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Encyclopedia Britannica Volume 3 Baltimore - Braila

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Louis Eugene Marie Bautain
Bautain, Louis Eugene Marie French Philosopher And Theologian, Was Professor Of Philosophy At Strasbourg From 1819 To 1828, When He Took Holy Orders. In He Settled In Paris Where He Was Vicar Of The Diocese, And In 1853 Became Professor Of Moral Philosophy In The Theological Faculty Of The University. ...

Louis Gabriel Ambroise Bonald
Bonald, Louis Gabriel Ambroise, Vicomte De , French Philosopher And Politician, Was Born At Le Monna, Near Millau In Aveyron. He Emigrated In 1791, Joined The Army Of The Prince Of Conde, And Soon Afterwards Settled At Heidelberg. There He Wrote His First Important Work, The Highly Conservative Theorie Du ...

Louis Hyacinthe Bouilhet
Bouilhet, Louis Hyacinthe French Poet And Dramatist, Was Born At Cany, Seine Inferieure, And Was A Schoolfellow Of Gustave Flaubert. His Fossiles (1856) Attracted Considerable Attention, On Account Of The Attempt Therein To Use Science As A Subject For Poetry. These Poems Were Included Also In Festons Et Astragales (5859). ...

Louis Lajos Batthyany
Batthyany, Louis (lajos), Count Hungarian Statesman, Was Born At Presburg In 1806. When Sze Chenyi Drew Nearer To The Court In Batthyany Became The Leader Of The Opposition In The Upper House. In 1847 He Pro Cured The Election Of Kossuth, Took Part In The Deputation Of March 15, And ...

Louis Pierre Edouard Bignon
Bignon, Louis Pierre Edouard, Baron (i 771— 1841), French Diplomatist And Historian, Was Born On Jan. 3 177r, And Died At Paris, Jan. 5 1841. As Minister-plenipotentiary At Cassel, Between The Years 18°4 And 1806, He Took A Prominent Share In The Formation Of The Confederation Of The Rhine; And ...

Lucrezia Borgia
Borgia, Lucrezia 048o-1519), Duchess Of Ferrara, Daughter Of Cardinal Rodrigo Borgia, Afterwards Pope Alexander Vi. (q.v.), By His Mistress Vanozza Dei Cattanei, Was Born At Rome. Her Father Contemplated A Spanish Marriage For Her, And At The Age Of She Was Betrothed To Don Cherubin De Centelles, A Spanish Nobleman. ...

Ludwig Bamberger
Bamberger, Ludwig (1823-1899), German Econ Omist And Politician, Was Born Of Jewish Parents At Mainz. After Studying At Giessen, Heidelberg, And Gottingen, He Entered On The Practice Of The Law. When The Revolution Of 1848 Broke Out He Took An Active Part As One Of The Leaders Of The Republican ...

Ludwig Boltzmann
Boltzmann, Ludwig Austrian Physicist, Was Born On Feb. 14, 1844. He Was Educated At Linz And Then At Vienna, Where He Obtained His Doctorate In 1867 And Was Appointed Assistant In The Physical Institute Of The University. In 1876 Boltzmann Was Appointed Professor At Graz Where He Stayed Until 1891, ...

Ludwig Friedrich Otto Baumgarten Crusius
Baumgarten-crusius, Ludwig Friedrich Otto (1788-1842), German Protestant Divine, Was Born At Merseburg, And Studied Theology And Philology At Leipzig. After Acting As Privatdocent At Leipzig, He Was, In 1812, Appointed Pro Fessor Extraordinarius Of Theology At Jena, Where He Remained To The End Of His Life Rising Gradually To The ...

Ludwig Van Beethoven
Beethoven, Ludwig Van German Musical Composer, Was Baptized (probably, As Was Usual, The Day After Birth) On Dec. 17, 1770, At Bonn. ...

Luigi Boccherini
Boccherini, Luigi (1743-1805), Italian Composer, Son Of An Italian Bass-player, Was Born At Lucca, And Studied At Rome, Where He Became A Fine 'cellist, And Soon Began To Compose. He Returned To Lucca, Where For Some Years He Was Prominent As A Player, And There He Produced Two Oratorios And ...

Luis Barahona De Soto
Barahona De Soto, Luis Spanish Poet, Was Born About 1535 At Lucena (cordova), Was Educated At Granada, And Practised As A Physician At Cordova. His Principal Poem Is The Primera Parte De La Angelica (1586), A Continuation Of The Orlando Furioso; The Second Part Was Long Believed To Be Lost, ...

