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Encyclopedia Britannica Volume 2 Annu - Baltic

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Modern Architecture
Modern Architecture Science, Highly Developing Transit And Communication, Has Knit All Parts Of The World So Closely Together, And So Reduced Time And Distance, That For Any Nation To Develop A Purely Indigenous Archi Tecture Would Mean That The Material And Spiritual Status Of Its People Had Been Untouched By ...

Modern Architecture_2
Modern Architecture, 18th And 19th Centuries), A Period That To-day Seems To Have Been Compounded Of Pompous And Com Placent Materialism, Conventionality And Self-sufficiency. While Painters, Writers And Musicians Were Preoccupied With Develop Ing New Forms Of Expression, Architects, In Both Europe And America, Were Chiefly Concerned With Adapting, And ...

Modern Astronomy
Modern Astronomy The Law Of Gravitation.—the Accumulation Of Facts Does Not In Itself Constitute Science. Empirical Knowledge Scarcely De Serves The Name. Vere Scire Est Per Causas Scire. Francis Bacon's Prescient Dream, However, Of A Living Astronomy By Which The Physical Laws Governing Terrestrial Relations Should Be Extended To The ...

Morale In War
Morale In War Modern Conditions Of War Are Gradually Extending The Domain Of Morale And Increasing Its Influence. For, Among Belligerent Nations. War Affects A Greater Number Of People And Does So With Methods Of Increasing Violence. I. The Soldier In The Ranks In Battle, An Enemy's Long-range Guns Make ...

Moritz Auffenberg Komarow
Auffenberg-komarow, Moritz, Ritter Von Austrian General, Was Born May 22, 1852, At Troppau And Died On May 18, 1928. A Most Able Soldier, Auffen Berg Was One Of The Leaders Of The Austrian Military Party Which Centred Round The Archduke Franz Ferdinand. He Was Minister Of War From Sept. 1911 ...

Morphology
Morphology All Arthropoda Differ From The Annelida In Having Some Of The Anterior Somites Coalesced To Form The "head." This Is Doubt Less Associated With The Modification Of Some Of The Anterior Ap Pendages To Serve As Jaws. Further, There Has Taken Place, As Ray Lankester First Showed, A Backward ...

Multiplication Of Bacteria
Multiplication Of Bacteria Mode Of A Bacterial Cell Is About To Divide, The Material Of The Cell Is Gradually Increased Till Its Vol Ume Is Practically Doubled, Spherical Forms Become Oval And Rod Forms Stretch To Nearly Double Their Length, The Cell Then Be Comes Constricted At The Middle And ...

Nancy Witcher Astor
Astor, Nancy Witcher, Viscountess ), Daughter Of Chiswell Dabney Langhorne, Was Born On May 19, 1879, At Mirador, Virginia. In 1897 She Married Robert Gould Shaw Of Boston, From Whom She Obtained A Divorce In 1903, And In 1906 Married Waldorf Astor. When Her Husband Succeeded To The Viscountcy, Lady ...

Nathan Appleton
Appleton, Nathan , American Merchant And Politician, Was Born In New Ipswich (n.h.), Oct. 6, He Was Educated In The New Ipswich Academy, And In 1794 En Tered Mercantile Life In Boston, In The Employment Of His Brother, Samuel (1766-1853), A Successful And Benevolent Man Of Busi Ness, With Whom ...

Nathan Or Nathaniel Bailey
Bailey, Nathan Or Nathaniel (d. '742), English Philologist And Lexicographer. He Compiled A Dictionarium Britannicum: A More Compleat Universal Etymological English Dictionary Than Any Extant, Bearing The Date 173o, But Supposed To Have Been Published In 1721. This Formed The Basis Of Dr. John Son's Great Work. Bailey, Who Was ...

Nathaniel Bacon
Bacon, Nathaniel (c. 1647-1676), A Virginian Colonial Politician And Soldier, Was Born At Friston Hall In Suffolk, England. He Graduated At Cambridge When About 21 Years Of Age, But Had Interrupted His Studies In 1663 To Join A Party Which Made An Extended Trip Through The Netherlands, Germany, Italy And ...

Nature Of Antarctic Regions
Nature Of Antarctic Regions The Antarctic Region Is Roughly That Part Of The Globe Encircled By The 6oth South Parallel, Which For Reference Purposes Is Cus Tomarily Divided Into Quadrants, Reckoned Eastward From Green Wich Meridian Under The Names Enderby, Victoria, Ross And Wendell. More Useful To The Reader, If ...

