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Encyclopedia Britannica

Volume 5, Part 2: Cast-Iron to Cole

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Chromatic
Chromatic, A Term Meaning "coloured," Used In Science, Particularly In The Expression "chromatic Aberration" Or "disper Sion" (see Aberration Of Light). In Greek Music Ypwjcaruo ?ovauci Was One Of Three Divisions—diatonic, Chromatic And Enharmonic—of The Tetrachord. Like The Latin Color, Xpioµa Was Often Used Of Ornaments And Embellishments, And Particularly ...

Chromatometer Or Tintometer
Chromatometer Or Tintometer, An Instrument For Standardizing The Intensity And Hue Of A Given Colour (q.v.). The Specimen Is Compared With A Standard By Viewing The Two Simultaneously And Interposing In Front Of The Standard Various Standard Coloured Plates Until A Match Is Obtained. Instead Of The Plates, Strata Liquids ...

Chromite
Chromite, A Member Of The Spinel Group Of Minerals; An Oxide Of Chromium And Ferrous Iron, It Is The Chief Com Mercial Source Of Chromium And Its Compounds. It Crystallizes In Regular Octahedra, But Is Usually Found As Grains Or As Granular To Compact Masses. In Its Iron-black Colour With ...

Chromium
Chromium Is A Metallic Chemical Element, Called So From The Greek Xpw,ua, Colour, On Account Of The Varied Colours Of Its Compounds. In 1798, L. N. Vauquelin And M. H. Klaproth Simultaneously And Independently Discovered A New Element In Addition To Lead In The Mineral Crocoisite Or Crocoite (lead Chro ...

Chromosome
Chromosome. So Called On Account Of Their Affinity For Certain Dyes, The Chromosomes Are Minute Bodies Seen In The Divid Ing Cells Of Which The Bodies Of Animals And Plants Are Composed. Their Characteristic Configurations And Remarkable Behaviour In Cell Division, In The Process Of Development, And In The Union ...

Chromosphere
Chromosphere Is The Name Which Was Given By Sir Norman Lockyer In I868 (at The Suggestion Of Sharpey, Then Secretary Of The Royal Society) To The Layer Of The Sun's Atmos Phere, Just Outside The Photosphere, Which Is Observed Visually When The Sun Is Totally Eclipsed And Is Spectroscopically Observ ...

Chronaxie
Chronaxie, A Term Introduced By Louis Lapicque In 19o9 To Define The Character Of The Stimulus Which Is Required To Excite Various Types Of Living Tissue, Particularly Muscle And Nerve. The Most Convenient Form Of Stimulus Is An Electric Current, Since This Can Be Made To Excite (i.e., To Cause ...

Chronicle
Chronicle. The Histor Ical Works Written In The Middle Ages Are Variously Designated "histories," "annals," Or "chron Icles" (from Gr. Xpovos, Time) ; It Is Difficult, However, To Give An Exact Definition Of Each Of These Terms, Since They Do Not Corre Spond To Determinate Classes Of Writings. Perhaps The ...

Chronograph
Chronograph, An Instrument For Recording The Passage Of Time ; Thus The Name Is Applied To The Stop-watch Used For Tim Ing Races, Etc. Press A Key And The Index Of The Dial Sets To Zero; Press Again And The Index Starts To Move At Normal Rate, Say One Revolution ...

Chronology
Chronology, A Time-scale, A System Of Reckoning Time Massively. In Testimony Of The Social Memory And Of The Classi Fication And Exploitation Of Social Experiences Embedded Therein Mankind Has Learnt To Recognize The Orderly Recurrence Of Natural Phenomena And To Base Thereon His Calendar (q.v.). ...

Chronometer
Chronometer. A Marine Timekeeper, Used For Deter Mining Longitude At Sea. The Word Was Originally Used To Denote Any Time-measuring Instrument. The First Instance Of Its Employ Ment In Its Accepted Modern Meaning Is To Be Found In Jeremy Thacker's "the Longitudes Examined . . ." (london, 1714) . On ...

Chrudim
Chrudim, A Town Of Bohemia, Czechoslovakia, Situated In The South-east Of The Elbe Basin On The Chrudimka, A Left-bank Tributary Of The Elbe. Its Fertile Surroundings Account For The Early Settlement, Dating Back To Before The 11 Th Century, And For The Disturbed History Since It Became A Small But ...