Luis Botha
Botha, Luis South African General And Statesman, Was Born Sept. 27, 1862, Near Greytown, Natal, Of Boer Parents, Both Of Whom Were Children Of "voortrekkers" From Cape Colony. The Parents In 1869 Migrated With Their 13 Children To Vrede In The O.f.s., And Botha Got A Thorough Training In The ...

Lyman Beecher
Beecher, Lyman (1 7 75-1863 ), American Clergyman, Born At New Haven (conn.) On Oct. 12, 1775, Was A Descendant Of One Of The Founders Of The New Haven Colony. He Graduated From Yale (1797) Having Studied Theology Under Timothy Dwight. He Preached In Several Churches In The East And ...

M A R I
Bashkirtseff, M A R I A Constantinovna [marie] (1860-1884), Russian Artist And Writer, Was Born At Gavrontsi, In The Government Of Pultowa, In Russia, On Nov. 23, 186o. Her Parents Lived Apart, And The Child Spent Her Early Life With Her Mother In Various Health Resorts In Germany And The ...

Machine Bookbinding
Machine Bookbinding Bookbinding By Machine Methods Has Been Greatly Improved In The Past Decade. Automatic Machines Have Made Possible Mass Production And Eliminated Much Of The Hand Work Heretofore Necessary. Machine Production Is Divided Into Two Classes, Edi Tion Or Hard Bound Products And Pamphlet Or Paper Bound Publi Cations. ...

Madeleine Bejart
Madeleine Bejart (1618-72) Was At The Head Of The Travelling Company To Which Her Sister Genevieve (1631-75)—who Played As Mlle Herve—and Her Brothers Belonged, Before They Joined Moliere In Forming L'illustre Theatre (1643) . With Moliere She Remained Until Her Death On Feb. 17 1672. She Was An Excellent Actress, ...

Manuel Maria Barbosa De
Bocage, Manuel Maria Barbosa De (1765 1805), Portuguese Poet, Was A Native Of Setubal. He Entered The Army At 14, Transferring To The Navy At 16. At The Royal Marine Academy In Lisbon, However, He Spent His Time In Love Affairs And In Society, Where His Skill In Improvisation Made ...

Marc Theodore Bourrit
Bourrit, Marc Theodore Swiss Mountaineer, The Son Of A Watchmaker At Geneva, Devoted Him Self To The Exploration Of The Alps. In The Years 1784-85 He Was The First Traveller To Attempt The Ascent Of Mont Blanc (not Conquered Till 1786), But Neither Then Nor Later (1788) Did He Succeed ...

Marcellin Pierre Eugene Berthelot
Berthelot, Marcellin Pierre Eugene French Chemist And Politician, Was Born At Paris On Oct. 29, 1827, Being The Son Of A Doctor. In 1851 He Became A Member Of The Staff Of The College De France As Assistant To A. J. Balard, His Former Master, And About The Same Time ...

Marco Botzaris Or Bozzaris
Botzaris Or Bozzaris, Marco (c. Leader In The War Of Greek Independence, Born At Suli In Albania, Was The Second Son Of Kitzo Botzaris, Murdered At Arta In 1809 By Order Of Ali Of Iannina. In 1803, After The Capture Of Suli By Ali Pasha, Marco, With The Remnant Of ...

Marcus Furius Bibaculus
Bibaculus, Marcus Furius, Roman Poet, Flour Ished During The Last Century Of The Republic. According To Jerome, He Was Born At Cremona In 103 B.c. He Wrote Satirical Poems After The Manner Of Catullus, Whose Bitterness He Rivalled, According To Quintilian (instit. X. I. 196), In His Iambics. He Even ...

Margaret Grace Bondfield
Bondfield, Margaret Grace ( 18 ) , British Politician, Was Born March 17 1873, At Chard, Somerset. She Early Became An Assistant In A Draper's Shop At Brighton, But Soon She Moved To London, And In 1898 Became Assistant Secre Tary Of The National Union Of Shop Assistants. In 1921 ...

Marguerite Blessington
Blessington, Marguerite, Countess Of '849), Irish Novelist And Miscellaneous Writer, Daughter Of Ed Mund Power, A Small Landowner, Was Born Near Clonmel, Co Tipperary, Ireland, On Sept. 1, 1789. Her Childhood Was Made Unhappy By Her Father's Character And Poverty, And Her Early Womanhood Wretched By Her Marriage At The ...