Neil Arnott
Arnott, Neil (1788-1874), Scottish Physician, Was Born At Arbroath May 15 1788, And Died In London On March 2 1874. He Invented The "arnott Water-bed," The "arnott Venti Lator," The "arnott Stove," Etc. He Was A Strong Advocate Of Scientific, As Opposed To Purely Classical, Education ; And Gave Ł2,000 ...

Neolithic
Neolithic Civilization Is The Right Word To Use For This Stage Of Man's His Tory, For The Mode Of Life And General Outlook Of The Folk Of The New Stone Age Was Profoundly Different From That Of Their Palae Olithic And Mesolithic Forerunners. For This Change Four New Dis Coveries ...

New Babylonian Empire
New Babylonian Empire When The Assyrian Capital Fell After A Long War Conducted By The Medes, Babylonians And Scythians In 612 B.c., And The Last Assyrian Resistance At Harran Failed In 6o6 B.c., The Chaldaean Dynasty Founded At Babylon In 625 By Nabopolassar Was Firmly Established. The Chaldaean Race First ...

New Testament Apocalyptic
New Testament Apocalyptic When We Pass From Jewish Literature To That Of The New Testa Ment We Enter Into A New And Larger Atmosphere At Once Recalling And Transcending What Had Been Best In The Prophetic Periods Of The Past. Again The Heavens Had Opened And The Divine Teaching Come ...

Newton Diehl Baker
Baker, Newton Diehl (1871-1937), American Law Yer, Administrator, And Party Leader, Was Born At Martinsburg, W. Va., Dec. 3, 1871. He Was Educated At Johns Hopkins (b.a. 1892) And At Washington And Lee (ll.b., 1894). In 1897 He Began The Practice Of Law In His Native Town, Removing Later To ...

Nicolas Antonio
Antonio, Nicolas (1617-1684), Spanish Bibliographer, Was Born At Seville On July 31, 1617, And Died At Madrid In The Spring Of 1684. His Bibliotheca Hispana Nova, Dealing With The Works Of Spanish Authors Who Flourished After Appeared In Rome In 1672 ; The Bibliotheca Hispana Vetus, A Literary History Of ...

North And East Asia
North And East Asia This Region Includes China Proper, Manchuria—now Included Within The Borders Of China—and Japan, And Is Most Conveniently Divided On A Geographical Basis Into Two Parts, The Mainland And The Island Portion. The Remoteness Of The Latter From Other Parts Of The World And Its Geographical Isolation ...

Of Valence Aymer Or
Aymer Or Aethelmar, Of Valence (d. 126o), Bishop Of Winchester, Was A Half-brother Of Henry Iii., Being The Son Of John's Widow By Her Second Marriage With Hugo Of Lusig Nan. In 12 5o, Henry Iii., The King, By Putting Strong Pressure Upon The Electors, Succeeded In Obtaining The See ...

Old Testament Apocalyptic
Old Testament Apocalyptic I. Canonical: Isa. Xxiv.–xxvii. ; Xxxiii. ; Xxxiv.–xxxv. (jer. Xxxiii. ; Ezek. Ii. 8; Xxxviii.–xxxix. ; Joel Iii. 9-17 ; Zech. Xii.–xiv. ; Daniel All These Are Probably Pseudepigraphic Except The Passages From Ezekiel And Joel. Of The Remaining Passages And Books Daniel Belongs Unquestionably To The ...

Old Testament Apocryphal Books
Old Testament Apocryphal Books We Shall Now Proceed To Enumerate The Apocryphal Books; First The Apocrypha Proper, And Next The Rest Of The Old And New Testament Apocryphal Literature. I. The Apocrypha Proper, Or The Apocrypha Of The Old Testa Ment As Used By English-speaking Protestants, Consists Of The Following ...

Operations With Integral Numbers
Operations With Integral Numbers It Is At Present The Custom To Refer To Four Fundamental Opera Tions With Numbers—addition, Subtraction, Multiplication And Division. This Classification Is Convenient But Arbitrary. Histor Ically, The Number Was At One Time Given As Nine ; At Other Times, Eight; And At Others, Seven, Six ...

Optic Axis
Axis, Optic, The Direction In A Crystal Along Which The Ordinary And Extraordinary Rays Are Propagated With The Same Velocity. (see Polarization Of Light.) ...

