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Encyclopedia Britannica Volume 3 Baltimore - Braila

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Bombproof
Bombproof, In Military Language, A Shelter Proof Against Penetration By Shells. ...

Bona Fide
Bona Fide (lat. "in Good Faith"), In Law, •a Term Implying The Absence Of All Fraud. It Is Usually Employed In Conjunction With A Noun, E.g., "bona Fide Purchaser," Connoting The Absence Of Notice Of A Defect In Title; "bona Fide Holder" Of A Bill Of Ex Change (q.v.) ; ...

Bona
Bona, Bone, Seaport Of Algeria, In 36° 52' N., 7° 48' E., On A Bay Of The Mediterranean, Chief Town Of An Arrondissement In The Department Of Constantine, 220 M. By Rail West Of Tunis, And 136 M. N.e. Of Constantine. The Town, With Modern Ram Parts Outside The Arab ...

Bonanza
Bonanza, A Sudden Source Of Great Wealth ; Term Taken From The Spanish, Meaning Fair Weather Or Prosperity. The First Appearance Of This Word In The English Language Was In The South Western United States, Where The Direct Contact With Spanish Vernacular Gave Rise To Its Application In Mining Terms, ...

Bonaparte
Bonaparte, The Name Of A Family Made Famous By Napoleon I. (q.v.), Emperor Of The French. The French Form Bonaparte Was Not Commonly Used, Even By Napoleon, Until After The Spring Of 1796. The Original Name Was Buonaparte, Which Was Borne In The Early Middle Ages By Several Distinct Families ...

Bond Value Tables
Bond Value Tables, Tabulations From Which May Be Ascertained The Value Of Bonds Of Definite Maturity When Bought To Produce A Certain Rate Of Yield. The Tables Are Usually Found In Book Form, Generally Show Bond Maturity Up To 5o Years, With Stipulated Interest Rates From 3% To 7%, And ...

Bond
Bond, In English Law, An Obligation By Deed. Its Design Is To Secure That The Obligor, I.e., The Person Binding Himself By The Bond, Will Either Pay A Sum Of Money, Or Do Or Refrain From Doing Some Act ; And For This Purpose The Obligor Binds Himself In A ...

Bondager
Bondager, A Word Meaning, Generally, A Servant, But Specially Used In The South Of Scotland And Northumberland As The Term For A Female Outworker Whom A Married Farm-labourer, Living In A Cottage Attached To The Farm, Undertakes As A Condition Of His Tenancy To Supply For Field-labour, Sometimes Also To ...

Bonded Debt
Bonded Debt, That Portion Of The Indebtedness Of A Government Or Subdivision Of Government, Or Of A Business, Firm Or Corporation Which Is Represented By Outstanding Bonds. This Is Often Known As The "funded Debt." The Bonds Representing The Bonded Or Funded Debt Create A Fixed Financial Charge In The ...

Bonded Warehouse
Bonded Warehouse. A Warehouse In Which Goods Liable To Customs Or Excise Duties May Be Stored Without The Duty Being Paid, Subject To Supervision By Revenue Officers And To Secur Ity Being Given For Eventual Payment Of Duty If The Goods Are Not Exported. Bonded Warehouses Constitute An Important Feature ...

Bonding
Bonding, In Brickwork Or Masonry, The Building Of The Bricks Or Blocks In Such Fashion That The Joints Of Successive Courses Or Layers Do Not Vertically Coincide And So Weaken The Structure. This Rule Of Avoiding Adjacent Vertical Joints Is Termed "breaking Joint." There Are Various Ways Of Laying Bricks ...

Bondu
Bondu, A French Protectorate In West Africa, Dependent On The Colony Of Senegal. Bondu Lies Between The Faleme River And The Upper Course Of The Gambia, Between 13° And I5° N., And I2° And 13° W. The Country Is Plateau, Dissected In The Southern And Central Parts, Which Are Generally ...

Bone Bed
Bone Bed, A Term Loosely Used By Geologists To Denote Any Stratum Or Deposit Which Contains Bones. It Is Applied Therefore Not Only To Those Interstratified Layers Occurring At Definite Geological Horizons, But Also To The Brecciated And Stalagmitic Deposits Found On The Floors Of Caves. The Stratified Deposits Are ...

