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Encyclopedia Brittanica

Volume 4, Part 2: Brain to Casting

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Edmund Castell
Castell, Edmund (1606-1685), English Orientalist, Born At Tadlow, Cambridgeshire, Entered Emmanuel College, Cam Bridge, But Removed To St. John's, Where He Compiled His Lexicon Heptaglotton Hebraicum, Chaldaicum, Syriacum, Samaritanum, Aethiopicum, Arabicum, Et Persicum (1669), On Which He Spent 18 Years, Working (if We May Accept His Own Statement) From 16 ...

Edouard De Curieres De
Castelnau, Edouard De Curieres De (1851 ), French Soldier, Was Born At Saint-affrique, Aveyron, Dec. 24, 1851, Third Son Of The Marquis De Curieres De Castelnau. He Entered The Military School Of St. Cyr, Near Versailles, In 1869; And During The Franco-german War Took Part In The Loire Cam Paign. ...

Edward Caird
Caird, Edward British Philosopher And Theologian, Brother Of John Caird (q.v.), Was Born At Greenock On March 22, 1835, And Educated At Glasgow University And Balliol College, Oxford. He Took A First Class In Moderations In 1862 And In Literae Humaniores In 1863, And Was Pusey And Ellerton Scholar In ...

Edward Capell
Capell, Edward English Shakespearian Critic, Was Born At Troston Hall In Suffolk, And Became Deputy Inspector Of Plays In 1737. In 176o Appeared His Prolusions, Or Select Pieces Of Ancient Poetry, A Collection Which Included Edward Iii., Placed By Capell Among The Doubtful Plays Of Shakespeare. Shocked At The Inaccuracies ...

Edward Capern
Capern, Edward (1819-1894), English Poet, Was Born At Tiverton, Devonshire, On Jan. 21, 1819, And Died On June 5, 1894. From An Early Age He Worked In A Lace Factory, And Then Became "the Rural Postman Of Bideford," By Which Name He Is Usually Known. He Published Poems, By Edward ...

Edward Capps
Capps, Edward (1866— ) , American Classical Schol Ar, Was Born In Jacksonville (ill.), On Dec. 21, 1866. He Gradu Ated At Illinois College In 1887, And Received The Degree Of Ph.d. At Yale University In 1891. In 1890 He Was Appointed Tutor At Yale. He Was Professor Of Greek ...

Edward Cardwell
Cardwell, Edward (1787-1861), English Theolo Gian, Was Born At Blackburn In Lancashire In 1787. He Was Edu Cated At Brasenose College, Oxford (b.a. 1809; M.a. B.d. 1819; D.d. 1831), And After Being For Several Years Tutor And Lecturer, Was Appointed, In 1814, One Of The Examiners To The Uni Versity. ...

Edward Carpenter
Carpenter, Edward English Author, Was Born At Brighton On Aug. 29, 1844, The Son Of Charles Car Penter, A Barrister Who Had Begun Life In The Navy. Edward Car Penter Received A Conventional Education At Brighton College And At Trinity Hall, Cambridge, Where He Graduated Loth Wrangler In 1868, And ...

Edward Henry Carson Carson
Carson, Edward Henry Carson, (_ Flbritish Politician And R. Cf Ede Ar = -;e- C_= : -.. A Civil Engineer Of Fn, Was T - --= Feb. 9. I S =4 Porz.arlin.gzon _ He _ E = _--e Irish Barrister _ - ? _. _ _, His _ - The ...

Edwin Cannan
Cannan, Edwin (1861-1935), British Economist, Was Educated At Clifton College And Balliol College, Oxford. He Be Came Lecturer In Political Economy In London University In 1897 And Professor Of Political Economy In 1907. He Retired In 1927. His Principal Works Are : History Of The Theories Of Production And Distribution ...

Egyptian
Egyptian A Solar Year, A Lunar Month And A Day Unfortunately Are Incom Mensurable Units Of Time, For A Year Contains Roughly 3651 Days And A Month Roughly 291 Days. From This Fact Arise The Difficulties With Which Early Constructors Of Calendars Were Con Fronted. The Egyptians Appear To Have ...

Elizabeth Carter
Carter, Elizabeth (1717-1806), English Poet And Translator, Daughter Of The Rev. Nicholas Carter, Was Born At Deal, Kent, On Dec. 16, 1717. Dr. Carter Educated His Children, Boys And Girls, Alike ; But Elizabeth's Slowness Tired His Patience, And It Was Only By Great Perseverance And Hard Work That She ...

