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Encyclopedia Britannica

Volume 9, Part 1: Extraction to Gambrinus

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Fairuzabadi
Fairuzabadi (abu-t-tahir Ibn Ibrahim Majd Ud-din Ul-fairuzabadi) (1329-1414), Arabian Lexicographer, Was Born At Karazin Near Shiraz. His Student Days Were Spent In Shiraz, Wasit, Baghdad And Damascus. He Taught For Ten Years In Jerusalem, And Afterwards Travelled In Western Asia And Egypt. In 1368 He Set Tled In Mecca, Where ...

Fairway
Fairway, The Navigable Channel Of A River Or Other Water Way. It Is Usually Marked By Buoys Of Distinctive Shape, Letter Or Colour. The Maintenance Of A Fairway Is Often A Matter Of Great Care, Calling For Continuous Dredging And Clearance. (see River ...

Fairy Ring
Fairy Ring, The Popular Name For The Circular Patches Of A Dark Green Colour Seen Occasionally On Permanent Grass-land, Either Lawn Or Meadow, On Which The Fairies Were Supposed To Hold Their Midnight Revels. They Mark The Area Of Growth Of Some Fungus, Starting From A Centre Of One Or ...

Fairy
Fairy, The Common Term For A Supposed Race Of Super Natural Beings Who Magically Intermeddle In Human Affairs. (fr. Fee, Faerie; Prov. Fada; Sp. Hada; Ital. Fata; Med. Lat. Fatare, To Enchant, From Lat. F Atum, Fate, Destiny.) They Are Not The Im Mediate Product Of One Country Or Of ...

Faith Healing
Faith Healing, A Form Of "mind Cure," Characterized By The Doctrine That Pain And Disease Really Exist, But May Be Neu Tralized And Dispelled By Faith In Divine Power ; Christian Science (q.v.) Holds That Pain Is An Illusion And Seeks To Cure The Patient By Instilling Into Him This ...

Faith
Faith Is An Attitude Of Mind Which, Though Not Confined To Religious Experience, Can Best Be Examined By Setting Out From Its Manifestations Within That Sphere Of Experience. There We Find In Clearest Form Illustrations Of The Several Shades Of Meaning Which The Word "faith" Has Borne. A Classic Definition ...

Faizabad
Faizabad, A Town Of Afghanistan, Capital Of The Province Of Badakshan, Situated On The Kokcha River. In 1821 It Was Destroyed By Murad Beg Of Kunduz, And The Inhabitants Removed To Kunduz. But Since Badakshan Was Annexed By Abdur Rahman, The Town Has Recovered Its Former Importance, And Is Now ...

Fajardo
Fajardo, The Largest And Most Important Town On The Eastern Coast Of Porto Rico. According To The Census Of 1920 The Population Was 6,571, Which Had Increased To 7,322 In 193o. Fajardo Is A Prosperous Town With Considerable Shipping And Local Trade. The District Is One Of The Richest Sugar-producing ...

Fakhr Ud Din Razi
Fakhr Ud-din Razi (1149-1209), Arabian Historian And Theologian, Was Born At Rai (rei, Rhagae), Near Teheran. Here And At Maragha He Studied Philosophy And Theology. He Was A Shafi`ite In Law And A Follower Of Ash`ari (q.v.) In Theology, And Became Renowned As A Defender Of Orthodoxy. During A Journey ...

Fakir
Fakir (fah-ker), A Generic Term, Synonymous With Dervish, For A Religious Mendicant. A Mohammedan Word, It Has Come To Be Applied Also To Hindus, Replacing Bhikshu And Older Words. Fakirs Are Common To All The Creeds Of India, And In Theory Mostly Belong To A Religious Order. But As A ...

Falaise
Falaise, A Town Of North-western France, Capital Of An Arrondissement In The Department Of Calvados, On The Right Bank Of The Ante, 19 M. S. By E. Of Caen By Road. Pop. (1931) 4,281 The Castle, Now Partly In Ruins, Was Formerly The Seat Of The Dukes Of Normandy And ...

Falashas Or
Falashas Or "jews Of Abyssinia," A Tribe Of Hamitic Stock, Akin To Galla, Who Profess The Jewish Religion And Claim To Be Descended From The Ten Tribes Banished From The Holy Land. An Other Tradition Assigns Them, As Ancestor, Menelek, Solomon's Alleged Son By The Queen Of Sheba. It Is ...