Or Anointing
Anointing, Or Greasing With Oil, Fat Or Melted Butter, A Process Employed Ritually In All Religions And Among All Races, Civilized Or Savage, Partly As A Mode Of Ridding Persons And Things Of Dangerous Influences And Diseases, And Partly As A Means Of Introducing Into Things And Persons A Sacramental ...

Or Aphonia
Aphonia, Or Loss Of Voice, Is A Symptom Of Disease Of The Larynx Or Interference With The Nervous Mechanism Which Controls Its Muscles. Of Causes In The Larynx Itself, The Commonest Is Acute Catarrhal Laryngitis, In The Course Of A Cold, Or Of Ter Over Use Of The Voice. More ...

Or Archchancellor
Archchancellor, Or Chief Chancellor, A Title Given To The Highest Dignitary Of The Holy Roman Empire, And Also Used Occasionally During The Middle Ages To Denote An Official Who Supervised The Work Of Chancellors Or Notaries. A Charter Of The Emperor Lothair I. Dated 844 Refers To Agilmar, Archbishop Of ...

Or Augmentation
Augmentation, Or Enlargement, A Term In Heraldry For An Addition To A Coat Of Arms; In Biology, An Addition To The Normal Number Of Parts; In Scots Law, An Increase Of A Minister's Stipend By An Action Called "process Of Augmentation." The "court Of Augmentation" In Henry Viii.'s Time Was ...

Organic Derivatives Of Arsenic
Organic Derivatives Of Arsenic Aliphatic Compounds.—the First Organometallic Material, A Fuming Liquid, Was Discovered By L. C. Cadet De Gassicourt In 1760 On Heating Together White Arsenic And Potassium Acetate. The Product Was Subsequently Shown By R. W. Bunsen (1837-43) To Consist Principally Of The Substance For Which The Name ...

Other Commercial Uses Of
Other Commercial Uses Of Aircraft There Are Many Kinds Of Work That Can Be Done By Aircraft More Rapidly And At Least As Cheaply As By Less Up-to-date Trans Port. The First Steps Were Taken In Canada Where Aircraft Have Taken A Constantly Increasing Share Of The Work Of Survey ...

Palaeolithic
Palaeolithic In 1836 Christien Thomsen Suggested That Human History Could Be Divided Into Three Main Stages : The First During Which Metal Was Unknown And All Tools, Weapons, Etc., Were Made Of Wood, Stone, Bone, Antlers Or Ivory; A Second When The Smelt Ing Of Copper And The Hardening Effect ...

Pedro Pablo Abarca De
Aranda, Pedro Pablo Abarca De Bolea, Count Of Spanish Minister And General, Was Born At The Castle Of Sietamo, A Lordship Of His Family Near Huesca, In Aragon, Aug. I 1719. The First Half Of His Life Was Spent Alter Nately In Travel, In Soldiering And In Diplomacy. He Introduced ...

Per Daniel Amadeus Atterbom
Atterbom, Per Daniel Amadeus (1 ), Swedish Poet, Son Of A Country Parson, Was Born In The Province Of Ostergotland. He Studied In The University Of Uppsala (1805-15) And Became Professor Of Philosophy There In 1828, And Of Aes Thetics And Literature In 1835. He Was The First Great Poet ...

Persian Domination
Persian Domination When Cyrus Entered Babylon In 539 B.c. He Posed As The De Liverer Of The Land And The Chosen Of Its Gods; His Son Cambyses Fulfilled The Duties Of Every Babylonian King At The New Year Festival Of 538 B.c. Rebuilding Of The Temples At Erech And Ur ...

Peter Bagration
Bagration, Peter, Prince Russian Gen Eral Descended From The Noble Georgian Family Of The Bagratides, Entered The Russian Army In 1782, And Served For Some Years In The Caucasus. He Was Engaged In The Siege Of Ochakov (1788), And In The Polish Campaign Of 1794, Being Present At The Taking ...

Peter Bales Balesius
Bales (balesius), Peter English Calligraphist, One Of The Inventors Of Shorthand Writing, Was Born In London In And Is Described By Anthony A Wood As A "most Dexterous Person In His Profession. . . ." John Evelyn Speaks Of Him As Having Written, In The Year 1575, "the Lord's Prayer, ...

Peter Christen Asbjdrnsen
Asbjdrnsen, Peter Christen (1812-85), And Moe, Jorgen Engebretsen Collectors Of Norwegian Folk-lore, So Closely United In Their Life's Work That It Is Unusual To Name Them Apart. Asbjornsen Was Born In Chris Tiania On Jan. 15 1812 ; As Early As 1832 In His Twentieth Year, He Had Begun To ...