Bone Lace
Bone-lace, A Kind Of Lace Made Upon A Cushion From Linen Thread ; The Pattern Is Marked Out With Pins, Round Which Are Twisted The Different Threads, Each Wound On Its Own Bobbin. The Lace Was So Called From The Fact That Bobbins Were Formerly Made Of Bone. (see Lace.) ...

Bone
Bone, The Hard Tissue Constituting The Framework Of The Animal Skeleton. For Anatomy See Skeleton And Connective Tissues. ...

Boneset
Boneset (eupatorium Per Foliatum), A North American Plant Of The Family Compositae. It Is Also Called Thoroughwort, Ague-weed And Indian Sage, Com Mon In Wet Places From Nova Scotia To Manitoba And South Ward To Florida And Texas. It Is A Coarse, Rough, Hairy Perennial, 2 Ft. To 6 Ft. ...

Bonesetting
Bonesetting: See Manipulative Surgery. ...

Bonfire
Bonfire, A Large Fire Lit In The Open Air. The Earliest Known Instance Of The Derivation Of The Word Occurred As Ban Fyre Ignis Ossium In The Catholicon Anglicum (1483). Other Derivations Have Been Sought For The Word. Thus Some Have Thought It Baal-fire, Passing Through Bael, Baen To Bane. ...

Bongo
Bongo, A Tribe Of Nilotic Negroes, Also Known As Dor Or Deran, Probably Related To The Zande Tribes Of The Welle District, Inhabiting The South-west Portion Of The Bahr-el-ghazal Province, Sudan. The Bongo Lived In Countless Little Independent And Peace Ful Communities. Their Huts Are Well Built, And Sometimes 24f ...

Bongo_2
Bongo (boocercus Eurycerus), A West African Bushbuck, The Largest Of The Group. The Male Is Deep Chestnut, Marked On The Body With Narrow White Stripes, On The Chest With A White Crescent, And With Two White Spots Below The Eye. Both Sexes Bear Horns. ...

Bonham
Bonham, A City In The North-eastern Part Of Texas, U.s.a., 14m. S. Of The Red River And 62m. N.n.e. Of Dallas: The County Seat Of Fannin County. It Is Served By The Texas And Pacific And The Denison, Bonham And New Orleans Railways. The Population In 1920 Was 6,008, And ...

Bonheur Du Jour
Bonheur Du Jour, The Name Fora Lady's Writing-desk, So Called Because, When It Was Introduced In France About 1760, It Speedily Became Intensely Fashionable. The Bonheur Du Jour Is Always Very Light And Graceful; Its Special Characteristic Is A Raised Back, Which May Form A Little Cabinet Or A Nest ...

Boniface I
Boniface I., Pope From 418 To 422. At The Death Of Pope Zosimus, The Roman Clergy Were Divided Into Two Factions, One Of Which Elected The Deacon Eulalius, And The Other The Priest Boni Face. The Imperial Government, In The Interests Of Public Order, Commanded The Two Competitors To Leave ...

Boniface Ii
Boniface Ii., Pope From 53o To S32, Was By Birth A Goth, And Owed His Election To The Nomination Of His Predecessor, Felix Iv., And To The Influence Of The Gothic King. The Roman Electors Had Opposed To Him A Priest Of Alexandria Called Dioscorus, Who Died A Month After ...

Boniface Iii
Boniface Iii., Pope From Feb. 15–nov. 12, 6o6. He Obtained From The Emperor Phocas Recognition Of The "headship Of The Church At Rome," Which Signifies, No Doubt, That Phocas Com Pelled The Patriarch Of Constantinople To Abandon (momentarily) His Claim To The Title Of Oecumenical Patriarch. ...

Boniface Iv
Boniface Iv. (saint) Was Pope From 6o8 To 615. He Received Permission From The Emperor Phocas To Convert The Pantheon At Rome Into A Christian Church. ...

Boniface Ix
Boniface Ix. (piero Tomacelli), Pope From 1389 To 1404, Was Born At Naples Of A Poor But Ancient Family. He Was Able To Re Store Roman Authority In The Major Part Of The Papal States, And In 1398 Put An End To The Republican Liberties Of The City Itself. Boniface ...

