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Encyclopedia Britannica

Volume 12, Part 1: Hydrozoa to Epistle of Jeremy

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Ijolite
Ijolite, In Petrology An Igneous Rock Composed Essentially Of Nepheline And An Alkaline Pyroxene, Usually Aegirine-augite. The Rock Was Originally Described From Russia Where It Occurs In Various Parts Of The Kola Peninsula. Typically The Pyroxene Is Well Crystallized, The Nepheline Allotriomorphic. Accessory Minerals Include Melanite-garnet, Titanite, Apatite, Cancrinite And ...

Ikhnaton
Ikhnaton (sometimes Spelt Akhenaton), The Name As Sumed By Amenhotep Iv. Of Egypt. An Adequate Understanding Of The Origins And The History Of The Religious Revolution Carried Through By This Earliest Known Idealist Is Impossible Without Some Knowledge Of The Histori Cal And Political Situation Of His Generation. When He ...

Iki
Iki, An Island Belonging To Japan, Lying Off The North-western Coast Of Kyushu, In 45' N. Lat. And 129° 4o' E. Long. It Has A Circumference Of 86 M., An Area Of 51 Sq.m., And A Population Of C. 50,000. The Island Is, For The Most Part, A Tableland About ...

Ilagan
Ilagan, A Municipality (with Administration Centre And 57 Barrios Or Districts), And Capital Of The Province Of Isabela, Luzon, Philippine Islands, On An Elevated Site At The Confluence Of The Abuluan And Cagayan Rivers, About 200 M. N.n.e. Of Manila. It Was Formerly Included In The Province Of Nueva Ecija. ...

Ilchester
Ilchester, Market Town, Somersetshire, England, In The Valley Of The River Ivel Or Yeo, 5 M. N.w. Of Yeovil. Pop. (1931) 485. Ilchester (cain Pensavelcoit, Ivelcestre, Yevel Chester) Was A Fortified British Settlement, And Later A Military Station Of The Romans, On The Fosse Way. Its Importance Con Tinued In ...

Iletsk
Iletsk, A Settlement In The Province Of Orenburg In The R.s.f.s.r., In 51° Io' N. And S5° E., 48 M. S. Of The Town Of Orenburg By The Railway To Tashkent, Near The Ilek River, A Tribu Tary Of The Ural. Pop. (1926) 11,058. Rock-salt Is Worked Here To The ...

Ilfeld
Ilfeld, A Town In The Prussian Province Of Saxony, At The South Foot Of The Harz, At The Entrance To The Bahrethal, 8 M. N. From Nordhausen By The Rail To Wernigerode. Pop. 2,021. Ilfeld, As A Town, Dates From The I4th Century, When It Sprang Up Round A Benedictine ...

Ilford Great Ilford
Ilford (great Ilford), An Urban District Of Essex, Eng Land, On The Roding, 7 M. E.n.e. Of London By Rail. Pop. (19oi ) 131,046. A Portion Of Hainault Forest Lies Within The Parish. The Hospital Of St. Mary And St. Thomas, Founded In The 12th Century As A Leper Hospital, ...

Ilfracombe
Ilfracombe, A Watering-place Of Devonshire, England, On The Bristol Channel, 225 M. W. By S. Of London By Rail. Pop. Of Urban District (1931) 9.14. In The Late 13th Century It Obtained A Grant For Holding A Fair And Market, And In The Reign Of Edward Iii. It Supplied Six ...

Ilhavo
Ilhavo, A Portuguese Seaport On The Lagoon Of Aveiro (q.v.). Pop. (193o) 1 1,250. Ilhavo Is Inhabited Chiefly By Fisher Men, But Has A Celebrated Manufactory Of Glass And Porcelain, The Vista-alegre, At Which The Art Of Glass-cutting Has Reached A High Degree Of Perfection. Salt Is Largely Exported. Ilhavo ...

Ili
Ili, A River Of Central Asia, Flowing For The Greater Part Of Its Course Through The Kazakstan A.s.s.r. The Head-stream, Called The Tekez, Rises At An Altitude Of Ii,600 Ft. East Of Lake Issyk-kul In 82° 2 5' E. And 43° 23' N., On The West Slopes Of Mount Kash ...

