) Of Syracuse Who Had Been Driven ...

Gelsemium
Gelsemium, A Drug Consisting Of The Root Of Gelsemium Nitidum, A Clinging Shrub Of The Natural Order Loganiaceae, Hav Ing A Milky Juice, Opposite, Lanceolate, Shining Leaves, And Axillary Clusters Of From One To Five Large, Funnel-shaped Very Fragrant Yellow Flowers. The Fruit Is Composed Of Two Separ Able Jointed ...

Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen, A Town Of Germany In The Prussian Province Of Westphalia, 27 M. W. Of Dortmund On The Railway Duisburg-hamm. Pop. 33 2,079. It Has Coal Mines, Iron Furnaces, Tin, Steel And Boiler Works, And Soap And Chemical Fac Tories. In 1903 Various Neighbouring Industrial Townships Were Incorporated With The ...

Gem
Gem, A Word Applied In A Wide Sense To Certain Minerals Which, By Reason Of Their Brilliancy, Hardness, And Rarity, Are Val Ued For Personal Decoration; It Is Extended To Include Pearl (lat. Gemma, A Bud—from The Root Gen, Meaning "to Produce"--or Precious Stone). In A Restricted Sense The Term ...

Gembloux
Gembloux, A Town In The Province Of Namur, Belgium, 25 M. S.e. Of Brussels On The Main Line To Namur. Pop. (1930) Was 5,198. Here On Jan. 31st, 1578, Don John Of Austria De Feated The Army Of The Provinces Under Antony De Goignies. In 186o The State Institute Of ...

Gemini
Gemini (the Twins, I.e., Castor And Pollux), In Astronomy, The Third Sign In The Zodiac, Denoted By The Symbol Ii. By The Egyptians This Constellation Was Symbolized As A Couple Of Young Kids; The Greeks Altered This Symbol To Two Children, Variously Said To Be Castor And Pollux, Hercules And ...

Gemistus Pletho
Gemistus Pletho [or Plethon], Georgius (c. Greek Platonic Philosopher And Pioneer Of The Revival Of Learning In Western Europe, Was A Byzantine By Birth, But Settled At Mistra In The Peloponnese. He Changed His Name To The Equivalent Pletho ("the Full"), Perhaps Owing To Its Similarity To That Of His ...

Gems In Art
Gems In Art. The Word Gem Is Used As A General Term For Precious And Semi-precious Stones Especially When Engraved With Designs For Sealing (intaglio) Or For Decoration (cameo). Such Gems Exist In Large Numbers From The Early Sumerian Period To The Decline Of The Roman Civilization And Again From ...

Gemsbok
Gemsbok, An African Antelope Of The Genus Oryx (see Antelope; Oryx) ; Also The German Name For The Chamois (q.v.). ...

Gene
Gene. The Word Gene (gr. -yivos, Race) Has Come To Be Used, More Particularly In The United States, As The Equivalent Of The Word Gen. The Latter Was First Coined By Johannsen (1909) To Signify The Unit In Inheritance. As A Prefix, Gen Appears In Such Words As Genetic And ...

Genealogy
Genealogy, A Pedigree Or List Of Ancestors, Or The Study Of Family History (from The Gr. Yivos, Family, And Aoyos, Theory). ...

General Electric Company
General Electric Company. A United States Electrical Manufacturing Concern Created In 1892, And Incorpo Rated In New York Under A Special Act Of The Legislature, Chapter Laws Of 1892, As Amended By Chapter 181, Laws Of 1922, State Of New York. Its Principal Office Is At Schenectady, N.y. On Jan. ...

General Motors Corporation
General Motors Corporation, Incorporated In Delaware Oct. 13, 1916 To Succeed A New Jersey Company With A Similar Name Formed Sept. 16, 1908, For The Purpose Of Manu Facturing Automotive Equipment, Is Primarily An Operating Organ Ization Owning The Assets Of Manufacturing Divisions. It Also Owns A Large Part Or ...

General Strike
General Strike. The Strike Weapon (or Stoppage Of Work, In The Sense Of Withdrawal Of Labour) Is Usually Employed For The Purpose Of Securing An Improvement In Working Condi Tions; It Is Often Used To Resist Reductions Of Wages Or Addition To Working Hours, Though In Such A Dispute The ...