Chrysalis
Chrysalis, The Common Name For The Pupa (q.v.) Of The Lepidoptera (butterflies And Moths). ...

Chrysanthemum
Chrysanthemum, In Botany, A Numerous Genus Of Plants Of The Family Compositae ; Popularly The Name Given To Forms Of Certain Old World Species Of This Genus Which Have Been Remarkably Developed By Cultivation. Most Varieties Of The So-called Chinese And Japanese Chrysanthemums Extensively Grown By Gardeners And Florists Are ...

Chrysanthius
Chrysanthius, Greek Philosopher Of The 4th Century A.d. He Was A Pupil Of Aedesius And An Exponent Of The Mystical Side Of Neoplatonism (q.v.). Invited By The Emperor Julian To Assist In The Scheme For The Revival Of Hellenism, He Declined, Probably Foreseeing Its Failure. As High-priest Of Lydia He ...

Chryselephantine
Chryselephantine, The Architectural Term Given To Statues Which Were Built Up On A Wooden Core, With Ivory Repre Senting The Flesh And Gold The Drapery (gr. Xpvaos, Gold, Eaeoas, Ivory). The Two Most Celebrated Examples Are Those By Pheidias, The Statue Of Athena In The Parthenon And Of Zeus In ...

Chrysene
Chrysene, A Hydrocarbon Discovered By Laurent In The High Boiling Point Fractions Of Coal Tar Distillate, Is Produced In Small Quantity In The Distillation Of Amber, Or On Passing The Vapour Of Phenyl-naphthyl-methane Through A Red-hot Tube. When Impure, It Is Of A Yellow Colour; Hence Its Name (xpvieos, Golden ...

Chrysippus
Chrysippus (c. B.c.), Greek Philosopher, Third Leader Of The Stoics, Born At Soli, Cilicia (diog. Laert. Vii. 179). He Came To Athens And Studied Possibly Under Zeno, Certainly Under Cleanthes. It Is Said Also That He Became A Pupil Of Arcesi Laus And Lacydes, Heads Of The Middle Academy. The ...

Chrysoberyl
Chrysoberyl, A Yellow Or Green Gem-stone, Remarkable For Its Hardness, Being Exceeded In This Respect Only By The Dia Mond And Corundum. The Name Suggests That It Was Formerly Regarded As A Golden Variety Of Beryl. Its Composition Is Bea1,04, Or It Is Yellow Or Pale Green, Occasionally Passing Into ...

Chrysocolla
Chrysocolla, A Hydrous Copper Silicate Occurring As A Decomposition Product Of Copper Ores. It Is Never Found As Crys Tals, But Always As Encrusting And Botryoidal Masses. It Is Green Or Bluish-green In Colour, And Often Has The Appearance Of Opal Or Enamel, Being Translucent And Having A Conchoidal Fracture ...

Chrysolite
Chrysolite, A Transparent Green Gem-stone. The Name Chrysolite, Meaning "golden Stone" (xpvaos And X Ioos), Has Been Applied To Various Yellowish Gems, Notably To Topaz, To Some Kinds Of Beryl And To Chrysoberyl. The True Chrysolite Of The Modern Mineralogist Is A Pale Green Olivine (q.v.). ...

Chrysoprase
Chrysoprase Is A Transparent Variety Of Crypto-crystal Line Silica Of An Apple-green Colour (gr. Xpvvos, Gold And Zrpacrov, Leek), The Latter Being Due To The Presence Of Nickel, Probably In The Form Of Hydrous Silicate. A Very Similar Artificial Gem May Be Prepared By Immersing Chalcedony, In Solutions Of Nickel ...

Chrysostom St John Chrysostom
Chrysostom (st. John Chrysostom) ( X Puqoqtojsos, Golden-mouthed) (a.d. The Most Famous Greek Father, Was Born At Antioch About A.d. 345. At The School Of Libanius, The Sophist, He Gave Early Indications Of His Mental Powers And Love Of Classical Culture. On Being Baptized (c. 37o) By Meletius, Bishop Of ...

Chrysotile
Chrysotile, A Variety Of Serpentine, A Hydrous Silicate Of Magnesia, Which Is Characterized By A Fine, More Or Less Silklike Fibrous Structure ; This Is The Principal Fibrous Mineral Used In Com Merce Under The Name Asbestos (q.v.). (the Name Is Derived From The Greek Gold And Riaos, Down Or ...