Elme Marie Caro
Caro, Elme Marie (1826-1887), French Philosopher, Was Born At Poitiers. He Was Educated At The Stanislas College And The Ecole Normale, Where He Graduated In 1848. He Came To Paris In 1858 As Master Of Conferences At The Ecole Normale. In 1861 He Became Inspector Of The Academy Of Paris, ...

Emile Cammaerts
Cammaerts, Emile (1878– ), Belgian Poet, Was Born At Brussels On March 16, 1878. In 1908 He Settled In Eng Land. His Earlier Works Include Four Volumes Of Translations Of Ruskin Into French, And Les Bellini (later Ed. 1927), An Essay In Criticism ; He Has Also Written Two Plays, ...

Emilia Smith Flygare Carlen
Carlen, Emilia Smith Flygare (1807-1892), Swedish Novelist, Was Born At Stromstad On Aug. 8, 1807, And Died At Stockholm On Feb. 5, 1892. Her First Husband, A Doctor, A. Flygare, Died In 1833, And In 1841 She Married A Poet, Johan Gabriel Carlen, And Went To Live In Stockholm, Where ...

Emilio Castelar Y Ripoll
Castelar Y Ripoll, Emilio (1832-1899), Spanish Statesman, Was Born At Cadiz, On Sept. 8, 183 2. He Received The Doctorate In Philosophy And Letters At Madrid In 1853, And From The Time Of The Spanish Revolutionary Movement Of 1854 Became Active In Politics, Radical Journalism, Literary And Historical Pursuits. After ...

Emma Calve
Calve, Emma ), Operatic Singer, Was Born At Decazeville, Aveyron, In 1866, And Trained In Paris, Making Her First Important Appearance In Opera At Brussels In 1882. She Sang Mainly In Paris For Some Years, But In 1892 She Came To London And Achieved Immediate Fame And Popularity At Covent ...

Enrico Caruso
Caruso, Enrico (1873-1921), The Most Famous Italian Operatic Tenor Of His Day, Was Born In Naples On Feb. 25, 1873. He Was Early Apprenticed To A Mechanical Engineer. He Began To Sing In The Choirs At Naples When He Was 11 Years Old, And Later Studied Under Guglielmo Vergine. He ...

Epiphyllum
Epiphyllum And Phyllocactus (fig. 4), The Leaf Cactus, Com Prises 17 Species, Found In Mexico And Central And Tropical South America. They Differ From All The Forms Already Noticed In Being Epiphytal In Habit, And In Having The Branches Compressed And Dilated So As To Resemble Thick Fleshy Leaves, With ...

Ernst Cassirer
Cassirer, Ernst ), German Philosopher, Was Born At Breslau, And Educated At The Universities Of Berlin, Leipzig, Munich, Heidelberg And Marburg. In 1919 He Became A Professor At Hamburg. Cassirer's Chief Interests Lie In The History Of Transcendental Philosophy, In The Theory Of Scientific Knowl Edge And In The Formation ...

Etienne Cabet
Cabet, Etienne (1788-1856), French Socialist, Was Born At Dijon In 1788, The Son Of A Cooper. He Practised At The Bar In Dijon Until 1820, And Then Settled In Paris, Where He Became Director Of The "vente Supreme," The Local Association Of Car Bonari. After The Revolution Of 183o, He ...

Eugene Carriers
Carriers, Eugene (1849-1906), French Painter, Born At Gournay (seine-inferieure) On Jan. 17, 1849, Son Of A Flemish Father And An Alsatian Mother, Passed His Early Youth At Stras Bourg And Moved With His Parents To Saint Quentin In 1868. His Enthusiasm For Art Was Roused On Seeing The Pastels Of ...

Export Of Capital
Capital, Export Of. This Expression Denotes Invest Ment Of Capital Abroad By A Country Or Its Inhabitants. The Term May Be Applied Either Broadly To The Gross Amount Of Capital So Invested During A Given Period, Or More Narrowly To The Net Amount, Represented By An Excess Of Capital Invested ...

Ferentiation
Ferentiation). ...

Fernan Caballero
Caballero, Fernan (1796-1877), The Pseudonym Adopted By The Spanish Novelist Cecilia Francisca Josefa Bohl De Faber. Born At Morges In Switzerland, She Was The Daughter Of Johan Nikolas Bohl Von Faber, A Hamburg Merchant, Known To The Students Of Spanish Literature As The Editor Of The Floresta De Rimas Antiguas ...