Falcon
Falcon, The Most Northern State Of Venezuela, With An Extensive Coast-line On The Caribbean Sea And Gulf Of Venezuela. Pop. (1926) 178,642. It Lies Between The Caribbean On The North And The State Of Lara On The South, With Zulia And The Gulf Of Venezuela On The West. Its Surface ...

Falconry
Falconry. The Art Of Employing Falcons And Hawks In The Chase, Often Termed Hawking (fr. Fauconnerie, From Late Lat. Falco, Falcon). Falconry Was A Favourite Recreation Of The Aristocracy During The Middle Ages, Followed, As It Seems, More As A Sport Than As A Means Of Getting Game For The ...

Falcon_2
Falcon, The Name Applied To The Long-winged Birds Of Prey Which Take Their Quarry As It Moves. As In All The Group Of Diurnal Birds Of Prey, The Female Is Larger Than The Male. As Type Of The Family Falconidae May Be Taken The Peregrine Falcon (falco Peregrinus), And The ...

Faldstool
Faldstool, Properly A Folding Seat For The Use Of A Bishop When Not Occupying The Throne In His Own Cathedral, Or When Officiating In A Cathedral Or Church Other Than His Own ; Hence Any Movable Folding Stool Used For Kneeling In Divine Service. ...

Falerii
Falerii, One Of The Twelve Chief Cities Of Etruria (mod. Civitd Castellana [q.v.] ), Situated About 2 M. W. Of The Ancient Via Flaminia, 32 M. N. Of Rome. Wars Between Rome And The Falisci (q.v.) Appear To Have Been Frequent. At The End Of The First Punic War, They ...

Falerio
Falerio (mod. Falerone), An Ancient Town Of Picenum, Italy, About Io M. S.e. Of Urbs Salvia, Which, From The Remains Of Its Buildings, Appears To Have Been Of Some Importance. It Was Probably Founded As A Colony By Augustus After His Victory At Actium. Considerable Remains Of A Theatre In ...

Falisci
Falisci, A Tribe Of Sabine Origin Or Connections, But Speaking A Dialect Closely Akin To Latin, Who Inhabited The Town'of Falerii (q.v.), As Well As A Considerable Tract Of The Surrounding Country, Probably As Far South As Capena. But At The Beginning Of The Historical Period (i.e., From The Beginning ...

Falkirk
Falkirk, Municipal And Police Burgh And Parish, Stirling Shire, Scotland. Pop. (1931) 36,565. It Is On High Ground Over Looking The Fertile Carse Of Falkirk, Ii M. S.e. Of Stirling, And About Midway Between Edinburgh And Glasgow. Grange Mouth, Its Port, Lies 3 M. To The N.e., And The Forth ...

Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands, A Group Of Islands In The South Atlantic Ocean, Belonging To Great Britain, And Lying About 25o M. E. Of The Nearest Point In The Mainland Of South America, Between 51 And 53 S., And 40' And 61 25' W. With South Georgia Island, The South Shetlands, South ...

Falkland
Falkland, A Royal Burgh And Parish, Fifeshire, Scotland. Pop. It Is At The Northern Base Of The Hill Of East Lo Mond (1,471 Ft. High), 21 M. From Falkland Road Station On The L.n.e.r. Main Line To Dundee, 21 M. N. Of Edinburgh As The Crow Flies. Many Ancient Houses ...

Fall Line
Fall-line, In American Geology, A Line Marking The Junc Tion Between The Hard Rocks Of The Appalachians And The Softer Deposits Of The Coastal Plain. The Pre-cambrian And Metamorphic Rocks Of The Mountain Mass Form A Continuous Ledge Parallel To The East Coast, Where They Form A Series Of "falls" ...

Fall River
Fall River, A City Of Bristol County, Massachusetts, U.s.a., On The East Shore Of Mount Hope Bay, At The Mouth Of The Taunton River, 5o M. S. Of Boston ; A Port Of Entry And One Of The Principal Cotton-manufacturing Centres Of The Country. It Is Served By The New ...

Fallacy
Fallacy, The Term Given Generally To Any Mistaken State Ment Used In Argument ; In Logic, Technically, Any Violation Of The Conditions Of Valid Inference (lat. Fall-ax, Apt To Mislead) . An Argument May Be Fallacious In Matter (i.e., Misstatement Of Facts), In Wording (i.e., Wrong Use Of Words), Or ...