Petrus Baldus De Ubaldis
Baldus De Ubaldis, Petrus Italian Jurist Of The Noble Family Of The Ubaldi, Studied Civil Law At Perugia Under Bartolus, Gaining The Doctorate At The Age Of 17. Federicus Petrucius Of Siena Was His Master In The Canon Law. Upon His Promotion To The Doctorate He Went To Bologna, Where ...

Philip Danforth Armour
Armour, Philip Danforth Ameri Can Merchant And Philanthropist, Was Born In Stockbridge, N.y., May 16, 1832. He Was Educated At Cazenovia Academy, Caze Novia, N.y., Worked For Several Years On His Father's Farm, And In 1852 Went Overland To California, Where He Laid The Foundations Of His Fortune. In 1856 ...

Philip Howard
Philip Howard (1557-95), 1st Earl Of Arundel, Eldest Son Of Thomas Howard, 4th Duke Of Norfolk, Executed For High Treason In 1572, And Of Lady Mary, Daughter And Heiress Of Henry Fitz Alan, 12th Earl Of Arundel, Was Born On June 28 1557. He Was Mar Ried In 1571 To ...

Philip James Bailey
Bailey, Philip James ), English Poet, Author Of Festus, Was Born At Nottingham And Had A Legal Educa Tion Though He Never Practised Seriously. He Is A Man Of One Book, The Voluminous And Incoherent Poem Of Festus, Which Appeared Anonymously In 1839, When The Author Was Only 23. He ...

Philip Van Artevelde
Artevelde, Philip Van (c. Youngest Son Of Jacob Van Artevelde (q.v.), And Godson Of Queen Philippa, Lived In Retirement Until 1381. The Ghenters Had In That Year Risen In Revolt Against The Oppression Of The Count Of Flanders, And Philip, Now 4o Years Of Age, And Without Any Military Or ...

Pierre Augereau
Augereau, Pierre Francois Charles, Duke Of Castiglione (1757-1816), Marshal Of France, Was Born In Paris In A Humble Station Of Life. In His Early Manhood He Was A Soldier Of Fortune, Serving In The Russian, Prussian, And Neapolitan Armies; But The Events Of The French Revolution Brought Him Back To ...

Pierre D Aubusson
Aubusson, Pierre D' (1423-1503), Grand Master Of The Order Of St. John Of Jerusalem, Was A Scion Of A Noble French Family, And Was In Early Life A Soldier Of Fortune Under The Emperor Sigismund. On His Return To France He Fought With The Armagnacs Against The Swiss, Distinguishing Himself ...

Pierre Hyacinthe Azais
Azais, Pierre Hyacinthe French Philosopher, Was Born At Soreze And Died At Paris. The Son Of The Musician P. H. Azais (1743-96), He Spent His Early Years As A Teacher And A Village Organist. In 1809 He Published His Des Compensations Dans Les Destinees Humaines ( 5th Ed. 1846), Which ...

Pierre Marie Francois De
Baillot, Pierre Marie Francois De Sales (1771-1842), French Violinist, Was Born At Passy, Paris, On Oct. I, 1771, And Died There On Sept. 15, 1842. Baillot Was The Last Of The Great Classical Paris School Of Violinists, And His Art Du Violon (1834) Is Still A Standard Work. His Tradition ...

Pierre Simon Ballanche
Ballanche, Pierre Simon French Man Of Letters, Was Born At Lyons, Where The Horrors Of The Siege Led Him To Devote Himself To An Examination Of The Nature Of So Ciety, A Work Which Brought Him'into Connection With The Literary Circle Of Chateaubriand And Madame Recamier. His Great Work Is ...

Pietro Aretino
Aretino, Pietro (1492-1556), Italian Author, Born April 20 149 2. Banished From Arezzo, His Birthplace, For Writing A Satirical Sonnet Against Indulgences, He Made His Way To Rome, Where He Found Favour With Pope Leo X., Until The Composition, In 1523, Of His Obscene "sonnetti Lussuriosi." He Then Left Rome, ...

Pietro Badoglio
Badoglio, Pietro (1871– ), Italian General, Was Born At Grazzano Monferrato, Sept. 28, 1871. In The Italo-turkish War He Served In Tripoli On The Staff. During The World War He Planned And Carried Out The Successful Attack On Monte Sabotino Which Preceded The Fall Of Gorizia In Aug. 1916 And ...