Boniface Of Savoy
Boniface Of Savoy (d. 127o), Elected Archbishop Of Canterbury In 1243, Through The Favour Of Henry Iii., Whose Queen, Eleanor Of Provence, Was His Niece. Boniface Spent Much Of His Time On The Continent Attending To Family Affairs And Made Little Impression On Church Or State. In 125o He Pro ...

Boniface V
Boniface V., Pope From 619 To 625, Did Much For The Christian Izing Of England. Bede Mentions (hist. Eccl.) That He Wrote En Couraging Letters To Mellitus, Archbishop Of Canterbury, And Justus, Bishop Of Rochester, And Quotes Three Letters—to Justus, To Eadwin, King Of Northumbria, And To His Wife Aethelberga. ...

Boniface Vii
Boniface Vii. Was Pope From Aug. 984 To July 985. His Family Name Was Franco. In 974 He Was Substituted By Crescentius And The Romans For Benedict Vi. Who Was Assassinated. He Was Ejected By Count Sicco, The Representative Of The Emperor Otto Ii., And Fled To Constantinople. On The ...

Boniface Viii
Boniface Viii. (benedetto Gaetano), Pope From 1294 To 1303, Was Born Of Noble Family At Anagni, Studied Canon And Civil Law In Italy And Possibly At Paris. After Being Appointed To Canonicates In Both Of These Countries, He Accompanied Cardinal Ottobuona To England In 1 265 For The Purpose Of ...

Bonifacio
Bonifacio, Maritime Town, In Southern Corsica, Arrondisse Ment Of Sartene, 87m. S.s.e. Of Ajaccio By Road. Pop. (1931) Bonifacio Overlooks The Straits Of That Name Separating Corsica From Sardinia And Occupies A Remarkable Situation On A Peninsula Of Limestone Parallel To The Coast And Enclosing A Nar Row Harbour. Founded ...

Bonifacius
Bonifacius (d. The Roman Governor Of The Prov Ince Of Africa Who Is Believed To Have Invited The Vandals Into That Province (429), Though That Action Is By Procopius Attributed To His Rival Aetius. Whether He Really Invited The Vandals Or Not, There Is No Doubt That He Soon Turned ...

Bonito
Bonito (sarda Sarda), A Fish Of The Mackerel Family, Abun Dant In The Mediterranean And In The Warmer Parts Of The Atlan Tic Ocean. It Is Similar In Form To The Tunny (q.v.), But Is A Smaller Fish, Not Exceeding 3oin. In Length. The Colour Is Steel Blue Above, Silvery ...

Bonivard
Bonivard, Frangois (1496 ?-1570) , Genevan Poli Tician, The Hero Of Byron's Poem, The Prisoner Of Chillon, Was Born In Seyssel Of An Old Savoyard Family. Bonivard Has Been Described As "a Man Of The Renaissance Who Had Strayed Into The Age Of The Reformation." His Real Character And History ...

Bonn
Bonn, Town Of Rhenish Prussia, Germany, On The Left Bank Of The Rhine, 15m. S. By E. From Cologne. Pop. (1885) 35,989; (19o5) 81,997; (1933) 98,8o9. The River Is Here Crossed By A Fine Bridge (1898), 1,417ft. In Length, Flanked By An Embankment 21-m. Long, Parallel With Which Is The ...

Bonnet
Bonnet, Originally A Soft Cap Or Covering For The Head, The Common Term In English Till The End Of The 17th Century; This Sense Survives In Scotland, Especially As Applied To The Cap Known As A "glengarry." The "bonnet" Of A Ship's Sail Now Means An Addi Tional Piece Laced ...

Bononia
Bononia (mod. Bologna), An Important Town Of Gallia Cispadana (see Aemilia Via), In Italy. It Was Said By Classical Writers To Be Of Etruscan Origin, And To Have Been Founded, Under The Name Felsina, From Perusia By Aucnus Or Ocnus. Excavations Have Shown That The Site Of Bologna Was Previously ...