Fallow Deer
Fallow-deer (dama Dama), A Medium-sized Repre Sentative Of The Family Cervidae, Characterized By Its Palmated Antlers, Which Generally Have No Bez-tine, Rather Long Tail (black Above And White Below), And A Coat Spotted With White In Sum Mer But Uniformly Coloured In Winter. The Shoulder Height Is About 3f T. ...

Fallow
Fallow, Land Ploughed And Tilled, But Left Unsown Usually For A Year, In Order, On The One Hand, To Disintegrate, Aerate And Free It From Weeds, And, On The Other, To Allow It To Recuperate. The "sabbath Rest" Ordered To Be Given Every Seventh Year To The Land By Mosaic ...

Falls City
Falls City, The County Seat Of Richardson County, Ne Braska, U.s.a., In The South-east Corner Of The State, On Federal Highway 73, And Served By The Burlington And The Missouri Pacific Railways. The Population Was 4,93o In 1920 (94% Native White), And Was 5,787 In 1930 By The Federal Census. ...

Falmouth
Falmouth, A Seaport, Market Town And Municipal Bor Ough In The Penryn And Falmouth Parliamentary Division Of Cornwall, England, 2914 M. W.s.w. Of London On A Branch From Truro Of The G.w. Railway. Pop. Falmouth Is Finely Situated On The West Shore Of Carrick Roads, The Largest Of The Many ...

False Imprisonment
False Imprisonment Is The Total Restraint Upon The Liberty Of Another Person For However Short A Time Without Legal Justification. Partial Restraint, Such As Preventing A Person From Walking In A Particular Direction, Is Not Sufficient, But Actual Locking Up Is Not Necessary, And The Restraint May Be Either Physical ...

False Pretences
False Pretences, In Law, Indicates The Obtaining From Any Other Person By Any False Pretence Any Chattel, Money Or Valuable Security, With Intent To Defraud. It Is An Indictable Mis Demeanour By Statute. The Broad Distinction Between This Offence And Larceny Is That In The Former The Owner Intends To ...

Falsetto
Falsetto, A Forced Form Of Sound Production Employed To Obtain Notes Above The Natural Range Of The Voice. The Notes Of This Register Are Of Poor And Peculiar Quality Owing To The Vocal Cords Being Only Partially Set In Vibration. ...

Falun
Falun, A Town Of Sweden, Capital Of The District (lan) Of Kopparberg, 153 M. N.w. Of Stockholm By Rail. Pop. (1928) 13,611. It Is Situated In Difficult Country Near The Western Shore Of Lake Runn. Its Famous Copper Mines Have Been Worked Since The 13th Century. Their Produce Has Gradually ...

Fama
Fama, In Classical Mythology, The Personification Of Rumour (gr. 447jst , "oaaa).the Homeric Equivalent Ossa (iliad, Ii. 93) Is Represented As The Messenger Of Zeus, Who Spreads Reports With The Rapidity Of A Conflagration. Homer Does Not Personify Pheme, Which Is Merely A Presage Drawn From Human Utterances, Whereas Ossa ...

Famagusta
Famagusta, A Town And Harbour On The East Coast Of Cy Prus (gr. Ammochostos), 24 M. S. Of The Ruins Of Salamis (q.v.). The Population In 1901 Was 818, Nearly All Being Muslims Who Live Within The Walls Of The Fortress ; The Christian Population Has Migrated To A Suburb, ...

Familiar
Familiar, Properly Meaning Belonging To The Family Or Household, But In This Sense The Word Is Rare. The More Usual Meanings Are : Friendly, Intimate, Well-known. "familiar" Is Also Used As A Substantive, Especially Of The Spirit Or Demon Which Attended On A Wizard Or Magician. The Idea Underlies The ...

Familiarity
Familiarity, In Psychology, Is Defined As A Feeling Upon Which Follows Closely Recognition, So Immediate, That Its Complex Nature Is Hidden. This Recognition Is Based Upon Subliminal Asso Ciation And There Is Consequently No Need For The Presence Of Mental Images. Familiarity Is Therefore A Developed "new" Process Of The ...