Marie Bichat
Bichat, Marie Francois Xavier French Anatomist And Physiologist, Was Born At Thoirette (jura) On Nov. 14, 1771, The Son Of A Physician. He Studied Anatomy And Surgery Under M. A. Petit (1766-1811), Chief Surgeon To The Hotel-dieu At Lyons. The Revolutionary Disturbances Drove Him To Paris In 1793. He There ...

Marie Louis Antoine Gaston
Boissier, Marie Louis Antoine Gaston (1823-19°8), French Classical Scholar, Was Born At Nimes On Aug. 15, 18 2 3. After Io Years At Angouleme, Boissier Was Ap Pointed Professor At The Lycee Charlemagne In Paris, And In 1861 Became Professor Of Latin Oratory At The College De France. He Was ...

Mark Eliezer Bloch
Bloch, Mark Eliezer (c. 1723-1799), German Nat Uralist, Was Born At Ansbach, Of Poor Jewish Parents, And Died At Carlsbad Aug. 6, 1799. Af Ter Taking His Degree As Doctor At Frankfurt-on-oder He Established Himself As A Physician At Ber Lin. He Is Best Known By His Important Work On ...

Marketable Securities
Marketable Securities The Discount Market.—the Bill Of Exchange Possesses Both The Special Attributes Of Liquidity. Not Only Is It A Genuinely Short Dated Security With Safeguards For Prompt Payment At Maturity, But It Is Also Marketable. Banks Can Sell Bills To One Another, And When A Bank Has To Make ...

Marquis Ferdinando Bartolommei
Bartolommei, Marquis Ferdinando (1821 1869), Italian Revolutionary, Belonged To An Old And Noble Floren Tine Family. In 1847-48 His House Was A Centre Of Revolutionary Committees, And During The Brief Constitutional Regime He Was Very Prominent. After The Return Of The Grand Duke Leopold Ii. He Became A Conspirator On ...

Martin Behaim Or Behem
Behaim Or Behem, Martin (1436?-15o7), German Navigator And Geographer, Was Born At Nuremberg, According To One Tradition, About 1436; According To Ghillany, As Late As He Was Drawn To Portugal By Participation In Flanders Trade, And Acquired A Scientific Reputation At The Court Of John Ii. He Be Came (c. ...

Martin Boos
Boos, Martin (1762-1825), German Pietist, Was A Bava Rian Catholic Priest, Who Started A Movement Among Catholics, Closely Allied To The Pietist Movement In The Lutheran Churches. He Pursued His Propaganda From About 1799 To 1812 In Austria, But Repeated Accusations In The Consistorial Courts Compelled Him To Return To ...

Mary Bateson
Bateson, Mary (1865-1906), English Historian, Was Born At Robin Hood's Bay, Yorkshire, On Sept. 12, 1865, The Daughter Of W. H. Bateson, Master Of St. John's College, Cam Bridge. Educated In Germany, At The Perse School For Girls And At Newnham College, Cambridge, England, She Became An Asso Ciate Of ...

Mary Elizabeth Braddon
Braddon, Mary Elizabeth English Novelist, Daughter Of Henry Braddon, Solicitor, Of Skirdon Lodge, Cornwall, And Sister Of Sir Edward Braddon, Prime Minister Of Tasmania, Produced Her First Novel, The Trail Of The Serpent, In 1861. In The Same Year Appeared Garibaldi, And Other Poems, A Volume Of Extremely Spirited Verse. ...

Mathilde Blind
Blind, Mathilde (1841-1896), English Author, Was Born At Mannheim, On March 21, 1841. Her Father Was A Banker Named Cohen, But She Took The Name Of Blind After Her Step Father, The Political Writer, Karl Blind (1826-1907), One Of The Exiled Leaders Of The Baden Revolt In 1848-49. Mathilde Wrote ...

Matted Bandello
Bandello, Matted (c. 148o-1562), Italian Novelist, Was Born At Castelnuovo, Near Tortona. He Received A Very Care Ful Education, And Entered The Church, Though He Does Not Seem To Have Prosecuted His Theological Course With Great Zeal. For Many Years He Resided At Mantua, And Superintended The Education Of The ...

Matted Maria Boiardo
Boiardo, Matted Maria, Count Italian Poet, Was Born At Scandiano, One Of The Seignorial Estates Of His Family, Near Reggio Emilia, And Was Educated At The University Of Ferrara. At The Court Of Ferrara He Was Entrusted With Several Honourable Employments, And Was Named Governor Of Reggio, An Appointment Which ...