Bontoc Igorot
Bontoc Igorot, The Name Of A Powerful, Head-hunting Tribe Of The Island Of Luzon. The Divisions Of The Tribe Are Po Litical And Exogamic; Intensive Agriculture Is The Means Whereby Subsistence Is Obtained As, Owing To The Hilly Nature Of The Bontoc Territory, Game Is Scarce. The Language Is Somewhat ...

Bonus
Bonus, A Term Used In Business Or Finance To Describe An Exceptional, Occasional, Or Gratuitous Addition To Customary Pay Ments. It Is A Jocular And Effective Application Of The Lat. Bonus, For Bonum, "a Good Thing." When A Joint-stock Company Makes An Exceptional Profit, And Enlarges Its Dividend Temporarily, It ...

Bonze
Bonze, The European Name For The Members Of The Buddhist Religious Orders Of Japan And China. The Word Is Loosely Used Of All The Buddhist Priests In Those And The Neighbouring Countries. ( Port. Bonze From Chinese Bon-tze.) ...

Book And Candle Bell
Bell, Book And Candle, An Old Ceremony Of Pro Nouncing The "major Excommunication" Or "anathema." Its Origins Are Not Clear, E Ut It Goes Back Certainly To The End Of The 9th Century, If Not To The Middle Of The 8th. In This Formality The Bell Represents The Public Character ...

Book Collecting
Book-collecting, The Bringing Together Of Books Which In Their Contents, Their Form Or The History Of The Individual Copy Possess Some Element Of Permanent Interest, And Either Actually Or Prospectively Are Rare, In The Sense Of Being Difficult To Procure. This Qualification Of Rarity, Which Figures Much Too Largely In ...

Book Of Baruch
Book Of Baruch This Deutero-canonical Book Of The Old Testament Is Placed By The Lxx. Between Jeremiah And Lamentations, And In The Vul Gate After Lamentations. It Consists Of Several Parts, Which Cohere So Badly That We Are Obliged To Assume Plurality Of Authorship. The Book Consists Of The Following ...

Book Plates
Book-plates. The Book-plate, Or Ex-libris, A Printed Label Intended To Indicate Ownership In Books, Is Nearly As Old As The Printed Book. According To Friedrich Warnecke, Of Berlin (one Of The Best Authorities On The Subject), The Oldest Movable Ex-libris Are Certain Woodcuts Representing A Shield Of Arms Supported By ...

Book Scorpion Or False Scorpion
Book-scorpion Or False Scorpion, A Minute Arachnid (order Pseudoscorpiones), Somewhat Resembling Tailless Scorpions. Book-scorpions Occur Widely Throughout The World, Living Under Stones, Beneath Bark, Or In Vegetable Detritus. Some 'are Found In Books And Old Chests, While Others, Mostly Blind, Live In Caves. They Feed Upon Minute Insects And Mites. ...

Book Value
Book Value, The Monetary Value Of An Asset As Shown In The Books Of Account (q.v.). The Book Value Is Calculated By Deducting From The Cost Price As Shown On The Books The Depre Ciation Which Has Been Set Up Against It. Thus The Book Value Of A Machine Which ...

Bookbinder
Bookbinder, The Workman In A Printing House Or Bindery By Whom The Printed Sheets As They Come From The Press Are Folded, Stitched Or Sewed Together, Covered And Made Up Into Their Final Form As Books Or Pamphlets. Although Originally A Handicraft, Practically All Bookbinding Operations To-day Are Performed By ...

Bookbinding
Bookbinding, The Art Of Fastening Sheets Of Paper (vellum, Cloth, Papyrus, Etc.), Together To Make Into Portable Form A Written Or Printed Treatise. Bookbinding Began In The Christian Era With The Change From The Continuous Roll Or Volume To The Book Made Up Of Sepa Rate Sheets. Early Books Are ...

Bookcase
Bookcase, A Piece Of Furniture, Forming A Shelved Recep Tacle For The Storage Of Books. Books Written By Hand Were Kept In Small Coffers Which The Great Carried About With Them On Their Journeys. As Manuscript Volumes Accumulated In The Religious Houses Or In Regal Palaces They Were Stored Upon ...

Bookkeeping
Bookkeeping. A Systematic Record Of Business Trans Actions, In A Form Conveniently Available For Reference, Made By Individuals Or Corporations Engaged In Commercial Or Financial Operations With A View To Enabling Them With The Minimum Amount Of Trouble And Of Dislocation To The Business Itself To As Certain At Any ...