Chub
Chub (leuciscus Cephalus), A Cyprinid Fish Distinguished From Others Of The Family In English Rivers By The Broad Head And Strong Jaws And By Feeding To A Considerable Extent On Little Fish. In England A Length Of Eft. And A Weight Of 8 Lb. Is Reached, But On The Continent ...

Chubut
Chubut, A Territory Of The Southern Argentine Republic, Part Of What Was Formerly Called Patagonia, Bounded North By Rio Negro, South By Santa Cruz, East By The Atlantic And West By Chile. Pop. Area, 93,427 Sq.m. Except For The Valleys In The Andean Foot-hills, Which Are Fertile And Well Forested, ...

Chuck
Chuck, A Device For Holding Work In A Lathe (q.v.) Or A Drill (see Drill And Boring) And Consisting Essentially Of Three Or Four Converging Jaws. ...

Chuguyev
Chuguyev, A Town In The Kharkov County Of The Ukrain Ian S.s.r., On The Right Bank Of The River Donetz, Where The Railway Linking Kharkov To Kupyansk Crosses The River. Lat. 49' N. Long. 36° 41' E. Pop. (1926) 13,311. ...

Chumash
Chumash, The Natives Of The Santa Barbara Coast And Islands, California. When Discovered By Cabrillo In 1542, And Missionized From 1771 On, They Numbered Perhaps 8,000–io,000, But Were Virtually Extinct By 19oo. They Made Sea-going Plank Canoes, Harpoons And Spear-throwers, Many Shell Ornaments And Fine Baskets. Technologically They Ranked With ...

Chumbi Valley
Chumbi Valley, A Valley Connecting Tibet (q.v.) With The Frontier Of British India. Lying On The Southern Slopes Of The Himalayas At An Altitude Of About 9,500 Ft. Above The Sea, The Valley Is Wedged In Between Bhutan And Sikkim, And Does Not Belong Geographically But Only Politically To Tibet. ...

Chunar
Chunar, A Town And Ancient Fortress Of India, In The Dis Trict Of Mirzapur, In The United Provinces, Situated On The South Bank Of The Ganges. Pop. (193o) 8,o5o. The Fort Occupies A Conspicuous Site On The Summit Of An Abrupt Rock Which Com Mands The River. It Was At ...

Chuncho
Chuncho, A Tribe Of South American Indians, Living In The Forests East Of Cuzco, Central Peru. Chuncho Has Also Been Used To Describe One Of Three Aboriginal Stocks Of Peru, The Others Being Quichua And Aymara. ...

Chungking
Chungking, The Treaty Port And Commercial Emporium Of The Isolated But Important And Densely Peopled Inland Basin Of Szechwan In West China (situation, 29° 32' N., 1o6° 50' E.). It Is Built On A Rocky Peninsula At The Confluence Of The Kialing Kiang, The Most Easterly Of The Great Rivers ...

Chupatty
Chupatty. An Anglo-indian Term For An Unleavened Cake Of Bread. The Word Represents The Hindustani Chapati, And Is Applied To The Usual Form Of Native Bread, The Staple Food Of Upper India. The Chupatty Is Generally Made Of Coarse Wheaten Flour, Patted Flat With The Hand, And Baked Upon A ...

Chupriya
Chupriya (sometimes Written Tyupriya; Croatian Cu Prya), The Capital Of The Morava Department Of Serbia, Yugosla Via. The Old Name Was Korea Margi. (pop., 1931, 8,235.) The Town Is On The Railway From Belgrade To Nish, And On The Morava, Which Is Navigable Up To This Point By Small Sailing ...

Chuquisaca
Chuquisaca, A Department Of S.e. Bolivia. It Lies Partly Upon The Eastern Plateau Of Bolivia And Partly Upon The Great Plains Of The Upper La Plata Basin; Area, 36,132 Sq.m. The Pil Comayo, A Large Tributary Of The Paraguay, Crosses N.w. To S.e. The Western Part Of The Department. The ...

Chur
Chur, The Capital Of The Swiss Canton Of The Grisons (fr. Coire, Ital. Coira). It Lies 1,95o Ft. Above Sea-level On The Valley-floor Of The Vorder Rhein In The Angle Between The Plessur And The Rhine, And Is Overshadowed By The Mittenberg And Pizokel, Hills That Guard The Entrance To ...