Position Warfare
Position Warfare Military Opinion Is Divided As To The Likelihood Of A Recurrence In The Future Of Periods Of Position Warfare Such As Were Experienced In The World War. Modern Armies Are Being Trained For Mobile Operations, But In Most Countries The Lessons Of Siege Warfare Which Were Learnt Between ...

Post Islamic Poetry
Post-islamic Poetry Umayyad Period.—during The Ist Century After Mohammed There Was Little Change In The General Character Of Arabic Poetry. The Four Outstanding Poets Were Akhtal (q.v.), Farazdaq (q.v.), Jarir (q.v.), And Dhu'r-rumma (ed. Macartney, Oxford, In The Work Of The Last-named It Is Already Obvious That The Qasida Is ...

Power Of Appointment
Appointment, Power Of, In English Law, An Author Ity Reserved By Or Limited To A Person By A Legal Instrument, To Dispose, Either Wholly Or Partially, Either For His Own Benefit Or For That Of Others, Of An Interest In Property Which Is Not His Own Under That Instrument. Such ...

Pre Islamic Poetry
Pre-islamic Poetry The Origins Of Arabian Poetry Can Only Be Guessed At. Poets To Whom The Earliest Pieces Are Attributed Already Exhibit A Fully Developed Art. Their Poems Are Couched In Elaborate Metres, Of Which 16 In All Were Recognized When The Metrical System Was Eventually Standardized In The 8th ...

Principles Of Art
Principles Of Art Man, Since The Earliest Period Of Which There Is Knowledge, Has Striven To Give His Impressions Form And Meaning. At Times, As In The Great Fifth Century In Greece Or In The European Renaissance, He Has Produced Work After Work Astonishingly Excellent ; And Even When Culture ...

Production And Exploitation Of
Production And Exploitation Of Antimony In 1929 China Contributed 71% Of The World's Output Of Anti Mony, Which Was About 35,000 Short Tons. In 1929 North And South America Contributed Less Than 2o% Of The World's Output. In 1937 China Supplied 43% And North And South America About 45%, Chiefly ...

Quintilianus Aristides
Aristides, Quintilianus, The Author Of A Treatise On Music, Who Lived Probably In The 3rd Century A.d. According To Meibomius, In Whose Collection (antiq. Musicae Auc. Septem, 1652) This Work Is Printed, It Contains Everything On Music That Is To Be Found In Antiquity. (see Pauly-wissowa, Realencyk, Ii. ...

Quintus Asconius Pedianus
Asconius Pedianus, Quintus (g B.c.—a.d. 76; Or A.d. 3-88), Roman Grammarian And Historian, Was Probably A Native Of Patavium (padua). In His Later Years He Resided At Rome. During The Reigns Of Claudius And Nero He Compiled For His Sons, From Various Sources—e.g., "the Gazette" (acta Publica), Shorthand Reports Or ...

Rack Or Rak Arrack
Arrack, Rack Or Rak, A Generic Name Applied To A Variety Of Spirituous Liquors Distilled In The Far East. According To Some Authorities The Word Is Derived From The Arabic Arak (perspiration), But According To Others (see Morewood's History Of Inebriating Liquors, P. 140) It Is Derived From The Arecanut, ...

Randal Macdonnell Antrim
Antrim, Randal Macdonnell, 1st Marquess Of (1609-1683), Son Of The 1st Earl Of Antrim, Was Born In 1609 And Educated As A Roman Catholic. He Married The Widow Of The 1st Duke Of Buckingham. On The Outbreak Of The Scottish War, In 1639, He Made A Scheme To Attack Argyll ...

Raymond Clare Archibald
Archibald, Raymond Clare (1875— ) , Amer Ican Mathematician, Was Born In Colchester (n.s.), Canada, On Oct. 7, 1875. He Graduated At The University Of Mt. Allison Col Lege, New Brunswick, In 1894, And From Harvard University In 1896. Following Two Years' Graduate Work At Harvard, He Studied At The ...

Relating To
Relating To Decrease Of Baby Farming.—the Following Figures Supplied By The British National Society For The Prevention Of Cruelty To Children, Show How Far Less Prevalent Baby Farming Is Becoming Than Formerly. In 1918, The Society Dealt With 29 Cases Of Baby Farming, Involving 48 Children. In 1927 The Figures ...