Flavius Caper
Caper, Flavius, Latin Grammarian, Flourished During The 2nd Century. He Devoted Special Attention To The Early Latin Writers, And Is Highly Spoken Of By Priscian. Caper Was The Author Of Two Works, De Lingua Latina And De Dubiis Generibus, Now Lost ; But Two Short Treatises, De Orthographia And De ...

Florence Estienne Meric Casaubon
Casaubon, Florence Estienne Meric 1671), English Classical Scholar, Son Of Isaac Casaubon, Was Born At Geneva Aug. 14 And Completed His Education At Eton And Oxford. For His Defence Of His Father Against The Attacks Of Certain Catholics (pietas Contra Maledicos Patrii Nominis Et Re Ligionis Hostes, 1621) And Against ...

Franc Ois Cabarrus
Cabarrus, Franc Ois Financier, Was Born At Bayonne In 1752 And Died At Seville On April 27, 181o. He Settled In Madrid As A Soap Manufacturer And Presently Became One Of The Financial Advisers Of Charles Iii. He Devoted His Considerable Financial Talents To The Organization Of A Bank, To ...

Francesco Bussone Carmagnola
Carmagnola, Francesco Bussone, Count Of (139o-1432), A Condottiere, Won Back Gian Galeazzo Visconti's Divided Territories For Gian's Son And Heir Filippo Maria Vis Conti, Duke Of Milan. In 1425, Feeling That He Had Not Been Sufficiently Rewarded By Visconti, Carmagnola Sold His Services To The Venetians. In The Ensuing War ...

Francesco Caracciolo
Caracciolo, Francesco, Prince (1732-1799), Neapolitan Admiral And Revolutionary, Was Born On Jan. 18, 173 2. He Learnt His Seamanship Under Rodney, And Fought With Distinc Tion In The British Service In The American War Of Independence, Against The Barbary Pirates, And Against The French At Toulon. He Was The Only ...

Francois Certain Canrobert
Canrobert, Francois Certain Marshal Of France, Was Born At St. Cere, Lot, On June 27, 1809, And Educated At St. Cyr He Received A Commission As Sub Lieutenant In 1828, And In 1835 Went To Algeria, Serving With Distinction In Various Campaigns Against The Arabs. In 1839 He Was Employed ...

Frederick Crace Calvert
Calvert, Frederick Crace Eng Lish Chemist, Was Born In London On Nov. 14, 1819. From About 1836 Till 1846 He Lived In France. On His Return To England He Settled In Manchester As A Consulting Chemist, And Was Appointed Professor Of Chemistry At The Royal Institution In That City. He ...

French Caricature
French Caricature Effect Of Censorship.—meanwhile, Our Attention May Conve Niently Be Turned To France, Where Personal Caricature, Even If It Had Established Itself As Soon As In England, Was Hardly Likely To Be Allowed The Same Liberty In Connection With Political Satire. The Rarity Of Satirical Prints Of The Earlier ...

Friedrich Rudolf Ludwig Canitz
Canitz, Friedrich Rudolf Ludwig, Freiherr Von (1654-1699), German Poet And Diplomatist, Was Born At Berlin On Nov. 27, 16j4. He Attended The Universities Of Leyden And Leipzig, Travelled In England, France, Italy And Holland, And Was Appointed Groom Of The Bedchamber (kammerjunker) To The Elector, Frederick William Of Brandenburg, Whom ...

Gaetano Casati
Casati, Gaetano (1838-1902), Italian Geographer And Traveller In Africa. Born At Lesmo, He Entered The Corps Of Ber Saglieri In 1859 And Took Part In The Wars Of Independence Against Austria. Subsequently He Was Employed In The Making Of The Ordnance Survey Maps Of Italy. In 1879 Casati Resigned His ...

Gaius Cassius
Cassius, Gaius, Called Parmensis From His Birthplace Parma, Was One Of The Murderers Of Julius Caesar, And After His Death Joined The Party Of Brutus And His Namesake Cassius. In 43 B.c. He Was In Command Of The Fleet On The Coast Of Asia, But After The Battle Of Philippi ...

Gaius Julius Caesar
Caesar, Gaius Julius (iulius) (102?-44 B.c.), The Great Roman Soldier And Statesman, Was Born On July 12, 102 B.c. (in Spite Of The Explicit Statements Of Suetonius, Plutarch, And Appian That Caesar Was In His 56th Year At The Time Of His Murder, It Is, As Mommsen Has Shown, Probable ...