Church And State
Church And State. The Relation Of Church And State In England, Conveniently Summed Up In The Word "estab Lishment," Is Curiously Complicated, Including Elements Of Great Antiquity And Arrangements Made As Recently As The Year 1919. The Antiquary, The Historian, The Lawyer, And The Ecclesiastic Find Ample Materials For Their ...

Church Army
Church Army, An English Religious Organization, Founded In 1882 By The Rev. Wilson Carlile (afterwards Prebendary Of St. Paul's), Who Banded Together In An Orderly Army Of "soldiers" And "officers" A Few Working Men And Women, Whom He And Others Trained To Act As "church Of England Evangelists" Among The ...

Church Assembly
Church Assembly: See Canon Law : Church Of Eng Land, Convocation, And England, Church Of. ...

Church Congress
Church Congress, Originally An Annual Meeting Of Members Of The Church Of England, Lay And Clerical, To Discuss Matters Religious, Moral Or Social, In Which The Church Is Interested. It Has No Legislative Authority, And There Is No Voting On The Questions Discussed. The First Congress Was Held In 1861 ...

Church History
Church History. In The Following Account Of The His Torical Evolution Of The Church, The Subject Will Be Treated In Three Sections :—(a) The Ancient Church To The Beginning Of The Pon Tificate Of Gregory The Great (a.d. 59o) ; (b) The Church In The Middle Ages; (c) The Modern ...

Church Rate
Church Rate, The Name Of A Tax Formerly Levied In Each Parish In England And Ireland For The Benefit Of The Parish Church. Out Of This Rate Were Defrayed The Expenses Of Carrying On Divine Service, Repairing The Fabric Of The Church, And Paying The Salaries Of The Officials Connected ...

Church Stretton
Church Stretton, Urban District, Shropshire, Eng Land, Situated On A Low Watershed In A Narrow Longitudinal Valley Between The Longmynd And The Caradoc Ranges. (pop., 1931, 1,705.) It Takes Its Name From The Roman Road Joining Viroco Nium And Caerleon, On Which It Lies. The Great Western Railway From Shrewsbury ...

Church
Church. The Word Church Refers Both To The Christian Reli Gious Community And To The Building Used For Christian Worship. This Article, After Discussing The Etymology Of The Word Itself, Will Deal Separately With These Two Subjects. ...

Churchill
Churchill (missinnippi Or English), The Name Of A River Of The Province Of Saskatchewan And District Of Keewatin, Can Ada. It Rises In La Loche (or Methy) Lake, A Small Lake In 56° 3o' N. And 109° 3o' W., At An Altitude Of 1,577ft. Above The Sea, And Flows East-north-east ...

Churching Of Women
Churching Of Women, The Christian Ceremony Of Thanksgiving On The Part Of Mothers Shortly After The Birth Of Their Children. It No Doubt Originated In The Mosaic Regulation As To Purification (lev. Xii. ; Cf. Lk. Ii. 22). In Ancient Times The Ceremony Was Usual But Not Obligatory In England. ...

Churchwarden
Churchwarden, In England, The Guardian Or Keeper Of A Church, And Representative Of The Body Of The Parish. The Office Dates From The 14th Century, When The Responsibility Of Providing For The Repairs Of The Nave, And Of Furnishing The Utensils For Divine Service, Was Imposed On The Parishioners. Resident ...

Churchyard
Churchyard, A Piece Of Consecrated Ground Attached To A Parochial Church, And Used As A Burial Place. It Is Distinguished From A Cemetery (q.v.), Which Is Also A Place Of Burial, But Is Separate And Apart From Any Parochial Church. (see Burial.) ...

Churl
Churl. In Old English Law The Word Ceorl Denoted The Ordi Nary Free Man, Who Formed The Basis Of Anglo-saxon Society. In The Course Of Time He Lost Much Of His Original Independence, And After The Norman Conquest Became Included Within The Great Class Of Villeins (see Villeinage) Who Were ...

Churrigueresque
Churrigueresque, In Architecture, The Late, Luxuriant, Spanish Baroque Style, So Called From Its Most Famous Architect, Don Jose Churriguera (d. 1725). See Architecture; Renais Sance Architecture. ...