Ilion
Ilion, A Village Of Herkimer County, N.y., U.s.a.; S.e. Of Utica, On The Mohawk River And The State Barge Canal. It Is Served By The New York Central And The West Shore Railways. The Population In 193o Was 9,89o. It Has Notable Manufactures, Including The Remington Typewriters, Cash Registers And ...

Ilkeston
Ilkeston, Market Town, Municipal Borough, Ilkeston Parlia Mentary Division, Derbyshire, England, 9 M. North-east Of Derby On The L.m.s. And L.n.e. Railways. Pop. (1931) 32,809 It Is Situated On A Hill Commanding Fine Views Of The Erewash Valley. The Church Of St. Mary Is Norman And Early English, And Has ...

Ilkley
Ilkley, An Urban District In The West Riding Of Yorkshire, England, 16 M. N.w. From Leeds On The L.m.s. And L.n.e. Rail Ways, In Middle Wharfedale And Extending To Ilkley Moor. Pop. , 9,721. It Is A Health Resort And Has Several Hydropathic Establishments. The Remains Of Bolton Abbey Lie ...

Ill
Ill, A River Of France, Entirely Within The Departments Of Bas Rhin And Haut-rhin. It Rises On A North Foothill Of The Jura, South-west Of Basel, And Flows North-north-east, Parallel With The Rhine, Which It Enters From The Left, 9 M. Below Strassburg. Its Course Lies For The Most Part ...

Illawarra
Illawarra, A Fertile District Of New South Wales, Aus Tralia, Extending From About 33 M. S. Of Sydney, Along The Coast Southwards For 4o M. To Shoalhaven. It Is Thickly Populated, And Supplies Sydney With The Greater Part Of Its Dairy Produce. There Are Also Numerous Collieries, And Iron Ore, ...

Illegitimacy
Illegitimacy, The State Of Being Of Illegitimate Birth (from Lat. Illegitiinus, Not In Accordance With The Law, Hence Born Out Of Wedlock). Illegitimacy May Be Measured In Various Ways, The Most Common Being By Stating The Proportion Of Illegi Timate To Total Births. Another Method, Claimed As Being A Better ...

Iller
Iller, A Tributary Of The Danube. It Rises In The Algauer Alps, Flows Northward Through Upper Bavaria For 103 M., And, After Passing Immenstadt And Kempton, Joins The Danube Near Ulm. (see Danube.) ...

Illinium
Illinium. In 1926, B. S. Hopkins Definitely Identified The Chemical Element Of Atomic Number 61 And Gave It This Name. In The Same Year Corke, James And Fogg Independently Ob Tained It And Measured The Lines Of Its X-ray Spectrum. (see Rare Earths.) Certain Italian Chemists Claimed Priority In This ...

Illinois Central System
Illinois Central System Is The Principal North And-south Railroad Of The United States. It Was Incorporated In 1851 To Build Lines Between Cairo And East Dubuque And Between Centralia And Chicago, In Illinois. Construction Was Completed In 1856. Additional Lines Were Subsequently Built Or Acquired In Illinois, Indiana, Wisconsin, Minnesota, ...

Illinois Or
Illinois Or Il'i-noiz), The Prairie State, One Of The North Central Group Of The United States Of America, Situated Between 37° And 42° 30' N. Lat. And 35' And 91° 31' W. Longitude. It Is Bounded On The North By Wisconsin, East By Lake Michigan And Indiana, South-east And South ...

Illiteracy
Illiteracy. In The More Restricted And Technical Sense Of The Term An Illiterate Person Is One Who Is Unable To Read And Write His Own Language. The Tests Of This Ability Vary Greatly, But All Are So Simple That A Person Could Easily Pass Them And Yet Be Illiterate In ...

Illorin
Illorin, A Province Of Northern Nigeria, British West Africa. Area. 17,779 Sq.m.; Population (1926) 519,627. It Lies West Of The Niger And Is Bounded West By French Territory (dahomey). The Province Consists Mainly Of Open Plains And River Valleys And Is Separated From Southern Nigeria By A Range Of Well ...