Familists
Familists, A Term Of English Origin (later Adopted In Other Languages) To Denote The Members Of The "family Of Love," Founded By Hendrik Niclaes Who Died Probably In 1580. His Calling Was That Of A Merchant, In Which He And His Son Franz Prospered, Becoming Ultimately Wealthy. Not Till 1540 ...

Family Allowances
Family Allowances The Payment Of Allowances For Children And Sometimes For Wives, Grew Up Out Of The Economic Conditions During And After The World War, Though Before That Vestiges Of It Existed Here And There In A Few Occupations, Notably In Agriculture, Where Payments In Kind Varying With The Size ...

Family Psychology
Family Psychology The Psychology Of The Family Is Concerned With The Problems And Adjustments Of Human Beings Living In Intimate Association. The Very Nature Of The Family Organization Is Dependent Upon The Limit Of Elasticity In Such Adjustments On The Part Of Individual Members Of The Group. Like Other Social ...

Family
Family. The Family Is A Social Unit Based On The Biological Facts Of Procreation And The Lengthy Period Of Helplessness Of Off Spring. Since It Occurs As A Purely Instinctive Grouping Amongst Many Animals, It Was In All Probability The First Group In The Evolution Of Human Culture To Acquire ...

Famine
Famine, Extreme And General Scarcity Of Food, Causing Dis Tress And Deaths From Starvation Among The Population Of A Dis Trict Or Country (lat. Fames, Hunger) . The Causes Of Famine Are Partly Natural And Partly Artificial. Among The Natural Causes May Be Classed All Failures Of Crops Due To ...

Fan Vault
Fan Vault, In Architecture, A Type Of English Late Gothic Vaulting, In Which Many Equidistant Non-structural, Decorative Ribs Of Similar Curvature Rise From Each Support In A Generally Conoidal Form. These Conoids Either Intersect At The Ridges Or Leave Small, Flat Areas Between The Circles Which Are Their Top And ...

Fan
Fan, In Its Usually Restricted Sense Denotes A Light Instrument Held In The Hand And Used For Raising A Current Of Air To Cool The Face. Among The Ancients The Fan Was Also Known As A Winnower, As A Bellows For Fire And As A Fly Whisk. Modern Usage Also ...

Fancy
Fancy, Display, Showing Forth, As A Philosophical Term, The Representative Power Of The Mind. "fancy" Is A Shortened Form Of The Older "phantasy" And Dates From The 15th Century. (deriva Tion Is Through The O.fr. Fantasie, Mod. Fantaisie, From The Latin Ized Form Of The Greek Tavraqia, 4apt Elp, Q5aivaav, ...

Fanfare
Fanfare, In Music, A Short Phrase Or Passage Of A Bold And Rousing Character Played Unaccompanied By A Brass Instru Ment Or Instruments, Usually The Trumpet, More Especially On Festive Or Ceremonial Occasions. ...

Fang
Fang, An African Tribe Occupying The Gabun District North Of The Ogowe River In French Congo. The Name Means "men." They Call Themselves Panwe, Fanwe And Fan With Highly Nasalized N. They Are A Finely-made Race Of Chocolate Colour ; Some Few Are Very Dark, But These Are Of Slave ...

Fano
Fano, A Coast Town And Episcopal See Of The Marches, Italy (anc. Fanum Fortune, Q.v.) Province Of Pesaro And Urbino, 8 M. S.e. Of Pesaro By Rail, And 46 Ft. Above Sea-level. Pop. Town, 13,563, Commune 30,878. S. Croce And S. Maria Nuova Contain Pictures By Giovanni Santi, The Father ...

Fans
Fans Are Devices For Setting Air Or Gases In Motion. Mechani Cal Contrivances For This Purpose Are A Necessity In A Great Number Of Manufacturing Processes. For Ventilating, Warming Or Cooling Buildings, Ships And Mines, Air Must Also Be Propelled Large Volumes. In Cases Where A Blower Or Blowing Engine ...

Fantan
Fantan, A Form Of Gambling Highly Popular Among The Chinese And Extensively Played In The United States. It Is A Very Simple Game. A Square Is Marked In The Centre Of An Ordinary Table, Or A Square Piece Of Metal Is Laid On It, The Sides Being Marked I, 2, ...

Fantasia
Fantasia, A Name In Music For A Composition Possessing Little Structural Form, And Having The General Style Of An Improvi Sation; Also For A Combination Or Medley Of Familiar Airs Connected Together With Original Passages Of More Or Less Brilliance. The Word, However, Was Originally Applied To More Formal Composi ...