Religious And Memorial Architecture
Religious And Memorial Architecture Religious Architecture, Which Includes All Buildings Erected For Spiritual Or Commemorative Purposes, Appears To Be In A Transi Tional Stage. In The Endeavour To Adapt Itself To Changing Condi Tions, The Church Is Faced On One Hand With The Necessity Of Broadening Its Activities, And On ...

Renaissance Architecture
Renaissance Architecture Greece Sprang From The Seeds Of Egyptian And Western Asiatic Cultures; Rome, In Its Turn, From The Seed Of Greece. The Renais Sance (q.v.) That Started In Italy During The 14th Century Was A New Phenomenon Only In That It Affected All Western Europe And, Later, Even The ...

Rene Louis De Voyer
Rene Louis De Voyer De Paulmy, Marquis D'argenson 1757), Eldest Son Of The Preceding, Was Also A Lawyer. As Intendant Of Justice, Police And Finance In Hainaut He Was Employed In Pro Visioning The Troops, Who Were Suffering From The Economic Con Fusion Resulting From Law's System. He Returned To ...

Richard Ansdell
Ansdell, Richard (1815-1885), English Painter, Was Born In Liverpool. He Was A Popular Painter Of Genre, Chiefly Animal And Sporting Pictures. His "stag At Bay" (1146), "the Combat" (1847), And "battle Of The Standard" (1848), Represent His Best Work. ...

Richard Aungervyle
Aungervyle, Richard Commonly Known As Richard De Bury, English Bibliophile, Writer And Bishop, Was Born Near Bury St. Edmunds, Suffolk, Jan. 24 1287, And Educated At Oxford. He Was Made Tutor To Prince Edward Of Windsor (afterwards Edward Iii.), And Was Mixed Up With The Sordid Intrigues Which Preceded The ...

Richard Fitzalan
Richard Fitzalan (1267-1302), Earl Of Arundel, F Ought For Edward I. In France And Scotland, And Died March 9 1302. He Was Succeeded By His Son, Edmund (1285-1326), Who Mar Ried Alice, Sister Of John, Earl De Warenne. A Bitter Enemy Of Piers Gaveston, Arundel Was One Of The Ordainers ...

Richard Heinrich Ludwig Avenarius
Avenarius, Richard Heinrich Ludwig German Philosopher, Was Born In Paris And Died At Zurich, Where He Had Been Professor Of Philosophy For Nearly 20 Years. At Leipzig He Was One Of The Founders Of The Akademisch Philosophische Verein, And Was The First Editor Of The Viertel Jahrsschri F T Fur ...

Right Of Asylum
Asylum, Right Of. This Does Not Mean The Right Of A Fugitive To Demand Protection But The Right Of A State To Grant It. This Latter Flows From The Principle Of Sovereignty (q.v.), But It Is A Right Less And Less Insisted On With The Progress Of Civilization. Asylum May ...

Robert Applegarth
Applegarth, Robert (1834-1925), English Trade Union Leader, Was The Son Of A Sheffield Quartermaster. After Emigrating To The United States He Returned To England And Became The General Secretary Of The New Amalgamated Society Of Car Penters And Joiners In 1862. He Became The Chief Member Of The Group Of ...

Robert Asks
Asks, Robert (d. 1537), English Rebel, Was A Country Gentleman Who Belonged To An Ancient Family Long Settled In York Shire. In 1536 Aske Led The Insurrection Called The "pilgrimage Of Grace." Marching With The Banner Of St. Cuthbert And With The Badge Of The "five Wounds," He Occupied York ...

Robert Atkinson
Atkinson, Robert (1839-1908), British Philologist, Was Educated At Trinity College, Dublin. He Became Professor Of Romance Languages There In 1869, And In 1871 Was Professor Of Sanskrit And Comparative Philology. In 1884 He Became Todd Professor Of Celtic Languages In The Irish Academy. In Celtic Studies Atkinson Was A Pioneer. ...

Robert Bacon
Bacon, Robert (186o-1919), American Banker, Was Born In Boston (mass.), On July 5, 186o. He Graduated From Harvard In 188o, And The Following Year Entered The Banking Business In Boston. In 1894 He Joined The House Of J. P. Morgan And Company In New York. He Was Assistant Secretary Of ...

Robert Baddeley
Baddeley, Robert (c. 1732-1794), English Actor, Is Said To Have Been First A Cook To Samuel Foote, And Then A Valet, Before He Appeared On The Stage. In 1761, Described As "of Drury Lane Theatre," He Was Seen At The Theatre In Smock Alley, Dublin, As Gomez In Dryden's Spanish ...