Illuminated Manuscripts
Illuminated Manuscripts. Illumination, In Art, Is A Term Applied To The Embellishment Of Written Or Printed Text Or Design With Colours Or Gold And, Rarely, With Silver. The Old Form Of The Verb "to Illuminate" Was "to Enlumine," And I3th Cen Tury Laymen Who Practised The Art Were Called "enlumineurs." ...

Illuminati
Illuminati (lat. Illurninare), A Designation In Use From The 1 Sth Century, And Applied To, Or Assumed By, Enthusiasts Of Types Distinct From Each Other, According As The "light" Claimed Was Viewed As Directly Communicated From A Higher Source, Or As Due To A Clarified And Exalted Condition Of The ...

Illuminating Engineering
Illuminating Engineering, Term Now Used To Denote All Applications Of Natural And Artificial Light In The Service Of Mankind. Progress In Great Britain Since 1910 Is Largely The Result Of The Formation (in I 909) Of The Illuminating Engineer Ing Society, In Which Makers Of Lamps And Lighting Appliances And ...

Illusion
Illusion, The Experience And The Result Of Misconstruing Or Misinterpreting Some Real Sense Stimulus Or Stimuli, As When A Wax Figure At Madame Tussaud's Or Similar Exhibitions Is Mistaken For A Real Policeman, Or When A Piece Of Suitably Modelled Plasti Cine Is Mistaken For A Sausage. Something Is Actually ...

Illustration
Illustration, In Art, A Picture Which Tells A Story. On The Walls Of The Temples And Tombs In Egypt Are Many Pictures 'british Standard Specification For Portable Photometers, No. 23o 'british Standard Specification For Industrial Reflector Fittings For Electric Lighting, No. 232 (1926). 'british Standard Specification For Street Lighting, No. ...

Ilmenau
Ilmenau, A Town And Summer Resort Of Germany, In The Land Of Thuringia, At The North Of The Thuringian Forest, On The River Ilm, 3o M. By Rail South Of Erfurt. Pop. Formerly A Part Of The County Of Henneberg, Ilmenau Came In 1631 Into The Possession Of Electoral Saxony, ...

Ilmenite Or Titanic Iron Ore
Ilmenite Or Titanic Iron-ore, An Min Eral Resembling Haematite In Form And Habit And Formerly Re Garded As A Titaniferous Haematite It Is Now Considered To Be An Iron Titanate, Isomorphous With Pyrophanite (mntio3) And Geikielite, The Composition Indicated By The Formula Is Fe0 = 4 7.4 And Tio2= 5 ...

Iloilo
Iloilo, A Municipality (with Administration Centre And 16 Barrios Or Districts), The Most Important Port Of The Western Bisayan Group And The Principal Sugar Port Of The Archipelago, Capital Of The Province Of Iloilo, Panay, Philippine Islands, About 258 M. From Manila. It Is A Terminal Of The Panay Railway ...

Ilsenburg
Ilsenburg, A Village And Health Resort Of Germany, In Prussian Saxony, Situated Under The North Foot Of The Harz Mountains, At The Entrance To The Ilsethal, 6 M. N.w. From Wer Nigerode By The Railway To Goslar. Pop. (1933) 5,333. It Manu Factures Metal Wares. The Old Castle, Schloss Ilsenburg, ...

Image
Image, In General, A Copy, Representation, Exact Counter Part Of Something Else. Thus The Reflection Of A Person In A Mirror Is Called An Image. For The Worship Of Images See Idolatry And Iconoclasts. ...

Imagination
Imagination, In General, The Power Or Process Of Pro Ducing Mental Pictures Or Ideas. The Term Is Technically Used In Psychology For The Process Of Reviving In The Mind Percepts Of Objects Formerly Given In Sense Perception. Since This Use Of The Term Conflicts With That Of Ordinary Language, Some ...

Imago
Imago, A Term Used Of The Sexually Mature Stage Of An In Sect (q.v.), In Contradistinction To Its Immature Or Larval Stages. ...