General
General, A Term Which, From Its Pointing To All Or Most Of The Members Of A Class, The Whole Of An Area, Etc., As Opposed To "particular" Or To "local," Is Hence Used In Various Shades Of Meaning For That Which Is Prevalent, Usual, Widespread, Or Miscel Laneous, Indefinite, Vague ...

Generation
Generation, The Act Of Procreation Or Begetting, Hence Any One Of The Various Methods By Which Plants, Animals Or Sub Stances Are Produced (lat. Generare). The Subject May Be Divided Into The Following Branches, Viz.: (i) The First Origin Of Life And Iiving Beings, (2) Non-sexual Or Agamic Reproduction, And ...

Genesis
Genesis, The Name Of The First Book In The Bible, Derives Its Title From The Septuagint Rendering Of Ch. Ii. 4. It Is The First Of The Five Books (the Pentateuch), Or, With The Inclusion Of Joshua, Of The Six (the Hexateuch), Which Cover The History Of The Hebrews To ...

Genet
Genet, A South European Carnivorous Mammal Referable To The Viverridae Or Family Of Civets, But Also Taken To Include Several Allied Species From Africa. The True Genet (genetta Genetta) Occurs Throughout The South Of Europe And In Palestine, As Well As North Africa. The Fur Is Of A Dark-grey Colour, ...

Genetics
Genetics, A Term Coined By Bateson To Designate That Portion Of Biology Concerned With Heredity, Variation, Develop Ment And Evolution. It Is The Science Which Seeks To Account For The Resemblances And The Differences Which Are Exhibited Among Organisms Related By Descent. Its Problems Are Those Of The Cause, The ...

Geneva Convention
Geneva Convention, An International Agreement For The Purpose Of Improving The Condition Of Wounded Soldiers Of Armies In The Field, Originally Adopted At An International Con Ference Held At Geneva, Switzerland, In 5864, And Afterwards Re Placed By The Convention Of July 6, 1906, Also Adopted At Geneva. This Later ...

Geneva
Geneva, A City And Canton Of Switzerland, Situated At The Extreme South-west Corner Both Of The Country And Of The Lake Of Geneva Or Lac Leman. The Canton Is, Save Zug, The Smallest In The Swiss Confederation, While The City, Long The Most Popu Lous In The Land, Is Now ...

Geneva_2
Geneva, A City Of Ontario County, New York, U.s.a., At The Northern End Of Lake Seneca (36m. Long, With An Average Width Of 2m. And A Maximum Depth Of 624 Feet) . It Is On Federal Highway 20 And The State Barge Canal, And Is Served By The Lehigh Valley ...

Genista
Genista, In Botany, A Genus Of About 90 Species Of Shrubs Of The Family Leguminosae, And Natives Of Europe, Western Asia And North Africa; Three Are British. G. Anglica Is The Needle-furze Or Petty Whin, Found On Heaths And Moist Moors, A Spinous Plant With Slender Spreading Branches 1 To ...

Genitive
Genitive, In Grammar The Name Given To One Of The Cases Or Declensions Of Nouns To Indicate The Relationship In Which They Stand To Other Words In The Sentence. The Latin Language Con Tained Six Declensions Of Nouns The Nominative Or Subject, The Vocative Or Person Addressed, The Accusative Or ...

Genius
Genius (lat. The Begetter). In Its Earliest Meaning In Private Cult, The Genius Of The Roman House-father And The Iuno (see Jung) Of The House-mother Were Worshipped. These Certainly Were Not The Souls Of The Married Pair, As Is Clear Both From Their Names And From The Fact That We ...

Gennadius Ii Or Georgios
Gennadius Ii. Or Georgios Scholarios (d. C. 1468), Patriarch Of Constantinople From 1454 To 1456, Philosopher And Theologian, Was One Of The Last Representatives Of Byzantine Learning. He Appears To Have Been Born At Constantinople And To Have Served The Emperor John Vii. Paleologus As Counsellor. He Was Present At ...

Genoa
Genoa (anc. Genoa, Ital. Genova, Fr. Genes), The Chief Port Of Liguria, Italy, And Capital Of The Province Of Genoa, 119 M. N.w. Of Leghorn By Rail. Pop. 346,637 (town) ; 608,096 (commune). The Town Is Situated On The Gulf Of Genoa, And Is The Chief Port Of Italy, The ...