Books Close
Books Close, A Term Indicating The Day On Which The Transfer Books Of A Corporation Are Closed To Permit The Making Of An Accurate List Of Stockholders To Whom To Send Dividends. Regardless Of Who May Actually Own A Share Of Stock, The Issuing Corporation Has No Further Liability Than ...

Books Of Account
Books Of Account, A Complete System Of Accounting Records Used By A Person, Business Or Organization For The Purpose Of Providing A Permanent Entry Of Financial Transactions. The Financial Status Of An Individual Or An Organization Can Be Accu Rately Determined Only Through The Operation Of An Adequate Set Of ...

Books
Books. Book Is The Name For Any Literary Production Of Some Bulk, Now Applied Particularly To A Printed Composition Form Ing A Volume, Or, If In More Than One Volume, A Single Organic Literary Work. ...

Bookselling
Bookselling. The Trade In Books Is Of A Very Ancient Date, The Oldest Reference To It Occurring In Egyptian Literature. The Early Poets And Orators Recited Their Effusions In Public To In Duce Their Hearers To Possess Written Copies Of Their Poems Or Orations. Frequently They Were Taken Down Viva ...

Boom
Boom, A Pole, Bar Or Barrier (cf. Ger. Baum, Tree, Eng. Beam) ; Applied As A Nautical Term To A Long Spar Used To Extend A Sail At The Foot (main-boom, Jib-boom, Etc.). In The Sense Of A Barrier, A Boom Is Generally Formed Of Timber Lashed Together, Or Of ...

Boomerang
Boomerang, A Weapon Of The Australian Aborigines And Other Peoples, Chiefly Used As A Missile. The Word Is Taken From The Native Name Used By A Single Tribe In New South Wales. It Is Not Connected With The Womera Or Spear-thrower. Two Main Types May Be Distinguished: (a) The Return ...

Boone Way
Boone Way, A Thorough Fare Extending Originally From Crab Orchard, Ky., To Cumber Land Gap, Where The States Of Kentucky, Tennessee And Vir Ginia Meet. Named After Daniel Boone, It Is Also Known As The "boone Route" Dr "daniel Boone Trail," And Is About 95m. Long, All Paved. Later It ...

Boone
Boone, A City Of Iowa, U.s.a., Near The Des Moines River, In The Centre Of The State, At An Altitude Of 1, I Oof T. ; The County Seat Of Boone County. It Is On The Lincoln Highway, Is A Division Point Of The Chicago And North Western, And Is ...

Boonton
Boonton, A Town Of Morris County, New Jersey, U.s.a., 32m. N.w. Of New York City, On The Lackawanna Railroad. The Population In 193o Was 6,866. It Is A Trading Centre And Has Paper Mills, A Large Silk Factory, And Other Industries. The New Jersey Firemen's Home, Established 1900, Is Maintained ...

Boonville
Boonville, A City In The Coal-mining And Agricultural Region Of South-western Indiana, U.s.a., On Cypress Creek, 17m. North-east Of Evansville ; The County Seat Of Warrick County. It Is Served By The Evansville Suburban And Newburgh And The Southern Railways. The Population In 1920 Was 4,451; In 193o It Was ...

Boonville_2
Boonville, A City In The Central Part Of Missouri, U.s.a., On The Right Bank Of The Missouri River 150m. W. By N. Of St. Louis; The County Seat Of Cooper County. It Lies On High Land Above The River, And Includes A Small Area In Howard County. Across The River, ...

Boorde
Boorde (or Borde), Andrew English Physician And Author, Was Born At Boord's Hill, Holms Dale, Sus Sex. He Was Educated At Oxford, And Was Admitted A Member Of The Carthusian Order While Under Age. In 1521 He Was "dispensed From Religion" In Order That He Might Act As Suffragan Bishop ...

Boot And Shoe Industry
Boot And Shoe Industry. In The Boot And Shoe Industry The Modern Tendency Is For Large Firms To Expand, And For It To Become Increasingly Difficult For Those With Small Capitals To Build Up Successful Businesses. The Limit To The Growth Of Large Manufacturing Concerns Does Not Appear To Have ...