Gangue Or Lang
Gangue Or Lang, The European Name For The Chinese Kid, A Portable Pillory, Carried By Offenders Convicted Of Petty Offences. It Consists Of A Square Wooden Collar About 4f T. Square Weighing From 20 To 6o Lb., Through A Hole In Which The Victim's Head Is Thrust. It Fits Tight ...

Gaston Calmette
Calmette, Gaston (1858-1914), French Journalist And Writer, Was Born At Montpellier On July 3o, 1858. In 1884 He Joined The Staff Of Le Figaro, And In 1894 Became Editor. He Attracted Much Notice In 1913 And 1914 As The Originator Of The Bitter Attacks On The Policy Of M. Caillaux; ...

Georg Calixtus
Calixtus, Georg (1586-1656), Lutheran Divine, Was Born At Medelbye, Schleswig, On Dec. 14, 1586. After Studying Philology, Philosophy And Theology At Helmstedt, Jena, Giessen, Tubingen And Heidelberg, He Travelled Through Holland, France And England, Where He Became Acquainted With The Leading Re. Formers. On His Return In 1614 He Was ...

Georg Cantor
Cantor, Georg (1845-1918), German Mathematician, Was Born At St. Petersburg (leningrad) On March 3, 1845. He Was Educated At Zurich, Berlin And Gottingen. He Was Appointed Tutor Of Mathematics In The University Of Halle (wittenberg) Where In 1872 He Became Extraordinary Professor And In 1879 Ordinary Professor Of Mathematics. Cantor's ...

Georg Leo Von Caprivi
Caprivi De Caprera De Montecuccoli, Georg Leo Von, Count (1831-1899), German Soldier And Statesman, Was Born On Feb. 24, 1831, At Charlottenburg. The Family Springs From Carniola, And The Name Was Originally Written Kopriva ; In The 18th Century One Branch Settled In Wernigerode, And Several Members Entered The Prussian ...

George Cabot
Cabot, George (1751-1823), American Political Leader, Was Born In Salem, Mass., On Dec. 16, 1751. He Studied At Har Vard From 1766 To 1768, When He Went To Sea As A Cabin Boy. He Gradually Rose To Become A Shipowner And A Successful Merchant, Retiring From Business In 1794. Throughout ...

George Cadbury
Cadbury, George 922 ), British Manufacturer And Philanthropist, Was Born Sept. 19, 1839 At Edgbaston, Bir Mingham, Of Quaker Parents, And Was Brought Up A Member Of The Society Of Friends. In 1861, When He Succeeded To His Father's Business, It Gave Employment To 12 Workers Only, But Under The ...

George Calderon
Calderon, George (1868-1915), British Dramatist, Was Born In London On Dec. 2, 1868, The Son Of The Painter Philip H. Calderon, R.a. Educated At Rugby And Trinity College, Ox Ford, He Spent Two Years In St. Petersburg (leningrad) 97 ), And From That Time Onwards Took A Deep Interest In ...

George Campbell
Campbell, George (1719-1796), Scottish Theologian, Was Born At Aberdeen On Dec. 25, And Died There On March 31, 1796. He Was Principal Of Marischal College (1759), And Pro Fessor Of Divinity (1771). He Is Remembered Chiefly For His Disser Tation On Miracles (1763), Written In Reply To Hume's Essay. His ...

George Canning
Canning, George 7o-182 7 ), British Statesman, Was Born In London On April 1i, 177o. The Cannings Came Originally From Bishop's Canynge In Wiltshire, But In 1618 One Of The Family Received The Grant Of The Manor Of Garvagh In London Derry, Ireland. The Father Of The Statesman, Also Named ...

George Cassander Or Cassant
Cassander Or Cassant, George (1513-1566), Flemish Theologian, Born At Bruges, Studied At Louvain, And Taught Theology And Literature At Bruges. He Studied The Differences Be Tween The Catholic And Protestant Bodies With A View To Facilitat Ing Reunion, And In 1561 Published Anonymously De 0 Fficiis Pii Ac Publicae Tranquillitatis ...

George Edward Stanhope Molyneux
Carnarvon, George Edward Stanhope Molyneux Herbert, 5th Earl Of (1866-1923), Eng Lish Egyptologist, Was Born At Highclere, Berkshire, June 26, 1866, And Educated At Eton And Trinity College, Cambridge. Always Interested In Egyptian Archaeology And Politics, He Began Excava Tions Near Thebes With Mr. Howard Carter In 1906 And Discovered ...

George Washington Cable
Cable, George Washington Ameri Can Author, Was Born In New Orleans, La., On Oct. 12, 1844. The Son Of A Virginia Father And A New England Mother, He Became A Clerk At 15, Fought Two Years For The Confederacy As A Cavalry Man, Engaged In Surveying And Newspaper Work, And ...