Churubusco
Churubusco, A Village Of Mexico On The River Of The Same Name, About Six Miles South Of The Capital. It Contains A Massive Stone Convent. It Was Here That Major General Winfield Scott In His Brilliant Southern Campaign Of The War Between Mexico And The United States (1846-48) Fought The ...

Chusan
Chusan, An Island Archipelago Off The Chinese Coast. It Represents The Submerged Terminus Of The Tayu-ling, The Dominat Ing Range Of Chekiang, Which Is Linked On South-westwards With The High Ranges Along The Fukien-kiangsi Border. The Outermost Islands Of The Archipelago Lie Across The Entrance To Hangchow Bay. Their Shores ...

Chute
Chute, A Channel Or Trough, Artificial Or Natural, Down Which Objects, Such As Timber, Coal Or Grain May Slide, Identical In Meaning And Pronunciation With "shoot." A Channel Cut In A Dam On A River For The Passage Of Floating Timber, And In Louisiana And On The Mississippi A Channel ...

Chutney
Chutney, A Sweet Pickle Or Relish Prepared From Sweet Fruits Such As Mangoes, Raisins, Etc., With Acid Flavouring From Tamarinds, Lemons, Limes And Sour Herbs, And With A Hot Seasoning Of Chillies, Cayenne Pepper And Spices. The Word Is An Anglicized Form Of The Hindustani Chatni. ...

Chuvashes
Chuvashes, A Tribe Found In East Central Russia, In The Government Of Kazan And Throughout The Governments Of Sim Birsk, Samara, Saratov, Orenburg And Perm. Some Think They Are The Descendants Of The Ancient Bolgars. In General, Like The Finns They Are Round-headed, Flat-featured And Light-eyed, But Have Been Affected ...

Chuvashia
Chuvashia, An A.s.s.r. In The Russian Socialist Federal Soviet Republic, Created As An Autonomous Area By Decree In June, 192o, And Declared An Autonomous Republic In April, 1925. Area, 18,413sq.km. Its Boundaries Are West, Nizhegorod; South, Ulianovsk; East, Tatar A.s.s.r.; North, Marii Autonomous Area. East Of The Nizhegorod Province, From ...

Chwana
Chwana, A Collective Name Applied To A Number Of Bantu Speaking Tribes Inhabiting The Interior Plain Of South Africa North Of The Orange River. The Most Important Are The Bamangwato, Bakwena, Bahurutshe, Bangwaketse, Batlapin And Barolong. They All Live By Pastoralism Combined With Agriculture. They Are Organized Socially Into Large ...

Cibber
Cibber (or Cibert), Caius Gabriel (163o-1700), Danish Sculptor, Was Born At Flensburg. He Was The Son Of The King's Cabinet-maker, And Was Sent To Rome At The Royal Charge While Yet A Youth. He Came To England During The Protectorate, Or During The First Years Of The Restoration. Besides The ...

Ciborium
Ciborium, In Classical Latin A Drinking-vessel (gr. Kt33d Piov, The Cup-shaped Seed-vessel Of The Egyptian Water-lily, And Hence A Cup). In The Early Christian Church The Ciborium Was A Canopy Over The Altar (q.v.), Supported On Columns, And From It Hung The Dove-shaped Receptacle In Which Was Reserved The Consecrated ...

Cicada
Cicada (cicadidae), Insects Of The Homopterous Division Of The Hemiptera (q.v.), Generally Of Large Size With The Femora Of The Fore Legs Spined Below, Two Pairs Of Large Membranous Wings And Prominent Eyes. Cicadas Are Remarkable For The Shrill Noise Emitted By The Males, Which Has Been Variously Compared To ...

Cicely
Cicely, 1vlyrrhis Odorata (family Umbelliferae), A Perennial Herb With A Leafy Hollow Stem, 2 To Aft. High, Much Divided Leaves, Whitish Beneath, A Large Sheathing Base, And Terminal Umbels Of Small White Flowers, The Outer Ones Only Of Which Are Fertile. The Fruit Is Dark Brown, Long (1 To 'in.), ...

Cicero
Cicero, The Name Of Two Families Of Ancient Rome. It May Perhaps Be Derived From Titer (pulse), In Which Case It Would Be Analogous To Such Names As Lentulus, Tubero, Piso. Of One Family, Of The Plebeian Claudian Bens, Only A Single Member, Gaius Claudius Cicero, Tribune In 454 B.c., ...