Boot And Shoe Machinery
Boot And Shoe Machinery. During The Last 3o Years Shoemaking Has Undergone A Complete Change, Due To The Marked Progress Of Mechanical Equipment. Keen Competition And Close Co-operation Between Britain And America Have Greatly Stim Ulated Development, Which To-day Must Closely Follow The Dictates Of Fashion As Well As Produce ...

Boot I
Boot. (i) Profit Or Advantage (cf. Mod. Ger. Busse, "penance, Fine," And "better," The Comparative Of "good"). The Word Survives In "bootless," I.e. Useless Or Unavailing, And In Such Expressions, Chiefly Archaistic, As "what Boots It?" "bote," An Old Form, Survives In Some Old Compound Legal Words, Such As "house-bote," ...

Bootes
Bootes, A Constellation Of The Northern Hemisphere (gr. Jowtris, A Ploughman, From 13ovs, An Ox). The Ancient Greeks Symbolized It As A Man Walking, With His Right Hand Grasping A Club, And His Left Extending Upwards And Holding The Leash Of Two Dogs, Which Are Apparently Barking At The Great ...

Booth
Booth, A Temporary Dwelling Of Boughs Or Other Slight Materials. The Word Gained The Special Meaning Of A Market-stall Or Any Non-permanent Structure, Such As A Tent At A Fair, Where Goods Were On Sale. Later It Was Applied To The Temporary Structure Where Votes Were Registered, Viz., Polling-booth. As ...

Boothia
Boothia, A Peninsula Of Northern Canada, Belonging To Franklin District, And Lying Between 69°30' And 72° N. And 92° And 97° W. Area, I3,000sq.m. It Forms The Western Side Of The Gulf Of Boothia, Which Separates It From Baffin Land, And Takes Its Name From Sir Felix Booth, Who Fitted ...

Bootle
Bootle, Municipal, County (1888) And Parliamentary (1918) Borough, A Suburb Of Liverpool, Lancashire, England. Pop. (1931), 76,799, Nearly 12 Times The Figure Of 1861. Area 1,947 Ac. It Contains A Continuation Of The Main Liverpool (q.v.) Dlcks On The East Bank Of The Mersey, And Has Large Numbers Of Transport ...

Bootlegging And Smuggling
Bootlegging And Smuggling. National Pro Hibition (q.v.) In The United States Brought About A Revival Of The Lost Art Of "bootlegging," And Of The Once Rather Popular Pro Fession Of Smuggling. The Pioneers Of Early Colonial Days Found It Expedient To Outlaw The Sale Of Liquor To The Indians Who, ...

Booty
Booty, Plunder Or Gain (cognate With Ger. Beute And Fr. Butin) . The Phrase "to Play Booty," Dating From The 16th Century, Means To Play Into A Confederate's Hands, Or To Play Badly At First In Order To Deceive An Opponent. ...

Boppard
Boppard, A Town In Rhenish Prussia, Germany, On The Left Bank Of The Rhine. Pop. , 6,684. An Old Town, Still Partly Surrounded By Mediaeval Walls, Its Most Noteworthy Buildings Are The Parish Church (12th And 13th Centuries) ; The Carmelite Church (1318) ; The Castle, Now Used For Administrative ...

Bora
Bora (boreas—north Wind), An Italian Name For A Violent Cold Northerly And North-easterly Wind, Common In The Adriatic, Especially On The Istrian And Dalmatian Coasts. The Wind Gener Ally Produces Boisterous Squalls Sometimes With Whirling Snow. There Is Always A Northern Tendency In The Winds On The North Mediterranean Shores ...

Boracite
Boracite, A Mineral Of Special Interest On Account Of Its Optical Anomalies. Small Crystals Bounded On All Sides By Sharply Defined Faces Are Found In Considerable Numbers Embedded In Gypsum And Anhydrite In The Salt Deposits At Luneburg, In Han Over, Where It Was First Observed In 178 7. In ...

Borage
Borage (13iierij), A Herb (borago Officinalis) With Bright Blue Flowers And Hairy Leaves And Stem, Grown As A Pot-herb And Honey-plant And Used In Salads. It Is A Native Of The Eastern Mediterranean Region And Has Become Naturalized In Various Parts Of Europe, Great Britain And North America. ...