Robert Baillie
Baillie, Robert Scottish Divine, Was Born At Glasgow. He Was A Member Of The Famous Glasgow Assembly (1638) , Professor Of Divinity At Glasgow (1642), One Of The Five Scottish Clergymen Who Were Sent To The Westminster Assembly (1643), And One Of The Commissioners Sent To Holland To Invite Charles ...

Robert Baillie_2
Baillie, Robert (d. 2684), Scottish Conspirator, Known As Baillie Of Jerviswood, Was The Son Of George Baillie Of St. John's Kirk, Lanarkshire. In Despair Over The State Of His Country He Determined In 1683 To Emigrate To South Carolina, But The Plan Came To Nothing. The Same Year, With Some ...

Robert Bakewell
Bakewell, Robert (1725-1795), English Agricultur Ist, Was Born At Dishley, Leicestershire, In 1725; In 1760 He Took Over The Management Of The Estate At Dishley. His Main Ob Ject Was To Improve The Breed Of Sheep And Oxen, And In This He Was Highly Successful, His New Leicestershire Breed Of ...

Robert Bakewell_2
Bakewell, Robert (1768-1843), English Geologist, Wrote An Introduction To Geology (1813) Which Reached A Fifth Edition In 1838. He Died At Hampstead On Aug. 15, 1843. ...

Robert Baldwin
Baldwin, Robert (1804-1858), Canadian Statesman, Was Born At York (now Toronto) On May 12 1804. His Father, William Warren Baldwin (d. 5844), Went To Canada From Ireland In 1798. He Opposed The Religious And Political Oligarchy Which Was Then At The Head Of Canadian Affairs, And Brought Up His Son ...

Robert Balforeus Balfour
Balfour, Robert (balforeus) (1550?-1625?), Scot Tish Philosopher, Was Educated At St. Andrews And At Paris. He Was For Many Years Principal Of Guienne College, Bordeaux. His Great Work Is His Commentarii In Organum Logicum Aristotelis (bordeaux, 1618) ; The Copy In The British Museum Contains A Number Of Highly-eulogistic Poems ...

Robert Michael Ballantyne
Ballantyne, Robert Michael Scottish Writer Of Fiction, Was Born In Edinburgh, And Came Of The Same Family As The Famous Printers And Publishers. When 16 Years Of Age He Went To Canada And Was For Six Years In The Service Of The Hudson's Bay Company. He Returned To Scotland In ...

Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden
Baden-powell, Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden Powell, 1st Baron (1857– ), Born In London, Feb. 22, 1857, Sixth Son Of Professor Baden-powell Of Oxford. He Was Educated At Charterhouse, And In 1876 Joined The 13th Hussars Regiment, With Which He Served In India, Afghanistan, And South Africa. In 1895 He Was ...

Roger Ascham
Ascham, Roger (c. 1515-1568), English Scholar And Writer, Was Born At Kirby Wiske, A Village In The North Riding Of Yorkshire, Near Northallerton, And Was Educated In The House Of Sir Humphry Wingfield, Who Became Speaker Of The House Of Commons In 1533. Sir Humphry "ever Loved And Used To ...

Roger Bacon
Bacon, Roger (c. 1214-1292), English Philosopher And Man Of Science, Known To His Successors As Doctor Mirabilis, Was Born Near Ilchester In The County Of Somerset. About 123o, He Seems To Have Been At Oxford, Though Not, As Tradition Asserts, At Merton Or At Brasenose, Neither Of Which Had Then ...

Roman Architecture
Roman Architecture Roman Architecture Owes Its Historical Importance As Much To The Quantity Produced As To Any Inherent Merit Of The Work Itself. The Etruscans, Who Were The Early Inhabitants Of Central Italy, Were Great Builders And Employed The Arched Vault In Their Structures. Rome Complicated Architecture By Combining This ...

Romanesque Architecture
Romanesque Architecture The Evolution Of Western Architecture From The End Of The Roman Empire In The West (a.d. 475) To The Renaissance Is So Intimately Related To That Of The Christian Church That Discussion Of It Belongs More Properly To A Study Of The Progress Of The Church Than To ...