Imam
Imam (arabic, "leader" In The Sense Of A "pattern Whose Ex Ample Is Followed"). In The Qur'an It Is Used Several Times Of Leaders And (ii. Ii8) Of Abraham, "lo, I Make Thee A Pattern For Mankind." Imam Thus Became The Name Of The Head Of The Muslim Community. His ...

Imbecile
Imbecile, Weak Or Feeble, Particularly In Mind. The Term "imbecility" Is Used Conventionally Of A Condition Of Mental Degeneration Less Profound Than "idiocy" (see Insanity). ...

Imbrex
Imbrex, In Architecture, One Of The Raised, Covering Tiles, Placed Over The Joints Between The Flat Or Pan Tiles In An Ancient Greek Or Roman Roof. The Pan Tiles Were Laid With The Joints In Each Course, Or Row, Exactly In Line With The Joints Above And Below, So That ...

Imbros
Imbros, An Island In The Aegean Belonging To Turkey, At The Southern End Of The Thracian Chersonese Peninsula. Herodotus (v. 26) Mentions It As An Abode Of The Historic Pelasgians (q.v.). It Was, Like Samothrace, A Seat Of The Worship Of The Cabeiri (q.v.). There Is Much Volcanic Rock And ...

Imhotep
Imhotep, A Famous Physician And Sage Of Ancient Egypt, Who Afterwards Became The God Of Medicine. Egyptian Texts Speak Of Imhotep As A Minister Who Lived In The Reign Of The Pharaoh Zoser Of The Third Dynasty (c. 298o B.c.). He Acquired A Great Reputation For His Wisdom And Learning ...

Imitation
Imitation, Reproduction Or Repetition Of An Action Or Thought As Observed In Another Person Or In Oneself, Or The Con Struction Of One Object In The Likeness Of Another. By Some Writ Ers (e.g., Preyer And Lloyd Morgan) The Term "imitation" Is Limited To Cases In Which One Person Copies ...

Immanence
Immanence, In Philosophy And Theology A Term Applied, In Contradistinction To "transcendence," To The Fact Or Condition Of Being Entirely Within Something (from Lat. In-manere, To Dwell In, Remain). Its Most Important Use Is For The Theological Conception Of God As Existing In And Throughout The Created World, As Opposed, ...

Immanuel Ben Solomon
Immanuel Ben Solomon (c. 133o), He Brew Poet, Was Born In Rome. He Was A Contemporary And Friend Of Dante, And His Verse Shows The Influence Of The "divine Poet." Immanuel's Fame Chiefly Rests On His Poems, Especially The Collec Tion (in The Manner Of Harizi, Q.v.) Entitled Mehabberoth, A ...

Immersion
Immersion, The Act Of Being Plunged Into A Fluid, Or Being Overwhelmed By Anything ; In Astronomy, The Disappearance Of A Heavenly Body In The Shadow Of Another, Especially Of A Satellite In The Shadow Of Its Primary. ...

Immigration
Immigration, The Movement Of Population, Other Than That Of Casual Visitors Or Travellers, Into One Country From Another. See Migration ; Population. ...

Immingham
Immingham, Seaport, Lincolnshire, England, On The South Shore Of The Humber Estuary, 9 M. S.e. Of Hull And 5 M. N.w. Of Grimsby. The Docks Belong To The L.n.e. Railway Company And Consist Of A Square Basin And Two Long Arms (including A Graving Dock), Of A Total Area Of ...

Immolation
Immolation, The Ceremonial Rites Performed In The Prep Aration Of Victims For Sacrificial Purposes. The Human Sacrifice Or Sati (suttee) Of India Consists Of The Immolation Of A Widow On The Funeral Pyre Of Her Husband And The Khond Sacrifice Of The Meriah; The Days Preceding The Sacrifice Being Devoted ...

Immortality
Immortality, The Condition Or Quality Of Being Exempt From Death Or Annihilation. The Belief In Human Immortality In Some Form Is Almost Universal ; Even In Early Animistic Cults The Germ Of The Idea Is Present, And In All The Higher Religions It Is An Important Feature. This Article Is ...