Matthew Boulton
Boulton, Matthew (1728-1809), English Manufac Turer And Engineer, Was Born On Sept. 3, 1728, At Birmingham. At Soho, 2 Miles North Of Birmingham, He Undertook The Manufac Ture Of Artistic Objects In Metal, And Also The Reproduction Of Oil Paintings By A Mechanical Process In Which He Was Associated With ...

Maurice Baring
Baring, Maurice (1874— ), English Diplomat And Author, The 4th Son Of The First Lord Revelstoke, Was Born In London, On April 27, 1874. Educated At Eton And Trinity College, Cambridge, He Entered The Diplomatic Service In 1898, But Re Signed In 1904, And Took To Journalism. He Acted As ...

Maurice Barres
Barres, Maurice French Writer And Politician, Was Born At Charmes (vosges) On Sept. 22, 1862. Maurice Barres Always Considered Himself A Lorrainer, Charged With The Interpretation And The Vindication Of His Own People. His School Days Were Spent At The Lycee Of Nancy, And, Immedi Ately After, He Made His ...

Maurice Block
Block, Maurice (1816-1901), French Statistician, Was Born In Berlin Of Jewish Parents Feb. 18 1816, And Died In Paris Jan. 9 1901. He Settled In Paris And Became A Naturalized French Man. Entering The Ministry Of Agriculture In Paris In 1844, He Was One Of The Heads Of The Statistical ...

Maurice Bloomfield
Bloomfield, Maurice (1855-1928), American In Dological And Philological Scholar, Was Born On Feb. 23, 1855, In Bielitz, Austria. He Went To The United States In 1867, Studied At The University Of Chicago, Furman University, Greenville, S.c., Yale University And At Johns Hopkins, To Which University He Re Turned As Professor ...

Maurice Bokanowski
Bokanowski, Maurice (1879-1928), French Poli Tician. After Practising As An Advocate In Paris He Was Elected A Member Of The Chamber Of Deputies In 1919 For The Department Of The Seine. He Quickly Became Recognized As An Expert On Eco Nomic And Financial Questions And Was Appointed President Of The ...

Maurice Bouchor
Bouchor, Maurice French Poet, Was Born On Dec. 15 1855, In Paris. He Published In Succession Chansons Joyeuses (1874), Poemes De L'amour Et De La Seer (1875), Le Faust Moderne (1878), In Prose And Verse, And Les Contes Parisiens (188o) In Verse. His Aurore (1883) Showed A Tendency To Religious ...

Maurice Boutetdemonvel
Boutet De Monvel, Maurice ), French Painter And Illustrator, Born At Orleans, Studied In Paris Under Cabanel, J. Lefebvre, Parrot And Carolus Duran. His First Successes Were Obtained By His "good Samaritan" (museum At Orleans) And "arabes Revenant Du Marche" (museum At Amiens). But His Talent Lay Chiefly With Illustrations ...

Max Beerbohm
Beerbohm, Max (1872– ), British Caricaturist And Writer, Was Born In London Aug. 24, 1872, A Half-brother Of Sir Herbert Beerbohm Tree, The Actor. He Was Educated At Charter House And Merton College, Oxford. Before He Had Left Oxford, Beerbohm Had Made A Reputation As An Essayist Of Wit And ...

Maxime Bocher
Bocher, Maxime (1867-1918), American Mathemati Cian, Son Of Ferdinand Bocher, Professor Of French At Harvard, Was Born In Boston, Mass., On Aug. 28, 1867. He Was Educated In The Cambridge Latin School And At Harvard College At Which He Graduated In 1888. Later He Studied At The University Of Goet ...

Men Blinded In The
Men Blinded In The World War Many Thousands Of Young Men Were Blinded In The World War. High Explosive Shells And Hand Grenades Caused By Far The Largest Number Of Casualties, But A Few Were The Result Of Rifle And Machine-gun Bullets, Explosions, Etc. Various Forms Of Chemical Warfare Caused ...

Michael Andreas Barclay De
Barclay De Tolly, Michael Andreas, Called By The Russians Michael, Prince Bogdanovich (i761-1818), Russian Field-marshal, Was Born At Luhde-grosshof, Livonia, On Dec. 27, 1761, Of A Scottish Family Which Had Settled In Russia In The 17th Century. He Entered The Russian Army At An Early Age. In The War Of ...

Michael Baumgarten
Baumgarten, Michael (1812-1899), German Protestant Theologian, Was Born At Haseldorf In Schleswig-hol Stein On March 25, He Studied At Kiel University (1832), And Became Professor Ordinarius Of Theology At Rostock (185o). At A Pastoral Conference In 1856 He Defended Evangelical Freedom As Regards The Legal Sanctity Of Sunday. He Was ...