Boraginaceae
Boraginaceae, A Family Of Plants Belonging To The Sympetalous Section Of Dicotyledons, And A Member Of The Series Tubiflorae. They Are Rough-haired Annual Or Perennial Herbs, More Rarely Shrubby Or Arborescent In Tropical And Sub-tropical Forms. The Leaves, Generally Alternate, Are Usually Entire And Nar Row. The Radical Leaves In ...

Boras
Boras, A Town Of Sweden, In The District (lan) Of Alfsborg, 45m. E. Of Gothenburg By Rail, On The River Viske. Pop. (1928) It Ranks Among The First 12 Towns In Sweden Both In Population And In The Value Of Its Manufacturing Industries, Prin Cipally Textile. There Are Numerous Cotton ...

Borax
Borax, A Colourless Crystalline Salt Found Native In Quantity In California, Chile, Tibet, Peru And Canada. It Has An Alkaline Taste, And Is Moderately Soluble In Water, For Which It Often Serves As A Softening Agent. When Heated, Borax Fuses, Loses The Water Which Makes Up Part Of Its Molecule, ...

Bord And Pillar
Bord And Pillar. The Bord And Pillar Method Of Working Coal Is Perhaps The First Systematized Method Practised. In This Method Narrow Roads Are Driven In The Coal Seam So As To Form Pillars, Which Are Subsequently Removed. The Term Bord And Pillar Is Of North Of England Origin, The ...

Bordage I
Bordage. (i) A Nautical Term For The Planking On A Ship's Side. (2) A Feudal Term For The Tenure By Which A Certain Class Of Unfree Peasants Held Their Cottages. A "bordar" Was A Peasant Of This Type Who Held A Cottage And A Few Acres Of Arable Land In ...

Bordeaux Wines
Bordeaux Wines. More And Better Wines Have Been Shipped From Bordeaux To All Parts Of The World Than From Any Other Port. But The Wine That Passed Through Bordeaux Was Not Always Bordeaux Wine. For The Past 7oo Years, During The Three Centuries Of English Rule In Gascony Until The ...

Bordeaux
Bordeaux, City And Seaport Of South-west France, Capital Of The Department Of Gironde, 359m. S.s.w. Of Paris By The Or Leans Railway And 159m. N.w. Of Toulouse On The Southern Rail Way. Pop. Bordeaux, The Fourth Largest Town In France, Lies On The Left Or West Bank Of The Garonne ...

Bordentown
Bordentown, A City Of Burlington County, New Jersey, U.s.a., On The Delaware River And The Pennsylvania Railroad, 5m. South-east Of Trenton. The Population In 193o Was 4,405. It Lies On A Broad Plain, 65ft. Above The River, And Has Beautifully Shaded Wide Streets. Most Of The Wage-earning Residents Work In ...

Border Roads
Border Roads, A High Way Extending From Osoyoos, British Columbia, To Trail In The Same Province, Is About Loom. In Length And Improved Through Out. Passing Over The Picturesque Cascade Mountains It Forms Part Of The Trans-canada Highway And Is One Of The Most Important Routes In North America. ...

Bordighera
Bordighera, Liguria, Italy, Province Of Imperia, 91 M. S.w. Of Genoa By Rail, And 3m. E.n.e. Of Ventimiglia. Pop. (1931) 8,766. This Famed Winter Resort Has Beautiful Coast Scenery And Fine Gardens ; Flowers Are Largely Exported ; Palms Sup Ply Palm Branches For St. Peter's At Rome And Other ...

Bore
Bore, A High Tidal Wave Rushing Up A Narrow Estuary Or Tidal River. A Tide Often Rising I8ft. In Gomins. Produces The Severn Bore By Crowding Water Into The Narrowing Funnel Of The Estuary. The Phenomenon Is Also Particularly Well Illustrated In The Bay Of Fundy. The Name Is Usually ...

Borer
Borer, A Name For The Hag Fish (q.v.). The Word Is Also Used For Many Different Animals That Bore Into Solid Substances, Such As The Boring Sponge (cliona), Which Bores Into The Shells Of Mol Luscs, The Piddock (q.v.) Of Chalk Cliffs And The Ship-worm (see Teredo) . ...