George William Frederick Charles
George William Frederick Charles, Duke Of Cambridge (1819-1904) , Was Born At Hanover On March 26, 1819. He Was Thus About Two Months Older Than His Cousin, Queen Victoria, And Was For That Period In The Line Of Succession To The British Throne. In Nov. 1837, After He Had Served ...

Georges Cadoudal
Cadoudal, Georges (1771-1804), Leader Of The Chouans During The French Revolution, Was Born On Jan. 1, 1771, Near Auray (morbihan). From 1793 He Organized A Revolt In The Morbihan Which Was Quickly Suppressed, And He Thereupon Joined The Army Of The Revolted Vendeans, Taking Part In The Battles Of Le ...

Gerolamo Campagna
Campagna, Gerolamo (c. 1549–after 1626), Italian Sculptor, Born At Verona, A Pupil And Assistant Of Danese Cat Taneo, With Whom He Worked At Verona And Padua, And Whose Work In S. Antonio He Completed After His Master's Death In He Was One Of The Most Distinguished Sculptors Of His Age, ...

Giacomo Carissimi
Carissimi, Giacomo (c. 1604-1674), One Of The Most Celebrated Masters Of The Italian School Of Music, Was Born About 1604 In Marino, Near Rome. Of His Life Almost Nothing Is Known. At The Age Of Twenty He Became Chapel-master At Assisi, And In 1628 He Obtained The Same Position At ...

Gino Capponi
Capponi, Gino, (1792-1876), Italian States Man And Historian, Was Descended From An Ancient Florentine Family. In 1811 He Married The Marchesina Giulia Riccardi. After The Return Of The Grand Duke Ferdinand Iii. From Exile In 1814, Capponi Embarked Upon A Long Series Of Travels That Brought Him Into Touch With ...

Giosue Carducci
Carducci, Giosue (1836-1907), Italian Poet, Was Born At Val-di-castello, Tuscany, On July 27, 1836, The Son Of Michele Carducci, A Physician Who Had Suffered Imprisonment In His Youth For His Share In The Revolution Of 1831. Carducci Was Educated At The University Of Pisa, And Began Life As A Public ...

Giovanni Agnolo Canini
Canini, Giovanni Agnolo Italian Designer And Engraver, Was Born At Rome. He Was A Pupil Of Domenichino And Afterwards Of Antonio Barbalonga. He Painted Some Altar-pieces At Rome, Including Two Admired Pictures For The Church Of San Martino A' Monti, Representing The Martyrdom Of St. Stephen And Of St. Bartholomew. ...

Giovanni Antonio Joan Nes
Capo D'istria, Giovanni Antonio (joan Nes), Count (1776-1831), Russian And Greek Statesman, Son Of Count Antonio Capo D'istria, The Head Of An Old Corfiot Family, Was Born In Corfu On Feb. Ii, 1776, And Studied At Padua. In 1800 He Became Secretary To The Legislative Council Of The Septinsular Republic ...

Giovanni Battista Caprara
Caprara, Giovanni Battista Ital Ian Cardinal, Was Born On May 29, 1733, At Bologna Of The Family Of The Counts Of Montecuculi. Having Acted As Nuncio At Cologne, Lucerne And Vienna, He Received A Cardinal's Hat In 1792, And In 1801, At The Special Request Of Bonaparte, Was Deputed By ...

Giovanni Battista Castello
Castello, Giovanni Battista ?), Italian Historical Painter, Architect And Sculptor, Was Born Near Bergamo In 15oo Or Perhaps 1509, And Is Hence Termed I1 Bergamasco. He Belongs, However, To The School Of Genoa, But Does Not Appear To Have Been Related To The Other Two Painters Named Castello, Also Noticed ...

Giovanni Battista Casti
Casti, Giovanni Battista Italian Poet, A Native Of Montefiascone, Entered The Church, But Surren Dered His Chance Of Preferment To The Pleasure Of Visiting The Courts Of Europe. From 1782-96 He Was Poet-laureate At The Austrian Court. The Rest Of His Life Was Spent In Paris, Where He Died On ...

Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione
Castiglione, Giovanni Benedetto (1616 T670), Called In Italy I1 Grechetto, And In France Le Benedette, Italian Painter Of The Genoese School, Was Born In Genoa, And Studied For Some Time Under Vandyck. He Painted Portraits, Historical Pieces And Landscapes, But Chiefly Excelled In Fairs, Markets And Rural Scenes With Animals. ...