Rufius Festus Avienus
Avienus, Rufius Festus, A Roman Aristocrat And Poet, Of Vulsinii In Etruria, Who Flourished During The Second Half Of The 4th Century A.d. He Was Probably Proconsul Of Africa (366) And Of Achaia (372). Avienus Was A Pagan. He Trans Lated The Matvoµeva Of Aratus And Paraphrased The Ileptsyilerts Of ...

Saint Anthony
Anthony, Saint (c. A.d. 250-350), The First Christian Monk, Was Born In Middle Egypt. At The Age Of 2n He Began To Practise An Ascetic Life, And After 15 Years Of This Life, He Withdrew For Solitude To A Mountain By The Nile, Called Pispir, Now Der El Memum, Opposite ...

Saint Aurelius Augustinus Augustine
Augustine, Saint (aurelius Augustinus) Bishop Of Hippo In Proconsular Africa, A.d. 396-430, Was Born At Tagaste, A Small Town In The Eastern Part Of The Cent Province Of Numidia, In The Year 354. His Father Patricius Became Christian Late In Life; His Mother Monica Seems To Have Been Christian From ...

Saltcoats
Saltcoats (pop. 10,173), A Mile To The South, Is A Police Burgh And A Popular Seaside Resort, With A Brisk Trade, Due To Its Prox Imity To Ardrossan And Stevenston. ...

Samuel Arnold
Arnold, Samuel (ii40-1802), English Composer, Was Born In London And Educated At The Chapel Royal, Though His Subsequent Activities Were Mainly Associated With The Stage. He Was Indeed Little More Than 20 When He Was Appointed Official Composer To Covent Garden Theatre, And Between 1765 And 1802 He Wrote As ...

Samuel Avery
Avery, Samuel (1865-1936), American Chemist And Educator, Was Born In Lamoille, Ill., On April 19, 1865. He Gradu Ated At Doane College, Crete, Neb., In 1887, And Pursued Graduate Studies At The University Of Nebraska. Later He Studied At The University Of Heidelberg, Germany, From Which In 1896 He Re ...

Samuel Bailey
Bailey, Samuel (1i91-1870), Philosopher And Econ Omist, Born At Sheffield, England, And Founder Of A Bank There. His Published Works Range Over A Wide Field, Including Pamphlets On Parliamentary Reform And On The Right Of Primogeniture And Two Volumes Containing Some Not Very Felicitous Suggestions For The Textual Emendation Of ...

Samuel Chapman Armstrong
Armstrong, Samuel Chapman American Soldier, Philanthropist And Educator, Was Born On Maui, One Of The Hawaiian Islands, On Jan. 3o, 1839, His Parents Richard And Clarissa Armstrong, Being American Missionaries. He Was Educated At Oahu College, Honolulu, And At Williams College, Williamstown, Mass., Where He Graduated In 1862. He Served ...

Samuel Putnam Avery
Avery, Samuel Putnam American Art Dealer And Connoisseur, Was Born In New York City On March 7, 1822. He Began Life As An Engraver On Copper And Executed Much Work For The Leading Publishers In His Native City. Later He Be Came A Skilled Wood-engraver And Illustrated Numerous Books. In ...

Screw Of Archimedes
Archimedes, Screw Of, A Machine For Raising Water, Said To Have Been Invented By Archimedes For The Purpose Of Removing Water From The Hold Of A Large Ship That Had Been Built By King Hiero Ii. Of Syracuse. It Consists Of A Water-tight Cylinder Which Encloses A Helix, And Has ...

Sea Of Azov
Azov, Sea Of, An Inland Sea Of Southern Europe, Com Municating With The Black Sea By The Strait Of Yenikale, Or Kerch, The Ancient Bosporus Cimmerius. To The Romans It Was Known As The Palus Maeotis. In Prehistoric Times A Connection With The Caspian Sea Existed, But Present Conditions Have ...

Second Millennium Bc
Second Millennium B.c. ...

Seleiicid Era
Seleiicid Era Alexander The Great Ordered The Clearance Of The Temple Site At Babylon, And This Was Effected In Part In The Reign Of His Posthumous Son. Seleucus I. And Antiochus I. Paid Particular Attention To Babylonia, And Seem To Have Aimed At A General Restoration Of The Old Religion. ...

Shepherd Of Hermas
Hermas, Shepherd Of). We Come Finally To The Anonymous Teaching Of The Twelve Apostles And Papias's Exposition Of Oracles Of The Lord, So Far As This Is Known To Us. The Former, Besides Embodying Catechetical Instruction In Christian Conduct (the "two Ways"), Which Goes Back In Substance To The Early ...