Immunity
Immunity (see Also Bacteria And Disease). The Term "immunity" Is Used In Science In The Technical Sense. An Animal Is Described As Naturally Immune Against The Microbe Of A Disease If The Microbe In Question Cannot Establish Itself In The Organism And As Artificially Immune If It Was Naturally Susceptible ...

Immunity_2
Immunity, In Law, A Term For Exemption From Liability, Principally Used In The Legal Sense In Connection With Exterri Toriality (q.v.). ...

Imola
Imola, A Town And Episcopal See Of Emilia, Italy (anc. Forum Cornelii), Province Of Bologna, 21 M. Southeast Of That Town By Rail, 14o Ft. Above Sea-level. Pop. (town) ; 40,030 (commune). The Cathedral Of S. Cassiano Possesses In Teresting Reliquaries, And Contains The Tomb Of Petrus Chrysologus, Archbishop Of ...

Imp
Imp, Originally A Shoot Of A Plant Or Tree Used For Grafting (o.e. Impa, A Graft, Shoot). The Verb "to Imp" Was Especially Used Of The Grafting Of Feathers On To The Wing Of A Falcon Or Hawk To Replace Broken Plumage, And Is Frequently Used Meta Phorically. Like "scion," ...

Impatiens
Impatiens, In Botany, A Genus (family Balsaminaceae) Of Annual Or Biennial Herbs, Sometimes Becoming Shrubby, Comprising Some 35o Or More Species, Chiefly Natives Of The Mountains Of Tropical Asia And Africa, But Also Found Widely Distributed In The North Temperate Zone And In South Africa. The Flowers, Which Are Purple, ...

Impeachment
Impeachment, The English Form Of Judicial Parliamen Tary Procedure Against Criminals, In Which The House Of Commons Are The Prosecutors And The House Of Lords The Judges. It Differs From Bills Of Attainder (q.v.) In Being Strictly Judicial. When The House Of Commons Has Accepted A Motion For Impeachment, The ...

Imperia
Imperia, A City Of Liguria, Italy, The Capital Of The Province Of Imperia, On The Coast Of The Ligurian Sea, 46 M. By Rail East Of Nice And 7o M. South-west Of Genoa, 115 Ft. Above Sea-level. The Pop. Of The Commune In 1931 Was 28,727. It Consists Of A ...

Imperial Chamber
Imperial Chamber (reichskammergericht), The Su Preme Judicial Court Of The Holy Roman Empire, During The Period Between And The Dissolution Of The Empire In I8o6. From The Early Middle Ages There Had Been A Supreme Court Of Justice For The Empire—the Hofgericht, In Which The Emperor Himself Presided And A ...

Imperial Chemical Industries Limited
Imperial Chemical Industries Limited. This British Joint Stock Company, Which Has An Authorized Share Capital Of F65,000,000, Came Into Being Through A Discussion On Board The "aquitania" In Oct. 1926 Between Sir Alfred Mond And Sir Harry Mcgowan, The Chairmen Respectively Of Brunner Mond And Co., Ltd., And Nobel Industries, ...

Imperial Cities Or Towns
Imperial Cities Or Towns Is The Usual English Translation Of Reichsstadte, An Expression Of Frequent Occurrence In German History. These Were Cities And Towns Subject To No Authority Except That Of The Emperor, Or German King, In Other Words They Were Immediate ; The Earliest Of Them Stood On The ...

Imperial Economic Committee
Imperial Economic Committee. This Is A British Imperial Body, Which Owes Its Authority To Resolutions Adopted At The Imperial Conference. It Continues From One Imperial Conference To The Next; It Is Constituted Of Members Appointed By The Several Governments Of The British Empire; It Deals With Subjects Remitted To It ...

Imperial Preference
Imperial Preference. This Consists In The Charging, By States Belonging To The British Empire, Of Lower Import Duties On Goods Coming From Another State Of The Empire Than On Like Goods Coming From Countries Outside The Empire, Or In Exempting Empire Goods From Duty Altogether. Until After The Middle Of ...

Imperial Tobacco Company Limited
Imperial Tobacco Company Limited. This British Combine, The Full Title Of Which Is The Imperial Tobacco Company (of Great Britain And Ireland), Limited, Was Formed In 1901 To Incorporate A Number Of The Leading British Tobacco Manu Facturers, Including W. D. And H. O. Wills, Lambert And Butler, John Player ...