Borers
Borers, In Greek Mythology, A Personification Of The North Wind. He Was Said To Have Carried Off The Beautiful Oreithyia, A Daughter Of Erechtheus, King Of Athens, When He Found Her Leading The Dance At A Festival Or Gathering Flowers On The Banks Of The Ilissus. He Had Before Wooed ...

Borghese
Borghese, A Noble Italian Family Of Sienese Origin, First Mentioned In 1238, A Member Of Which, Marcantonio Borghese, Settled In Rome And Was The Father Of Camillo Borghese 1620), Elected Pope Under The Title Of Paul V. (1605). The Family Took Its Place Among The Higher Roman Nobility By The ...

Borgu Or Barba
Borgu Or Barba, An Inland Country Of West Africa. The Western Part Is Included In The French Colony Of Dahomey; The Eastern In The Ilorin Province Of The British Protectorate Of Nigeria. Borgu Is Bounded N.e. And E. By The Niger, S. By The Yoruba Country, N.w. By Gurma. It ...

Boric Acid Or Boracic
Boric Acid Or Boracic Acid Is Familiar As A Fine White Powder Or As Small Crystals Which Are "soapy" To The Touch, A Property Which Accounts For Its Use In Preparing Floors For Danc Ing. This Acid Was First Prepared By Wilhelm Homberg (1652– 1715) From Borax (q.v.), By The ...

Boring
Boring Is Employed For : (i) Prospecting Or Searching For Mineral Deposits; (2) Sinking Petroleum, Natural Gas, Artesian Or Salt Wells; (3) Determining The Depth Below The Surface To Bed Rock Or Other Firm Substratum, Together With The Character Of The Overlying Soil, Preparatory To Mining Or Civil Engineering Opera ...

Boris I
Boris I. (?-9o3), Bulgarian Tsar, Succeeded His Father Pres Sian In 853. The Early Years Of His Rule Were Occupied By Wars In Central Europe. His Alliance With Ludwig The German Caused The Byzantine Emperor, Michael Iii., To Make Overtures To Boris With A View To An Alliance, To Be ...

Boris Iii
Boris Iii. (1894- ), King Of The Bulgarians, Was Born At Sofia On Jan. 30 1894, The Eldest Son Of Tsar Ferdinand I. And Princess Marie Louise Of Bourbon-parma. He Received At Birth The Title Of Prince Of Trnovo. In 1896 His Religion Was Changed, For Political Reasons, From Roman ...

Borisoglyebsk
Borisoglyebsk, A Town In The South Of The Tambov Province Of The Russian Socialist Federal Soviet Republic. Pop. (1926) 39,062. It Was Founded In 1646 As A Frontier Defence Of Muscovy Against The Crimean Tatars And In 1696 Was Surrounded By Wooden Fortifications. It Has Annual Fairs And Trades In ...

Borken
Borken, Chief Town Of A Western Sub-division Of The District Of Munster, In The Prussian Province Of Westphalia. 'pop. (1933) 7,344. The Industries Include The Preparation Of Chicory And Linen And Cotton Weaving. ...

Borku Or Borgu
Borku Or Borgu, A Region Of Central Africa Between 17° And 19° N. And 18° And 21° E., An Extension Of The Chad Depression (16o Metres, Altitude) Forming Part Of The Transi Tional Zone Between The Sahara And The Fertile Central Sudan. Bounded East By The Ennedi And North By ...

Borkum
Borkum, A Low Island Of Germany, In The North Sea, Belong Ing To The Prussian Province Of Hanover, The Westernmost Of The East Frisian Chain, Lying Between The East And West Arms Of The Estuary Of The Ems. Pop. 3,911. The Island, 5m. Long And Broad, Is A Favourite Summer ...

Bormio
Bormio, A Town, Italy, Province Of Sondrio, 412m. N.e. Of Sondrio. Pop. (1931), 2,316. It Is In The Valtellina (the Valley Of The Adda), 4,o2oft. Above Sea-level, At The Foot Of The Stelvio Pass, And Was Of Military Importance In The Middle Ages. It Con Tains Interesting Churches And Picturesque ...