Michael Bernays
Michael Bernays (1834-1897), Brother Of The Above, Was Born At Hamburg On Nov. 27, 1834, And Died At Carlsruhe On Feb. 25, 189 7. He Was A Professor At Leipzig And (1873-99) At Munich. Among His Principal Works Are: Zur Kritik And Geschichte Des Goetheschen Textes (1866) • Briefe Goethes ...

Michel Baron
Baron, Michel (1653-1729), French Actor (whose Family Name Originally Was Boyron), Was Born In Paris. At The Age Of Twelve He Joined The Company Of Children Known As The Petits Comediens Dauphins. He Joined Moliere's Company, And Then Became A Member Of The Company At The Hotel De Bour Gogne, ...

Michel Baudier
Baudier, Michel (c. 1589-1645), French Historian, Wrote, In Addition To Many Works On French History, An Histoire De La Cour Du Roi De Chine (paris, 1626; English Trans. In Vol. Viii. Of The Collection Of Voyages And Travels Of A. And J. Churchill, London, 1707-47 ), Derived From The Narrative ...

Michel Bibaud
Bibaud, Michel (1782-1857), Canadian Historian, Was Born At Cote Des Neiges, Montreal, And Educated At The College De Montreal. His Histoire De Canada (3 Vols., 183 7) ; Deal Ing With Canadian History From Its Origins Up To 1877, Was Pro English And Bureaucratic In Tendency, Thereby Earning The Condem ...

Microscope
Microscope The First Binocular Microscope Was Invented By The Previously Mentioned Father Cherubin, Whose Instrument Consisted Of Two Inverting Systems And Consequently Gave A Totally Wrong Impres Sion Of Depth, I.e., The Depressions Appeared As Elevations And Vice Versa Or, According To Charles Wheatstone's Phrase, It Presented A Pseudoscopic Impression. ...

Migration Of Birds
Birds, Migration Of. The Broad Fact Of The Seasonal Journeys Of Birds Is A Matter Of Common Knowledge, And Has Been Recognized From Very Ancient Times. The Author Of The Book Of Job Wrote Of The Hawk That Stretches Her Wings Toward The South ; Homer Wrote Of The Flight ...

Miles Joseph Berkeley
Berkeley, Miles Joseph English Botanist ; Born At Biggin Hall, Northamptonshire; Educated At Rugby And Christ's College, Cambridge. He Became Incumbent Of Apethorpe In 1837 And Vicar Of Sibbertoft, Near Market Har Borough, In 1868. He Soon Was Recognized As The Leading British Authority On Fungi And Plant Pathology. Some ...

Military Artillery Fortificationand
Military ; Artillery ; Fortification And Siegecraft) . Also Used For The "pitcher" And "catcher" In Baseball; For A Collection Of Utensils, Primarily Of Hammered Copper Or Brass, Especially In The French Term Batterie De Cuisine; And For The Instruments Of Percussion In An Orchestra. ...

Military Battery
Battery, Military, The Men, Horses, Guns And Vehicles Of The Smallest Independent Artillery Unit (from Fr. Battre, To Beat). The Name Was First Employed In The British Army At The Time Of The Crimean War, And In 1859 All Existing Artillery Units Were Renamed Batteries. The Unit Consists Of Four, ...

Mind
Mind And Acclimatization ; Further, The Evolutionary Aspect Has Been Stressed In Many Of The Articles Dealing With The Various Groups Of Animals, E.g., Mammalia And Amphibia, And In Other General Articles Such As Zoological Regions, Distribution Of Animals, Mimicry And So On. Heredity Is The Central Article Of Another ...

Ministry Of Blockade
Blockade, Ministry Of. This Department, One Of The Many Administrative Improvisations Of The World War, Was Created On February 23, 1916, When Lord Robert Cecil Received His Appointment As Minister Of Blockade. The Term Is Technically Incorrect, For No General Blockade, In The Strict Legal Sense, Had Been Declared, But ...

Modern Basketry
Modern Basketry Since About The Middle Of The I 9th Century The Character Of Basket-work In England Has Been Greatly Modified. The Old Eng Lish Cradle, Reticule, And Other Small Domestic Wares, Have Been Driven Out Of The Market By Cheap Goods Made On The Continent Of Europe, And The ...

Modern English And Continental
Modern English And Continental Books The Private Presses.—william Morris Brought Back Dignity To The Printed Book In A Time Of Its Abject Abasement. Indeed, He Brought It Too Much Dignity. His Books Were Designed Not For The Common Usage Of His Day, But, As It Were, For The Private Pomps ...