Imperial Valley
Imperial Valley, A Depressed Area In Imperial County, California, And Extending Into The Mexican Territory Of Lower California. It Is Approximately No M. Long By 4o M. Wide, And Constitutes A Part Of What Is Known As The Colorado Desert. That The Valley Was Formed By Constructional Depression Rather Than ...

Implement
Implement, A Term Used In The Plural Of Weapons And Tools, And Hence Of The Necessary Outfit Of A Trade. In Its Original Latin Sense Of "filling Up" The Term Survives In Scots Law, Mean Ing Full Performance Of Or "fulfilment Of" A Contract Or Agree Ment ; "to Implement" ...

Impluvium
Impluvium, In The Classic Roman House, The Basin, Or Depressed Portion Of The Floor In The Centre Of The Atrium (q.v.) Immediately Beneath The Compluvium Or Hole In The Roof. It Was Generally Of Marble, And Drained To A Cistern. ...

Importing In Practice
Importing: In Practice. Imports Can Be Divided Into Those Sent Forward "on Consignment" And Those Arriving "against Orders." In Either Case The British Importer's Duty Is To Superintend The Reception, Clearance And Delivery Of Goods, Either On His Own Behalf Or In The Service Of A Principal. He Must Receive ...

Imports
Imports. A Term Used To Describe The Commodities Brought Into A Country By The Operations Of Commerce. Considered Eco Nomically, The Imports Into A Country Represent Payments To The Importing Country For (i ) Exportation Of Goods ; (2) Services, Such As The Services Of Ships, Or Commercial Or Financial ...

Imposition
Imposition, In Ecclesiastical Usage, The "laying On" Of Hands By A Bishop At The Services Of Confirmation And Ordination As A Sign Of A Spiritual Gift Or Conferring Special Service (lat. Imponere, To Place Or Lay Upon). The Word Is Also Used Of The Levying Of A Burdensome Or Unfair ...

Impost
Impost, A Tax Or Tribute, And Particularly A Duty Levied On Imported Or Exported Merchandise. In Architecture, A Moulding, Series Of Mouldings, Projecting Band, Carved Ornament Or Project Ing Block, Marking The Spring Of An Arch, And Placed At The Top Of The Pier Or Section Of Wall That Carries ...

Impresario
Impresario (ital.), Literally One Who Undertakes Any Kind Of Venture Or Enterprise (cf. Emprise) ; Hence More Specifi Cally One Who Promotes And Manages Musical And Other Enter Tainments—operas, Concerts And So Forth. Entrepreneur Has The Same Meaning. ...

Impressionism
Impressionism. In Music, Impressionism Has Been Adopted As A Term For Compositions Of A Type Analogous To Impressionist Paintings, In Which The Outlines Are Blurred And The Expression Of A Mood Or The Suggestion Of A Scene, Rather Than The Purely Musical Development And Treatment Of His Material, Has Been ...

Impressionism_2
Impressionism, A Term Applied To Certain Anti-academic And Anti-romantic Tendencies In Late I9th Century Painting, Advo Cated And Carried Into Effect By Edouard Manet, Claude Monet, Auguste Renoir, Camille Pissarro, Edgar Degas, And A Number Of Lesser Men Who Followed The Example Set By These Leaders. Originally The Word Impressionism ...

Impressment
Impressment, The Name Given In English To The Exercise Of The Authority Of The State To "press" Or Compel The Service Of The Subject For The Defence Of The Realm. Every Sovereign State Must Claim And At Times Exercise This Power. All The Monarchical, Or Republican Governments Of Europe Have ...

Imprisonment
Imprisonment, As A Legal Term Imprisonment Denotes Any Involuntary Restraint Of The Liberty Of An Individual Whether He Be Confined Within Bounds, As In A Jail Or Prison, Or Merely Sub Jected To Arrest And Detention In His Home Or Even In A Public Place. Such Detention, If Not Warranted ...