Cicerone
Cicerone, A Guide, One Who Conducts Visitors To Museums, Galleries, Etc., And Explains Matters Of Historic Or Artistic Interest. The Word Is Presumably Taken From Marcus Tullius Cicero As A Type Of Learning And Eloquence. According To A Quotation (1762) Cited By The New English Dictionary The Word Seems First ...

Cicero_2
Cicero, A Town Of Cook County (ill.), U.s.a., 7m. W. Of The "loop," And Bounded By Chicago On The North, East, And South. It Is Served By The Burlington, The Baltimore And Ohio, Chicago Terminal, The Belt Of Chicago, And The Manufacturers' Junction Railways. In 1900 The Population Was 16,310; ...

Cichlid
Cichlid. The Fishes Of The Family Cichlidae Are Perches With A Single Nostril On Each Side And With The Lower Pharyngeals Coalesced Or United By Suture. They Are Found In Lakes, Rivers And Brackish Lagoons Of Central And South America, Africa And Syria, Madagascar And India. This Distribution Was Formerly ...

Cicisbeo
Cicisbeo (chi-chis-ba'b), The Term In Italy (17th Century Onwards) For A Dangler About Women. The Cicisbeo Was The Pro Fessed Gallant Of A Married Woman, Who Attended Her At All Public Entertainments, It Being Considered Unfashionable For The Husband To Be Her Escort. ...

Cider Or Cyder
Cider Or Cyder, As Made Outside Of The United States, Is An Alcoholic Beverage Made From Apples. It Is Produced By The Vinous Fermentation Of The Expressed Juice Of The Fruit. Although Any Kind Of Apples Can Be Used For The Purpose, Spe Cial Vintage Varieties Distinguished By Chemical And ...

Cienfuegos
Cienfuegos (originally Fernandina De Jagua), One Of The Principal Cities Of Cuba, In Santa Clara Province, Near The Central Portion Of The Southern Coast, 195 M. E.s.e. Of Havana. Pop. (193i Census) 87,669. Cienfuegos Is Served By The United Railways Of Havana And By Steamers Connecting With Santiago, Batabano, Trinidad ...

Cieza
Cieza, A Town Of South-eastern Spain, In The Province Of Murcia, On The Madrid-cartagena Railway, And Junction For A Branch To Villena. Pop. (193o) 17,889. Cieza Stands On The Right Bank Of The River Segura, In A Narrow Bend Of The Valley, Which Is Enclosed On The North By Mountains, ...

Cigar
Cigar, Originally "segar," From The Spanish Cigar-shaped Beetle "cicada," Originated In Cuba Long Before Advent Of Colum Bus And The White Men. Indians Crudely Rolled It With Wrapper And Inside Filler Only, From Native West Indian Tobacco. Spread Of The Industry To America And To Europe Occurred In The I8th ...

Cigarette
Cigarette. A Cigarette Is Literally A Little Cigar—finely Cut Tobacco Rolled In Paper. In Great Britain The Tobacco Used In Ciga Rettes Is Mostly Bright Flue-cured, Better Known As Virginia. The Leaf Is Properly Moistened To Make It Pliable For Stemming, I.e. Removing The Stalk Or Midrib. The Next Process ...

Cilia
Cilia, In Biology, The Thread-like Processes By The Vibration Of Which Many Lowly Organisms Move Through Water. They Are Also Found On Certain Cells Of Both Lower And Higher Organisms To Create A Current, E.g. On The Gill Of Oysters, The Lining Of The Bron Chioles Of The Lungs In ...

Ciliata
Ciliata, One Of The Divisions Of Infusoria (q.v.) Charac Terized By The Permanent Possession Of Cilia Or Organs Derived From These (membranelles, Etc.), And All Parasitic. They Are The Most Highly Differentiated Protozoa (q.v.). ...

Cilicia
Cilicia, A District Of Asia Minor, Extending Along The South Coast Between Pamphylia And Syria. Its Northern Limit Was The Crest Of Mt. Taurus. It Was Divided Into Cilicia Trachea And Cilicia Pedias. Cilicia Trachea Is A Rugged Mountain District Formed By The Spurs Of Taurus, Which Often Terminate In ...