Giovanni Caroto
Giovanni Caroto (1488-1555 ?) The Younger Brother Of Giov. Francesco, Was An Architect And Painter. According To Vasari, Who Knew Him Personally, He Was A Pupil Of Liberale. He Pub Lished A Book On The Antiquities Of Verona, With Woodcuts After His Own Drawings. ...

Giovanni Domenico Cassini
Giovanni Domenico Cassini (1625-1712) Was Born At Peri Naldo Near Nice On June 8, 1625. Educated By The Jesuits At Genoa, He Was Nominated In 165o Professor Of Astronomy In The University Of Bologna. In 1671 He Became Director Of The Paris Observatory, And Became A French Subject In 1673. ...

Giovanni Francesco Caroto Or
Caroto Or Carotto, Giovanni Francesco (c. 148o-1555), Italian Painter Of The Veronese School. He Was A Pupil Of Liberale And Worked For Some Time, So Vasari Says, Under Mantegna At Mantua. His Later Works Betray The Influence Of Leonardo Da Vinci, And Of Raphael And The Roman School. In Spite ...

Giovanni Jacopo Casanova De
Casanova De Seingalt, Giovanni Jacopo (1725-1i98), Italian Adventurer And Author Of The Famous Memoires, Was Born At Venice In 1725. His Parents, Taking A Journey To London, Left Him, When He Was A Year Old, In Charge Of His Grandmother, Who Sent Him At 16 To The Seminary Of St. ...

Giovanni Rinaldo Carli Rubbi
Carli-rubbi, Giovanni Rinaldo, Count Of (1720-1795), Italian Economist And Antiquarian, Was Born At Capo D'istria. At The Age Of 24 He Was Appointed Professor Of Astronomy And Navigation In The University Of Padua, And En Trusted With The Superintendence Of The Venetian Marine. After Filling These Offices For Seven Years ...

Girolamo Da Carpi
Carpi, Girolamo Da (1501-1556), Italian Historical And Portrait Painter, Born At Ferrara, Was One Of Benvenuto Garofalo's Best Pupils. He Spent Several Years In Copying The Works Of Correggio, Succeeding So Well As To Be Able To Dispose Of His Own Works As Originals By The Master. Da Carpi's Best ...

Giulio Caccini
Caccini, Giulio (1558-1615?), Italian Composer, Also Known As Giulio Romano, But To Be Distinguished From The Painter Of That Name, Was Born At Rome About 1558, And In 1578 Entered The Service Of The Grand Duke Of Tuscany At Florence. He Collaborated With J. Peri In The Early Attempts At ...

Giulio Campagnola
Campagnola, Giulio (c. 1482-1514), Italian En Graver, Born At Padua In 1482. He Was A Youth Of Great Versatility And Promise, And While Still Under 17 Showed Much Skill At Painting, Engraving And Music. He Was Influenced By Mantegna And Direr And Engraved Subjects After Giorgione. His Delicate Modelling By ...

Giulio Campi
Campi, Giulio (1502-1572), The Founder Of A School Of Italian Painters, Was Born At Cremona. He Was Son And Pupil Of A Painter, Galeazzo Campi (1475-1536). He Was Later Taught By Giulio Romano, And Made A Special Study Of Titian, Correggio And Raphael. His Works Are Very Numerous, And The ...

Greek I
Greek (i) Greek Calendar, Even In Its Most De Veloped Forms, Differed From All Modern European Systems In Being Soli-lunar; I.e., In Theory, Every Year Began When The Sun Was In A Certain Position (solstice Or Equinox) And Every Month Began With The New Moon. But, As The Solar Year ...

Gulf Of Cambay
Cambay, Gulf Of, A Trumpet-shaped Inlet On The West Coast Of India, Narrowing Northwards Between Kathiawar Pen Insula And Gujarat. Its Shape And Orientation In Relation To The South-west Monsoon Winds Explain Its Very High Tides And The Velocity With Which They Enter. But It Shallows Rapidly; The Silt Of ...

Gulf Of Carpentaria
Carpentaria, Gulf Of, A Relic, To All Appearances, Of The Inland Sea Which Occupied Much Of East Central Australia In Triassic And Jurassic Times, Though The Great Artesian Basin Appears To Have No Extensive Outlet In This Direction And The Por Tion From Cloncurry Northwards To The Coast May Be ...