Improvisatore
Improvisatore (ital. Improvvisatore), A Word For A Poet Who Recites Verses Which He Composes On The Spur Of The Moment. It Became Recognized As An English Word In The Middle Of The 18th Century, And Is Used By Smollett In His Travels (1766). In Speaking Of A Woman, The Feminine ...

Impulse
Impulse, A Conation Or Conative Tendency Acting By Itself And Apart From The Whole System Of Motives Which Constitute The Character Of The Agent. See Volition ; Will ; Psychology, And The Bibliographies Given There. ...

Inbreeding
Inbreeding Is The Term Used To Define Any System Of Breeding Which Involves The Mating Of Relatives. It Has Been De Liberately Used By Animal Breeders Ever Since The Modern Breeds Of Livestock Were Created : It Is The Sole Method Of Reproduction Of Many Self-fertilised Plants, E.g., Beans, Barley, ...

Inca
Inca, A Peruvian Tribe, Speaking The Quichua Dialect, Who, At The Time Of The Spanish Expedition Under Pizarro, In Exercised Paramount Rule Over A Region Extending, West Of The Atlantic Slope Of South America, Between Quito In Ecuador And The River Maule In Chile. They Were A Highland People And ...

Incantation
Incantation, The Use Of Words, Spoken, Sung Or Chanted, Usually As A Set Formula, For The Purpose Of Obtaining A Result By Their Supposed Magical Power (lat. Incantare, To Chant A Magical Formula). See Magic; Spell. ...

Incendiary Mixtures
Incendiary Mixtures Are Required For The Destruc Tion Of Buildings Or Material By Fire. They Are Of Two Types: (i) Mixtures Of Inflammable Materials, Such As Pitch Or Resin, With Oxidizing Agents Such As Potassium Nitrate, Which On Ignition Pro Duce Much Flame Of Long Duration; (2) Mixtures Of The ...

Incense Cedar
Incense Cedar (libocedrus Decurrens), A Handsome North American Tree Of The Pine Family (pinaceae), Called Also White Cedar, Native To High Mountains From Oregon And Nevada To Lower California. It Is A Valuable Timber Tree, With Cinnamon Red Bark, Frequently Attaining A Height Of 15o Ft., And Sometimes A Trunk ...

Incense
Incense, The Perfume (fumigation) Arising From Certain Resins And Gum-resins, Barks, Woods, Dried Flowers, Fruits And Seeds, When Burnt, And Also The Substances So Burnt. In Its Literal Meaning The Word "incense" Is One With The Word "per Fume," The Aroma Given Off With The Smoke (per Fumum) Of Any ...

Incest
Incest, Sexual Intercourse Between Persons So Related By Kindred Or Affinity That Legal Marriage Cannot Take Place Between Them (see Marriage, Especially The Section Canon Law) . In England Incest Formerly Was Not Generally Treated As A Crime, Al Though, Along With Other Offences Against Morals, It Was Made Punishable ...

Inch
Inch, The Twelfth Part Of A Linear Foot (o.eng. Ynce From Lat, Uncia, A Twelfth Part ; See Ounce And As). As A Measure Of Rainfall An "inch Of Rain" Is Equivalent To A Fall Of A Gallon Of Water Spread Over A Surface Of About 2 Sq.ft., Or Zoo ...

Incidental Music
Incidental Music, Otherwise Music Designed To Ac Company And Support The Action Of A Spoken Play Or Other Dra Matic Performance. Very Fine Music Has Been Written In This Form, Such As That Of Beethoven For Goethe's Egmont, And Mendels Sohn's Famous Midsummer Night's Dream. ...

Inclinometer
Inclinometer, An Instrument Used For Measuring The Dip Or Inclination Of The Dipping Needle To The Horizontal (see ...

Inclosure Or Enclosure
Inclosure Or Enclosure: See Commons. ...

Income Bonds
Income Bonds, Bonds Bearing A Stipulated Interest Rate But Upon Which No Interest Is Paid Unless There Is Sufficient In Come For This Purpose After All Other Fixed Charges Have Been Met. The Non-payment Of Interest On An Income Bond When The Earn Ings Are Not Sufficient For This Purpose ...