Modern English Banking
Modern English Banking The Crisis Of 1825 Marked A Turning-point, And Tolled The Death Knell Of The Small Country Bank And Of The Note As The Foundation Of The Banking System. Legislation Quickly Followed. In 1826 Joint-stock Banking (with Unlimited Liability) Was Permitted Out Side A Radius Of 65 Miles ...

Molesworth
Molesworth (1832 1917 ), Anglo-indian Official And Writer, Son Of Gen. Christopher Birdwood, Was Born In India On Dec. 8, 1832, And Died At Ealing, London, On June 28, 1917. After Taking His Medical Degree At Edinburgh, He Joined The Bombay Medical Service In And Served In The Persian War ...

Mont Blanc
Blanc, Mont, The Culminating Point (15,782 Ft.) Of The Mountain Range Of The Same Name Which Lies Within French, Swiss And Italian Territory. The Summit Is Wholly French And Is The Loftiest Peak In The Alps, And In Europe Also, If Certain Peaks In The Caucasus Be Excluded. It Divides ...

Montague Bernard
Bernard, Montague (1820-1882), English Inter National Lawyer, The Descendant Of A Huguenot Family, Was Born At Tibberton Court, Gloucestershire, And Educated At Sherborne School And Trinity College, Oxford, Being Called To The Bar At Lincoln's Inn In 1846. He Was Interested In Legal History And In Church Questions, And Was ...

N Belawan Deli
Belawan (deli), N. Sumatra, Dutch East Indies, On Pulau Belawan, An Island Of Mud And Mangroves, At The Estuary Of The Deli And Belawan Rivers. It Is The Port For Medan, Serves The Rapidly-expanding Trade Of The East Coast Of Sumatra, And Is The Most Important Port In N. Sumatra. ...

Nathan Banks
Banks, Nathan ), American Entomologist, Was Born In Roslyn, N.y., On April 13, 1868. He Graduated At Cornell University In 1889 And In 1890 Entered The Division Of Entomology Of The United States Department Of Agriculture. In 1916 He Left This Post To Become Curator Of Insects In The Museum ...

Nathaniel Bowditch
Bowditch, Nathaniel American Mathematician, Was Born At Salem (mass.). He Was Bred To His Father's Business As A Cooper, And Afterwards Apprenticed To A Ship-chandler. His Taste For Mathematics Early Developed Itself ; And He Acquired Latin That He Might Study Newton's Principia. As Clerk (1/95) And Then As Supercargo ...

Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Banks, Nathaniel Prentiss Amer Ican Politician And Soldier, Was Born At Waltham, Mass., On Jan. 3o, I S 16. He Received Only A Common School Education And At An Early Age Began Work As A Bobbin-boy In A Cotton Factory Of Which His Father Was Superintendent. Subsequently He Edited A ...

New Testament
New Testament The Expansion Of The Christian Church In Europe During The R St Century Stands For Us As The Beginning Of A New Era In History. But The Movement Wore A Different Aspect To Those Who Shared In It : To Them It Was An End Rather Than A ...

Nicholas Barbon
Barbon, Nicholas (c. 164o-1698), English Economist, Probably The Son Of Praise-god Barbon, Was Born In London, Studied Medicine At Leyden, Graduated M.d. At Utrecht In 1661, And Was Admitted An Honorary Fellow Of The College Of Physicians In 1664. He Took Considerable Part In The Rebuilding Of London After The ...

Nicholas Biddle
Biddle, Nicholas ( 786-1844) American Financier, Was Born In Philadelphia On Jan. 8, 1786. During 1804-07 He Was The Secretary, First Of John Armstrong, Minister To France, And Then Of James Monroe, Minister To Great Britain. He Was An Asso Ciate Editor Of Dennie's Portfolio, And Prepared A History Of ...

Nicholas Brady
Brady, Nicholas (1659-1726), Anglican Divine And Poet, Was Born At Bandon, County Cork, On Oct. 28 1659, And Died At Richmond, Surrey, On May 20 1726. He Received His Edu Cation At Westminster School, And At Christ Church, Oxford ; But He Graduated At Trinity College, Dublin, And Became Prebendary ...

Nicholas Vansittart Bexley
Bexley, Nicholas Vansittart, Ist Baron English Politician, Was The Fifth Son Of Henry Van Sittart (d. 177o), Governor Of Bengal, And Was Born In London On April 29, 1766. Educated At Christ Church, Oxford, He Took His Degree In 178 7, And Was Called To The Bar At Lincoln's Inn ...