Fanti
Fanti, A Gold Coast People Living On The Cape Coast Elmina-secondi Littoral And Hinterland, And Speaking A Language Closely Related To Ashanti (q.v.). They Have An Organization Similar To That Of The Ashanti, And Though Less Warlike In Tempera Ment, Probably Derive From The Same Stock. See Sarbah, Fanti Customary ...

Fanum Fortunae
Fanum Fortunae (mod. Fano), An Ancient Town Of Umbria, Italy, At The Point Where The Via Flaminia Reaches The North-east Coast Of Italy. As Its Name (the Temple Of Fortune) Shows It Was Of Roman Origin. It Is First Mentioned, With Pis Aurum And Ancona, As Held By Julius Caesar ...

Far Eastern Area
Far Eastern Area, An Administrative Unit Of Asiatic Russia, Created In 1922, Upon The Fall Of The Independent Far Eastern People's Republic : It Occupies 2,846,323 Sq.km., But Its Population In 1926 Was Only About 1,843,000. Eastward From Chaun Bay The Arctic Ocean Forms Its Northern Boundary, And The Bering ...

Farabi Or Alfarabi
Farabi Or Alfarabi (abu Nasr Muhammad Ibn Tark Han Ul-farabi) (c. 870-950), Arabian Philosopher, Was Born Of Turkish Stock At Farab, Turkistan. At Baghdad, He Learned Arabic And Studied Mathematics, Medicine And Philosophy. Later He Went To The Court Of The Hamdanid Saif Addaula, Where He Lived A Quiet Life. ...

Farad
Farad. A Unit Of Electric Capacity. The Capacity Of A Conductor Or Condenser Is One Farad When A Quantity Of Elec Tricity, Equal To One Coulomb Increases Its Potential By One Volt. (see Electricity And Condenser.) ...

Farah
Farah, A Town Of Afghanistan, On The River That Bears Its Name On The Main Road Between Herat And Kandahar, 16o M. S. Of Herat And 225 M. W. Of Kandahar. It Commands The Ap Proaches To India And Seistan From Herat. The Town (2,46o Ft. Above Sea-level) Is A ...

Farah_2
Farah, A River Of Afghanistan. It Rises In The Southern Slopes Of Siah-koh, Which Forms The Southern Wall Of The Valley Of Herat, And After A South-westerly Course Of About 200 M. Falls Into The Seistan Hamun. At The Town Of Farah It Has A Width Of 150 Yd. In ...

Farazdaq
Farazdaq (hammam Ibn Ghalib Ibn Sa'sa', Known As Al Farazdaq) (c. 641c. 728), Arabian Poet, Was Born At Basra. At The Age Of Fifteen Farazdaq Was Known As A Poet. He Devoted His Talent Largely To Satire And Attacked The Bani Nahshal And The Ban' Fuqaim. When Ziyad, A Member ...

Farce
Farce, A Form Of Comedy In Dramatic Art, The Object Of Which Is To Excite Laughter By Ridiculous Situations And Incidents. It Originated From The Latin Farcire, To Stuff, And With The Mean Ing Of "stuffing" Or Forcemeat It Appears In Old Cookery Books In English. The French Farce, The ...

Fareham
Fareham, A Market Town And Seaport In The Fareham Par Liamentary Division Of Hampshire, England, 844 M. S.w. From London By The S.r., Is A Junction Station On The Line From Ports Mouth To Southampton, With Branch To Gosport And Stokes Bay On The South, And North-west To Eastleigh. Pop. ...

Fargo
Fargo, The Largest City Of North Dakota, U.s.a., On The Eastern Boundary Of The State, On The Red River, Opposite Moor Head, Minn., And 252m. N.w. Of St. Paul; The County Seat Of Cass County. It Is On Federal Highways 1 O And 81; Has A Municipal Air Port ; ...

Faribault
Faribault (far'i-bo), A City Of Minnesota, U.s.a., Situ Ated On The Cannon River, About 5om. S. Of St. Paul; The County Seat Of Rice County. It Is On Federal Highway 65, And Is Served By The Chicago Great Western, The Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul And Pacific, The Minneapolis, Northfield And ...