Income Economic Definition
Income: Economic Definition. Income Has Been Defined As :—( ) "the Wealth Measured In Money Which Is At The Disposal Of An Individual Or A Community, Per Year Or Other Unit Of Time"; (2) "the Inflow Of Satisfactions From Economic Goods, Estimated In Money" (seligman) ; (3) "those Incomings Which ...

Income Tax Economic Aspect
Income Tax: Economic Aspect. The Most Im Portant Economic Aspect Of Income Taxation Is Naturally Its Effect Upon The Capacity And Psychology Of The Taxpayer, For These May Affect His Willingness To Work And To Save, And Thus Have Important Reactions Upon National Production. Any General Discussions About The Economic ...

Income Tax In Practice
Income Tax: In Practice. War Provides A Fertile Soil For The Roots Of Taxation. Perhaps The Earliest Income Tax In England Is To Be Found In The Old Land Tax. After The Revolution The War With France Led To A Considerable Sum Of Revenue Being Raised On The Land. The ...

Income Taxes In Europe
Income Taxes In Europe Income Taxes Of Various Kinds Have Been Adopted By All The European States Except Switzerland (where, However, Several Cantons Levy Such Taxes). The Following Is A Brief Outline For 1928 Of Those Imposed By France, Germany And Italy. ...

Inconvertible Paper Currency
Inconvertible Paper Currency, The Name Given To Paper Money Not Exchangeable For Gold At The Demand Of The Holder, And Therefore Possessing No Title Of Intrinsic Valid Ity. When A Bank-note Is Exchangeable On Demand For Gold, As For Example, A Bank Of England Note Prior To 1931, It Is ...

Incorporation
Incorporation, In Law, The Embodying Or Formation Of A Legal Corporation, Brought About Either By A General Rule Con Tained In Such Laws, E.g., As The Companies Acts, Or By A Special Act Of Sovereign Power, E.g., An Incorporating Statute Or Charter. The Word Is Used Also In The Sense ...

Increasing Returns
Increasing Returns. In Economics, A Term Used To Describe A Condition Of Production In Which The Application To Land Of Additional Capital And Labour Produces A Greater Proportionate Return. This Phenomenon Is Especially Common In The Fields Of Transportation, Mining, Manufacturing, And Electrical Generation. For Example, The Investment Of £i,000 ...

Increment Value Duty
Increment Value Duty. A Duty Called By This Name Was First Imposed By The Parliament Of The United Kingdom In 191o, The Tax Being One Of The Highly Controversial Measures Con Tained In The Finance Act 1909-1 O. The Rate Of Duty Was One Pound For Every Complete Five Pounds ...

Incubators
Incubators. Boxes Or Rooms Of Special Construction De Signed For The Maintenance Of A Constant Internal Temperature, Usually Blood Heat Or Room Temperature. The Commonest Uses Of Such Contrivances Are In Bacteriology, In The Poultry Industry And For The Rearing Of Prematurely-born Infants. ...

Incubus
Incubus, The Name Given In The Middle Ages To A Male Demon Which Was Supposed To Haunt Women In Their Sleep, And To Whose Visits The Birth Of Witches And Demons Was Attributed. The Word Is A Late Latin Derivation (augustine, Civ. Dei, Is. 23) Of The Classical Incubare, To ...

Incumbent
Incumbent, A General Term For The Holder (rector, Vicar, Curate In Charge) Of An Ecclesiastical Benefice (see Benefice). In Scotland The Title Is Generally Confined To Clergy Of The Episcopal Church. ...

Incunabula
Incunabula, A Latin Neuter-plural Meaning "swaddling Clothes," A "cradle," "birthplace," And So The Beginning Of Any Thing, Now Curiously Specialized To Denote Books Printed In The I Sth Century. Its Use In This Sense May Have Originated With The Title Of The First Separately Published List Of 15th Century Books, ...

Indaba
Indaba, A Zulu-bantu Word, Formed From The Inflexional Prefix In And Daba, Business, News, For An Important Conference Held By The "indunas" Or Principal Men Of The Kafir (zulu-xosa) Tribes Of South Africa. ...