Cilli
Cilli (slovene Celje), A Town Of Slavonia, Yugoslavia, On A Branch Of The Zagreb-fiume Railway, Lies Picturesquely With Re Mains Of Walls And Towers On The River Sann, On An Important Road North To Marburg (maribor) On The Austrian Frontier And South To Ljubljana. Pop. (1931) 7,602. Probably A Celtic ...

Cimabue
Cimabue, Name Of A Florentine Painter Cenni Di Pepo Active In The 13th And The Beginning Of The 14th Century. Some Italian Painters Preceded Cimabue—particularly Guido Of Siena And Giunta Of Pisa; But Though He Worked On Much The Same Principle As They, And To A Like Result, He Was ...

Cimbri
Cimbri, A Teutonic Tribe Which In 113 B.c. Defeated The Consul Gnaeus Papirius Carbo Near Noreia. They Had Been Wandering Along The Danube For Some Years, Warring With The Celtic Tribes On Either Bank. After The Victory Of 113 B.c. They Passed Westwards Over The Rhine, Threatening The Territory Of ...

Cimicifuga
Cimicifuga, In Botany, A Small Genus Of Herbaceous Plants, Of The Family Ranunculaceae, Comprising 12 Species Widely Dis Tributed In The North Temperate Zone. Bugbane (c. Foetida) Is Used As A Preventive Against Vermin ; And The Root Of The North American Black Snake-root (c. Racemosa) As An Emetic. ...

Cimmerii
Cimmerii, An Ancient People Of The Far North Or West Of Europe, First Spoken Of By Homer (odyssey, Xi. 12-19), Who Describes Them As Living In Perpetual Darkness. Herodotus (iv. 11-13), In His Account Of Scythia, Regards Them As The Early Inhabitants Of South Russia (after Whom The Bosporus Cim ...

Cimon Of Cleonae
Cimon Of Cleonae, An Early Greek Painter, Who Is Said To Have Introduced Great Improvements In Drawing. He Repre Sented "figures Out Of The Straight, And Ways Of Representing Faces Looking Back, Up Or Down ; He Also Made The Joints Of The Body Clear, Emphasized Veins, Worked Out Folds ...

Cimon
Cimon (c. 507-449 B.c.), Athenian Statesman And General, Was The Son Of Miltiades (q.v.) And Hegesipyle, Daughter Of The Thracian Prince Olorus. Cimon's First Task In Life Was To Pay The Fine (about £12,000) Which Had Been Imposed On Miltiades After The Parian Expedition. After Winning A High Reputation In ...

Cinchona
Cinchona, The Generic Name Of A Number Of Trees Which Belong To The Family Rubiaceae. Botanically The Genus Includes Trees Of Varying Size, Some Reaching A Height Of 8oft. And Upwards, With Evergreen Leaves And Deciduous Stipules. The Flowers Are Arranged In Panicles, White Or Pinkish In Colour, With A ...

Cincinnati
Cincinnati, A City And The County Seat Of Hamilton County, 0., U.s.a. 39° 6' N., 84° 3o' W., On The North Bank Of The Ohio River, Opposite The Mouth Of The Licking, About Ioo M. S.w. Of Columbus, About 305 M. By Rail S.e. Of Chicago, And About 76o M. ...

Cinderella
Cinderella, The Heroine Of An Almost Universal Fairy-tale (i.e., Little Cinder Girl). Its Essential Features Are (1) The Perse Cuted Maiden Whose Youth And Beauty Bring Upon Her The Jealousy Of Her Step-mother And Sisters; (2) The Intervention Of A Fairy Or Other Supernatural Instrument On Her Behalf ; (3) ...

Cineas
Cineas, A Thessalian, The Chief Adviser Of Pyrrhus, King Of Epirus. He Was Regarded As The Most Eloquent Man Of His Age. He Tried To Dissuade Pyrrhus From Invading Italy, And After The Defeat Of The Romans At Heraclea (28o B.c.) Was Sent To Rome To Discuss Terms Of Peace. ...

Cineraria
Cineraria, Cultivated Ornamental Plants Originated From Species Of Senecio. There Are Two Distinct Types, The Garden Species Of Which One Of The Most Common Is The So-called Dusty Miller, S. Cineraria And The Greenhouse Varieties Of S. Cruentus, Commonly Referred To As Cinerarias. Greenhouse Cinerarias Are Of Two Types ; ...