Nicol As Boileau Despreaux
Boileau-despreaux, Nicol As 711), French Poet And Critic, Was Born In The Rue De Jerusalem, Paris, The 5th Child Of Gilles Boileau, A Clerk In The Parlement. Two Of His Brothers Attained Distinction: Gilles Boileau (1631-1669), Who Is The Author Of A Translation Of Epictetus; And Jacques Boileau, Who Became ...

Nicolaes Berchem Or Berghem
Berchem Or Berghem, Nicolaes A Dutch Painter, Born At Haarlem, And Died On Feb. 18, 1683, At Amsterdam. He Received Instruction From His Father (pieter Claesz Van Haarlem) And From The Painters Claes Moyaert, Jan Wils And Pieter De Grebber. He Seems To Have Worked In Italy, And Most Of ...

Nicolas Anselme Baptiste
Baptiste, Nicolas Anselme French Actor, Was Born In Bordeaux On June 18 1761, The Elder Son Of Joseph Francois Anselme, A Popular Actor. Nicolas Anselme Made His First Appearance As De Belloy In Gaston Et Bayard. After Some Time Spent At Arras, Where He Played All Kinds Of Parts, And ...

Nicolas Jean Hugon De
Bassville Or Basseville, Nicolas Jean Hugon De (1753-1793), French Journalist And Diplomatist, Was Born At Abbeville Feb. 7, 1753. At The Outbreak Of The Revo Lution He Became Editor Of The Mercure International. Then, Through The Girondist Minister Lebrun-tondu, He Entered The Diplomatic Service, Went In May, 1792, As Secretary ...

Niels Bohr
Bohr, Niels (1885— ), Danish Physicist, Was Born At Copenhagen, The Son Of Christian Bohr, Professor Of Physiology At Copenhagen University. He Studied At Copenhagen Until 1911, In Which Year He Took His Doctor's Degree. In The Same Year He Proceeded To Cambridge, Where He Worked In The Cavendish Laboratory ...

Nikolaas Beets
Beets, Nikolaas (1814-1903), Dutch Poet, Was Born At Haarlem, And Constant References In His Poems And Sketches Show How Deeply The Beauty Of That Town And Its Neighbourhood Impressed His Imagination. In His Youth Beets Was Carried Away On The Tide Of Byronism, Which Was Then Sweeping Over Europe, And ...

Nina Henriette Wendeline Bang
Bang, Nina Henriette Wendeline (1866 1928), Danish Politician, Was Born At Copenhagen, Where, In 1894, She Graduated M.a. She Married A Politician, Gustav Bang, Who Died In The Year 1915. Devoting Herself To Economic Studies, She Was Active As A Social Democrat In Politics And Journalism, And In 1918 Became ...

Nino Bixio
Bixio, Nino (182i-1873), Italian Soldier, Was Born On Oct. 2 1821. After Numerous Adventures At Sea He Returned To Italy In 1846, And Joined The Giovine Italia. He Fought Through The Campaign Of 1848, Became Captain Under Garibaldi At Rome In 1849, And In 1859 Commanded A Garibaldian Battalion. Joining ...

Nique In Art
Nique In Art.) Modern Technique And Practice.—modern Technique Var Ies Only A Little From That Which Has Been Practised In Java For Centuries, The Chief Difference Being That The Western Artist Prefers As A Rule To Do The Application Of Wax On A Horizontal Or Only Slightly Inclined Table Rather ...

North Brabant
Brabant, North, Largest Province In Holland, Bounded South By Belgium, West And North-west By The Scheldt, The Een Dracht, The Volkerak And The Hollandsch Diep, Which Separate It From Zealand And South Holland, North And North-east By The Merwede And Maas, Which Separate It From South Holland And Gelderland, And ...

Obadiah Bertinoro
Bertinoro, Obadiah, Jewish Commentator Of The Mishnah, Died In Jerusalem About I Soo. He Much Improved The Status Of Jews In Palestine. His Commentary On The Mishnah Was Translated By Surenhusius (latin Ed., Amsterdam 1698-1703). ...

Oil Of Bergamot
Bergamot, Oil Of, An Essential Oil Obtained From The Rind Of The Fruit Of The Citrus Bergamia. The Bergamot Tree Is Small, With Leaves And Flowers Like Those Of The Bitter Orange, And A Round Fruit Nearly 3in. In Diameter, Having A Thin, Lemon-yellow, Smooth Rind. The Tree Is Cultivated ...