Genre
Genre, As Applied To Paintings, Has Primarily To Do With A Type Of Subject, But The Proper Application Of The Term Is Limited Also By The Painter's Attitude Toward The Subject. In Genre Paint Ing The Artist Deals With Intimate Scenes And Subjects From Ordi Nary Daily Life. The Elimination ...

Gentian
Gentian, Botanically Gentiana, A Large Genus Of Herbaceous Plants Belonging To The Family Gentianaceae. The Genus Comprises About 400 Species—most Of Them Plants With Tufted Growth, Growing In Hilly Or Mountainous Districts, Chiefly In The Northern Hemisphere; But They Are Absent From Africa. The Leaves Are Opposite, Entire, Smooth, And ...

Gentianaceae
Gentianaceae (the Gentian Family), In Botany, A Family Of Dicotyledons Belonging To The Sub-class Sympetalae, And Containing About Boo Species And 8o Genera. It Has A World Wide Distribution, And Representatives Adapted To Very Various Conditions, Including, For Instance, Alpine Plants, Like The True Gentians (gentiana), Meadow Plants Such As ...

Gentile Da Fabriano
Gentile Da Fabriano (c. 1370-1427), Italian Painter, Born At Fabriano, Was The First Great Umbrian Master. About 1411 He Went To Venice, Where By Order Of The Doge And Sen Ate He Was Engaged To Adorn The Great Hall Of The Palace With Frescoes From The Life Of Barbarossa. He ...

Gentile
Gentile, In The English Bible, The Term Generally Applied To Those Who Were Not Of The Jewish Race. It Is An Adaptation Of The Lat. Gentilis, Of Or Belonging To The Same Gens, The Clan Or Family; As Defined By The Grammarian Sextus Pompeius Festus (c. A.d. 15o, Edit. K. ...

Gentleman
Gentleman, In Its Original And Strict Signification, A Term Denoting A Man Of Good Family (from Lat. Gentilis, "belonging To A Race Or Gens," And "man"; The Lat. Generosus [its Invariable Translation In English-latin Documents] ). In This Sense It Is The Equivalent Of The Fr. Gentilhomine, "nobleman," Which Latter ...

Gentlemens Agreements
Gentlemen's Agreements. Where Two Or More Rivals In Business Meet Privately And Agree As To What Prices They Shall Charge Or What Areas They Shall Serve Or What Goods They Will Or Will Not Handle, The Arrangement Is Known As A Gentle Men's Agreement Or Honourable Understanding. Such Arrangements Have ...

Geodesy
Geodesy, In Modern English Usage Is The Science Of Survey Ing Tracts Of Country So Large That The Curvature Of The Earth Must Be Allowed For; Also The Determination Of The Figure Of The Earth, Including The Various Geophysical Problems Most Intimately Con Nected Therewith. Sometimes In Modern Languages Other ...

Geodetic Surveying Instruments And
Geodetic Surveying Instruments And Methods Of Observation In A Sketch Of This Sort It Would Not Be Desirable To Enter Into Details About The Design, Construction And Use Of The Instruments 'it May Seem As If Just The Reverse Would Be True, But This Is Be Cause The Reader May ...

Geoffrey De Montbray
Geoffrey De Montbray (d. 1093), Bishop Of Coutances (constantiensis), A Right-hand Man Of William The Con Queror, Was A Type Of The Great Feudal Prelate, Warrior And Ad Ministrator At Need. He Knew, Says Orderic, More About Mar Shalling Mailed Knights Than Edifying Psalm-singing Clerks. Ob Taining, As A Young ...

Geoffrey Of Monmouth
Geoffrey Of Monmouth (d. I154), Bishop Of St. Asaph And Creator Of The Arthurian Legend, Was Born About The Year I I Oo. He Received A Liberal Education Under His Paternal Uncle, Uchtryd, At That Time Archdeacon, And Subsequently Bishop, Of Llandaff. In 1129 Geoffrey Appears At Oxford Among The ...

Geoffrey Of Paris
Geoffrey Of Paris (d. C. 132o), French Chronicler, Was Probably The Author Of The Chronique Metrique De Philippe Le Bel, Or Chronique Rimee De Geo Ff Roi De Paris. This Work, Which Deals With The History Of France From 130o To 1316, Contains 7,918 Verses. Various Short Historical Poems Have ...