Cingoli
Cingoli (anc. Cingulum), A Town Of The Marches, Italy, Province Of Macerata, About 14m. N.w. Direct, And 17m. By Road From The Town Of Macerata. Pop., 2,046 (town) ; (com Mune) . Cingulum, A Town Of Picenum, Founded By Caesar's Lieu Tenant, T. Labienus, At His Own Expense In 63 ...

Cinna
Cinna, A Roman Patrician Family Of The Gens Cornelia. The Most Prominent Member Was Lucius Cornelius Cinna, Who, After Serving In The War With The Marsi As Praetorian Legate, Became Consul In 87 B.c. After Sulla's Departure For The East, Riots Broke Out In Rome, And Cinna Was Expelled. He ...

Cinnabar
Cinnabar, Sometimes Written Cinnabarite, Is Red Mercuric Sulphide (hgs), Or Native Vermilion, The Common Ore Of Mercury (ger. Zinnober). The Name Comes From The Greek ,avv6.13ape Used By Theophrastus, And Probably Applied To Several Distinct Substances. Cinnabar Is Generally Found In A Massive, Granular Or Earthy Form, Of Bright Red ...

Cinnamon
Cinnamon, The Inner Bark Of Cinnanaomum Zeylanicum, A Small Evergreen Tree Belonging To The Family Lauraceae, Native To Ceylon. The Leaves Are Large, Ovate-oblong In Shape, And The Flowers, Which Are Arranged In Panicles, Have A Greenish Colour And A Rather Disagreeable Odour. Cinnamon Has Been Known From Re Mote ...

Cino Da Pistoia
Cino Da Pistoia (127o-1336), Italian Poet And Jurist, Whose Full Name Was Guittoncino De' Sinibaldi, Was Born In Pistoia, Of A Noble Family. He Studied Law At Bologna Under Dinus Muggelanus (dino De Rossonis: D. 1303) And Franciscus Accursius, And In 1307 Is Understood To Have Been Assessor Of Civil ...

Cinque Cento
Cinque Cento, A Term Used To Describe That Period Of The Italian Renaissance Between 1 Soo And 160o. The Word Is Applied Especially To The Artistic Styles Prevalent At That Time, And Particu Larly To The Classicism Of The High Renaissance. ...

Cinque Ports
Cinque Ports, The Name Of An Association Of Maritime Towns In The South Of England, Exercising A Jurisdiction Dating From About The Time Of The Norman Conquest, Organized, It Seems On French Lines, In The 13th Century, And Still Surviving. The Ports Originally Constituting The Body Were Only Five In ...

Cintra
Cintra, Town Of Central Portugal (modern Spelling, Sin Tra), 17m. W.n.w. Of Lisbon By The Lisbon-cacem-cintra Rail Way, And 6m. N. By E. Of Cape Da Roca, The Westernmost Prom Ontory Of The European Mainland. Pop. (191i ), 7,091. Cintra Is Magnificently Situated On The Northern Slope Of The Serra ...

Cipher Or Cypher
Cipher Or Cypher, The Symbol O, Nought, Or Zero (arab. Si F R, Void) , And So A Name For Symbolic Or Secret Writing (see Cryptography), Or For Shorthand (q.v.), And Also In Elementary Education For Doing Simple Sums ("ciphering") . ...

Cippus
Cippus (lat. For A "post" Or "stake"), In Architecture, A Low Pedestal, Either Round Or Rectangular, Set Up By The Romans For Various Purposes Such As Military Or Mile Stones, Boundary Posts, Etc. The Inscriptions On Some In The British Museum Show That They Were Occasionally Funeral Memorials. ...

Circar
Circar, An Indian Term Applied To The Component Parts Of A Subah, Or Province, Each Of Which Is Administered By A Deputy Governor. In English It Is Principally Employed In The Name Of The Northern Circars, Used To Designate A Now Obsolete Division Of The Madras Presidency, Which Consisted Of ...

Circassia
Circassia: See Caucasian Area, North ; Karachaev; Kabardin-balkar ; Ingushetia ; Adigei. ...

Circassians
Circassians. The Cherkesses Or Circassians Differ From The Other Tribes Of The Caucasus In Origin And Language. They Designated Themselves By The Name Of Adigheb, That Of Cherkesses Being A Term Of Russian Origin. The Government Under Which They Lived Was A Peculiar Form Of The Feudal System. The Free ...