Gustav Cassel
Cassel, Gustav (1866– ), Swedish Economist, Was Born At Stockholm On Oct. 20, 1866. He Became In 1904 Profes Sor Of Economics In The Hogskola At Stockholm. His Memorandum On "the World's Monetary Problem" At The Brussels Conference In 1920 Attracted Great Attention. In Another Memorandum To The League Of ...

Henry Calderwood
Calderwood, Henry (183o-1897), Scottish Philo Sopher And Divine, Was Born At Peebles On May So, 183o. He Was Educated At The Royal High School And The University Of Edin Burgh. In 1856 He Was Ordained Pastor Of The Greyfriars Church, Glasgow. He Taught Moral Philosophy At Glasgow University Until, In ...

Henry Carey
Carey, Henry (d. , English Poet And Musician, Re Puted To Be An Illegitimate Son Of George Savile, Marquess Of Halifax, Was Born Towards The End Of The 17th Century. Carey Studied Under Olaus Linnert, Roseingrave And Geminiani. He Wrote The Words And Music Of The Contrivances; Or More Ways ...

Henry Charles Carey
Carey, Henry Charles (1793-1879), American Economist, Was Born In Philadelphia, (pa.), Dec. 15, 1793. At The Age Of 28 He Succeeded His Father, Mathew Carey (1760-1839)— An Influential Economist, Political Reformer, Editor And Publisher, Of Irish Birth, For Many Years A Resident Of Philadelphia—as A Member Of The Publishing Firm ...

Henry Francis Cary
Cary, Henry Francis Translator Of The Divina Commedia, Was Born At Gibraltar, The Son Of An Army Captain, And Educated At Christ Church, Oxford, Where He Devoted Much Time To The Study Of French And Italian Literature. On Leav Ing Oxford He Took Holy Orders. For About I I Years ...

Hindu
Hindu From Very Early Times Hindus Have Employed Luni-solar Cycles Made By The Combination Of Solar Years And Lunar Years So Treated As To Keep The Beginning Of The Lunar Year Near That Of The Solar Year. The Detailed Arrangement Of The Earliest Form Of Hindu Calendar Is Still A ...

How To Camp
How To Camp A Good Camper May Be Likened To A Good Woodsman. He Does Not Go With Scanty Outfit To Endure As Many Hardships As He Can Stand---revelling In His Stamina—but Rather He Makes The Most Of His Equipment And The Resources Of Nature And Lives Happily And Comfortably ...

Howard Carter
Carter, Howard ) , Egyptologist, Was Born In Swaffham, Norfolk, Eng., And Educated Privately. He Received Training In Archaeological Surveying Under Professor Flinders Petrie And Others, Joined The Staff Of The Egyptian Exploration Fund In 1890 And Engaged In Excavations On Their Behalf Until 1899. Later He Became Inspector-general Under ...

Hugh Cairns
Cairns, Hugh Mccalmont Cairns, 1st Earl (181g-1885), Irish Statesman, And Lord Chancellor Of England, Was Born At Cultra, Co. Down, Ireland, On Dec. 27, 1819, And Was Educated At Belfast Academy And Trinity College, Dublin, Graduating With A Senior Moderatorship In Classics In 1838. In 1844 He Was Called To ...

Hugh Longbourne Callendar
Callendar, Hugh Longbourne British Physicist, Was Born At Hatherop :n Gloucestershire. He Was Educated At Marlborough And At Cambridge ; He Held The Post Of Professor Of Physics At Mcgill College, Montreal ; At University College, London (1898-1902) And At The Imperial College Of Science. His Work In Physics Is ...

Ignaz Franz Castelli
Castelli, Ignaz Franz (1781-1862), Austrian Dram Atist, Was Born At Vienna On March 6, 1781. During The Napole Onic Invasions His War Song, Kriegslied Fur Die Osterreichische Armee, Was Printed By Order Of The Archduke Charles And Dis Tributed In Thousands. For This Castelli Was Proclaimed By Napo Leon In ...

Inland Water Transport
Inland Water Transport. See Also The Articles On Particular Rivers, Canals And Places; E.g., ...

Ioan Caragiali
Caragiali, Ioan (1852-1912), Rumanian Dramatist And Novelist, Was Born On Jan. 29, 1852, At Ploiesti. In His Corn Edies, The Stormy Night (188o) And The Lost Letter (1885), He Satirized The Effects On Rumanian Society Of Too Hasty An Introduc Tion Of Western Customs, And The Pretensions Of The Bourgeois ...

Irving Heward Cameron
Cameron, Irving Heward Canadian Surgeon, Son Of Sir Matthew Crooks Cameron, One-time Chief Justice Of The Common Pleas, Was Born In Toronto On July 17, 1855. He Was Educated At Upper Canada College And The Univer Sity Of Toronto Of Which He Was Emeritus Professor Of Surgery. He Founded And ...