Old Testament
Old Testament There Exists No Historical Account Of The Formation Of The Old Testament Canon. The Popular Idea That It Was Closed By Ezra Rests On No Ancient Foundation. Certainly In 2 Esdras (near The End Of The 1st Century A.d.), We Read (xiv. 20-26, Xxxviii.–xlviii.), That The Law Being ...

Olivier Basselin
Basselin, Olivier (c. 1450), Traditionally Re Garded As The Author Of A Number Of French Drinking Songs, Was Born In The Val-de-vire In Normandy. He Was By Occupation A Fuller. His Drinking Songs Became Famous Under The Name Of Vaux-de-vire, Corrupted In Modern Times Into "vaudeville." Basselin Appears To Have ...

Or Balderich Baudry
Baudry, Or Balderich, Of Bourgueil (1046 Or Io47-i130), Archbishop Of Dol, Historian And Poet, Was Born At Meung-sur-loire. He Became Abbot Of Bourgueil In Io79, And Archbishop Of Dol In 1io7. The Most Important Of His Latin Poems, From The Historical Point Of View, Have Been Published In The Historiae ...

Or Blister Rust
Blister Rust, Or White Pine Blister Rust, A Destructive Forest-tree Disease Among White (five-needle) Pines So Widespread In The United States At The Present Time That It Threatens The Preservation Of Forest Reserves. It Is Caused By A Parasitic Fungus On The Foliage Of Currant (particularly Black Currant ) And ...

Osbern Bokenam
Bokenam, Osbern English Author, Was Born, By His Own Account On Oct. 6, 1393. Dr. Horstmann Suggests That He May Have Been A Native Of Bokeham, Now Book Ham, In Surrey, And Derived His Name From The Place. In A Con Cluding Note To His Lives Of The Saints He ...

Otto Bauer
Bauer, Otto (1881-1938), Austrian Politician, Was Born At Vienna. Bauer Was One Of The Founders Of The Socialist Edu Cational Movement, "die Zukunf T." He Founded With F. Adler, The Theoretical Socialist Periodical Der Kampf And Collaborated On Kautsky's Journal Die Neue Zeit. He Became Secretary To The Parliamentary Fraction ...

Otto Bismarck
Bismarck, Otto, Prince Von (1815-1898), Was Born On April I, 1815, At Schonhausen, An Estate Belonging To His Father, Ferdinand Von Bismarck, A Retired Captain Of The Prussian Army. The Family Had Been Established In The Mark Of Brandenburg For Many Centuries, And Bismarck's Own Appearance, Habits And Methods Of ...

Otto Marck
Marck, Otto, Prince Von.) Vienna Was Committed To The Grant Of Some Measure Of Repre Sentative Government To Bosnia And Hercegovina, And As Neither Austria Nor Hungary Would Consent To Its Being Attached To The One Rather Than To The Other, Or To Its Partition Beween Them, A Hybrid Form ...

Otto Von Below
Below, Otto Von (1857— ), German General, Was Born At Danzig On Jan. 18, 1857. At The Beginning Of The World War He Was In Command Of The 2nd Infantry Div. At Insterburg In East Prussia. In Command Of The I. Reserve Corps, He Took Part In The Battles Which ...

Paris Bordone
Bordone, Paris (15oo-1 S71), Venetian Painter, Was Born At Treviso, And Entered The Bottega Of Titian At An Early Age. In 1538 He Was Invited To France By Francis I., At Whose Court He Painted Many Portraits, Though No Trace Of Them Is To Be Found In French Collections, The ...

Part In The World
Part In The World War Defence Of South Africa.—at The Imperial Conference Of 191i Botha Had Familiarized Himself With The Foreign Policy And The Military Resources Of The Empire. Accordingly, When War Was Declared Against Germany In Aug. 1914, Botha, Contrary To The View Of Many Of His Dutch Supporters, ...

Pathology Of Blood
Blood, Pathology Of (see Also Anaemia). The Changes In The Blood In Disease Are Probably As Numerous And Varied As The Diseases Which Attack The Body. The Immense Ma Jority Of These Changes Are, However, So Subtle That They Escape Detection By Our Present Methods. But In Certain Directions, Notably ...

Paul Albert Besnard
Besnard, Paul Albert , French Painter, Born In Paris On June 2, 1849, Studied At The Ecole Des Beaux Arts, Winning The Prix De Rome In 1874. He Was A Pupil Of J. Bremond And Of Cabanel. He Lived In England From 1879 To 1883, And Was A Friend Of ...