Geoffrey The Baker
Geoffrey The Baker (d. C. 136o), English Chron Icler, Is Also Called Walter Of Swinbroke, And Was Probably A Secular Clerk At Swinbrook In Oxfordshire. He Wrote A Chronicon Angliae Temporibus Edwardi Ii. Et Edwardi Iii., Which Deals With The History Of England From 1303 To 1356. From The Beginning ...

Geoffrey
Geoffrey (c. 1152-1212), Archbishop Of York, Was A Bastard Son Of Henry Ii., King Of England. He Was Distinguished From His Legitimate Half-brothers By His Consistent Attachment And Fidelity To His Father. He Was Made Bishop Of Lincoln At The Age Of Twenty-one (1173) ; But Though He Enjoyed The ...

Geoffrey_2
Geoffrey (1158-1186), Duke Of Brittany, Fourth Son Of The English King Henry Ii. And His Wife Eleanor Of Aquitaine, Was Born On Sept. 23, 1158. In 1167 Henry Suggested A Marriage Between Geoffrey And Constance (d. 1201), Daughter And Heiress Of Conan Iv., Duke Of Brittany (d. 1171). Conan Assented, ...

Geoffrey_3
Geoffrey, Surnamed Martel (ioo6-1o6o), Count Of An Jou, Son Of The Count Fulk Nerra (q.v.) And Of The Countess Hilde Garde Or Audegarde, Was Born On Oct. 14, 1006. During His Father's Lifetime He Was Recognized As Suzerain By Fulk L'oison ("the Gosling"), Count Of Vendome, The Son Of His ...

Geoffrey_4
Geoffrey, Surnamed Plantagenet (or Plantegenet) (1113-1151), Count Of Anjou, Was The Son Of Count Fulk The Young And Of Eremburge (or Arembourg) Of La Fleche; He Was Born On Aug. 24, 1113. He Is Also Called "le Bel" Or "the Hand Some," And Received The Surname Of Plantagenet From The ...

Geographical Articles
Geographical Articles. The Articles On The Various Territories In This Encyclopedia Are Prefaced By A Geo Graphical Sketch Giving The Chief Characteristics Of The Area In Question. This, In The Case Of The Continents, Is General, And For Particular Details The Reader Is Referred To Some Article Of More Restricted ...

Geographical Societies
Geographical Societies. The Congres Interna Tional Pour Les Progres Des Sciences Geographiques First Met In 1871. The Royal Geographical Society Of London, Founded In 183o, Had Joined To It In The Following Year The African Associa Tion (1788), The Successor Of The Saturday Club; The Palestine Association (1805) Became Merged ...

Geographical Terms
Geographical Terms Biogeography Takes Account Of The Distribution Of Living Or Ganisms On The Surface Of The Globe. As A Matter Of Practical Con Venience The Term Is Usually Limited To The Land Surface, Leaving The Life In The Sea To Be Treated As A Subdivision Of Oceanography. The Biogeography ...

Geography
Geography, The Exact And Organised Knowledge Of The Distribution Of Phenomena On The Surface Of The Earth (yi , The Earth, And To Write). It Deals With The Form And Motion Of The Planet So Far As A Knowledge Of These Is Necessary For Fixing Positions On The Surface And ...

Geoid
Geoid: See Geodesy. A Former Fortress Of The Turkomans, In The Turkmenistan S.s.r., Lat. 38° 12' N., Long. 57° 58' E., In The Oasis Of Akhal-tekke, On The Transcaspian Railway, 28 M. N.w. Of Askabad. It Consisted Of A Walled Enclosure 1 M. In Circuit, The Wall Being 18 Ft. ...

Geological Articles
Geological Articles. In Addition To The General Article Geology, Which Treats Of The History Of The Science And Gives A Sketch Of Its Physical And Stratigraphical Divisions, There Are In This Encyclopedia Long Articles Treating Of Special Branches, Especially Petrology, Palaeontology, Mineralogy, Lography, Ore-deposits, Metamorphism, Volcanoes, The ...

Geological Societies
Geological Societies. This Account Also Includes Mineralogical And Palaeontological Societies And Institutions. The First International Congress Of Geology Took Place At Bologna In 1878. The Geological Society Of London, Founded In 1807 And In Corporated In 1826, Is The Largest And Most Important In Great Britain; It Has Published Proceedings ...