Isaac Casaubon
Casaubon, Isaac (1559-16r4), French (naturalized English) Classical Scholar, Was Born In Geneva On Feb. 18, Of French Refugee Parents. On The Publication Of The Edict Of Jan. 1562, The Family Returned To France And Settled At Crest In Dauphine. Till He Was 19, Isaac Had No Other Instruction Than Could ...

Jacques Caffieri
Caffieri, Jacques (1678-1755), French Worker In Metal, The Most Famous Member Of A Family Several Of Whom Distinguished Themselves In Plastic Art, Was The Fifth Son Of Philippe Caffieri (1634-1716), A Decorative Sculptor, Who, After Serving Pope Alexander Vii., Entered The Service Of Louis Xiv. In 166o. An Elder Son ...

Jacques Callot
Callot, Jacques (1592-1635), French Engraver, Was Born At Nancy In Lorraine, Where His Father, Jean Callot, Was A Herald-at-arms. When Only 14 Years Old, He Was Allowed To Ac Company The Duke Of Lorraine's Envoy To The Papal Court In Order To Study Art In Rome. His First Care Was ...

Jacques Cartier
Cartier, Jacques French Navigator, Dis Coverer Of The Canadian River St. Lawrence, Was Born At St. Malo In Brittany. Of His Early Life Nothing Is Known. On The Suppres Sion By Admiral Chabot Of The Trade To Brazil, An Expedition Con Sisting Of Two Ships And 61 Men Was Despatched ...

Jacques Cassini
Jacques Cassini Son Of Domenico Cassini, Was Born At The Paris Observatory On Feb. 8, 1677. Having Succeeded To His Father's Position At The Observatory In '712, He Measured In 1713 The Arc Of The Meridian From Dunkirk To Perpignan, And Published The Results In A Volume Entitled De La ...

Jacques Dominique Cassini
Jacques Dominique Cassini, Count Son Of Cesar Francois Cassini, Was Born At The Observatory Of Paris On June 3o, 1748. He Succeeded In 1784 To The Directorate Of The Observatory ; But His Plans For Its Restoration And Re-equipment Were Wrecked In 1793 By The French Revolution. He Spent Some ...

James Branch Cabell
Cabell, James Branch ), American Author, Was Born At Richmond (va.), April 14 1879. He Was Instructor In French And Greek At William And Mary College In 1896-97, Graduating With The Degree Of B.a. In 1898. He Began Newspaper Work At Richmond And Was On The Staff Of The New ...

James Thomas Brudenell Cardigan
Cardigan, James Thomas Brudenell, 7th Earl Of (1797-1868), English Soldier, Born At Hambleden, Bucks, On Oct. 16, 1797. He Entered The Army In 1824, And As Lieutenant-colonel, First In The 15th Hussars (1832-34), And Later In The 11th Hussars, Made Himself One Of The Most Unpopular Officers In The Army. ...

Jean Baptiste Capronnier
Capronnier, Jean Baptiste Bel Gian Stained-glass Painter, Was Born In Brussels In 1814, And Died There In 1891. He Had Much To Do With The Modern Revival Of Glass-painting, And First Made His Reputation By His Clever Restora Tions Of Old Examples. He Carried Out Windows For Churches In Brussels, ...

Jean Baptiste Carpeaux
Carpeaux, Jean Baptiste French Sculptor, The Son Of A Mason, Was Born At Valenciennes, France, On May I I, 1827, And Died At The Château De Becon, Near Courbevoie, On Oct. 12, 1875. In 1842 He Went To Paris, And After Working For Two Years In A Drawing-school Was Admitted ...

Jean Baptiste Carrier
Carrier, Jean Baptiste (1756-1794), French Rev Olutionist And Terrorist, Was Born At Yolet, In Upper Auvergne. In 1792 He Was Chosen Deputy To The National Convention. He Was Already Known As One Of The Influential Members Of The Cor Deliers Club And Of That Of The Jacobins. At The Close ...

Jean Baptiste Honore Ray Mond
Capefigue, Jean-baptiste Honore Ray Mond (1801-1872), French Historian And Biographer, Was Born At Marseilles. The General Catalogue Of Printed Books For The Bibliotheque Nationale Contains No Fewer Than 77 Works Volumes) Published By Him During 4o Years. Of These The Most Important Are The Histoire De Philippe-auguste (4 Vols. 1829), ...