Farid Ud Din Attar
Farid Ud-din 'attar (1119-1229), Persian Poet And Mystic, Was Born At Nishapur, C. 513 A.h. (a.d. I119), And Was Put To Death C. 627 A.h. (a.d. I229). His Real Name Was Abu Talib (or Abu Hamid) Mohammed Ben Ibrahim, And Farid Ud-din Was Simply An Honourable Title Equivalent To Pearl ...

Faridkot
Faridkot, An Indian State In The Punjab. One Of The Cis Sutlej States, Under British Influence Since 1809. Area 638sq.m., And Population In 1931, 164,364. The Chief, Raja Pahar Singh Was Rewarded With Increase Of Territory For Service To The British In The First Sikh War. In The Mutiny Of ...

Faridpur
Faridpur, A Town And District Of British India, In The Dacca Division Of Bengal. The Town, Which Has A Railway Sta Tion, Stands On An Old Channel Of The Ganges. Pop. (1931), 15,516. There Are A Baptist Mission And A College. The District Has An Area Of 2,356 Sq.m. And ...

Farinelli
Farinelli (1705-1782), Whose Real Name Was Carlo Broschi, One Of The Most Extraordinary Male Soprano Singers That Ever Lived, Was Born On Jan. 24, 1705, At Naples. He Was The Nephew Of Cristiano Farinelli, The Composer And Violinist, Whose Name He Took. He Studied Under N. A. Porpora, And, To ...

Faringdon
Faringdon, Properly Great Faringdon, A Market Town In The Abingdon Parliamentary Division Of Berkshire, England, 70 M. N.w. Of London On A Branch Of The G.w.r. From Uffing Ton. Pop. Of Rural District (1931) 10,636. It Lies On The Slope Of A Low Range Of Hills Which Borders The Valley ...

Farm Buildings
Farm Buildings. There Is Such Variety In The Char Acter And Management Of Agricultural Holdings That There Must Needs Be Equally Great Variety Possible In The Designs Of The Farm Buildings. The Farmhouse And Labourers' Cottages Could Be In Cluded Under This Heading, But They Are Omitted In This Reference ...

Farm Colony
Farm Colony. An Artificial Settlement Of Unemployed Persons On The Land. Farm Colonies Are Relatively Little Known In Great Britain, But They Have Been In Existence In Germany For 45 Years And In Holland For Over 90 Years. It Was The Unemployed Workman's Act Of 19o5 Which Created The Possibility ...

Farm Management
Farm Management. This Subject Is Considered In This Article Solely In Its Relation To The Farmer As A Business Man. The Scientific Production Of Crops And Livestock Products Is Considered Elsewhere In These Pages. Farming Is A One-man Business In The Sense That It Is Carried On Entirely By Relatively ...

Farm Operation
Farm Operation In The Operation Of A Farm Business It Is Necessary Every Year To Make Decisions That May Affect The Farm Organization. It Is Just Here That The Subjects Of Farm Organization And Farm Operation Overlap. A Change In Prices Or The Advent Of An Insect Pest May Make ...

Farm Organization And Equipment
Farm Organization And Equipment. The Study Of The Organization Of The Farm Is A Comparatively Recent Development Of Modern Agricultural Research. In Its Earlier Stages The Investigation Of The Farmer's Problems Was Confined To Mat Ters Arising Out Of The Application Of The Physical Sciences To The Production Of Crops ...

Farm Organization
Farm Organization To Facilitate The Following Discussion It May Be Stated At The Outset That American Writers On Farm Management Generally Make The Following Divisions Of Farm Property : For Purposes Of Taxation The Items Listed Above Under The Heading Fixed Capital Are Commonly Termed Real Estate, While Those Listed ...

Farm Rents
Farm Rents. The Rent Of An Agricultural Holding Is The Consideration Paid For Its Use By The Occupier To The Owner. It May Be Paid In Produce, In Services Or In Money. Feudalism, Which Was For Centuries The Dominant Agrarian System In Europe, Re Sulted, In The End, Sometimes After ...

Farm Stationary Machinery
Farm (stationary) Machinery. The Machines To Be Described Here Are Installed In Buildings On The Farm And Are Used Mainly In Connection With The Preparation Of Foodstuffs For Livestock. They May Be Operated By Hand Or Power. In The Latter Case Some Form Of Transmission Machinery Must Be Employed To ...

Farm Valuations
Farm Valuations. The Term Farm Valuation Is Fre Quently Used In A Limited Sense, To Describe The Statement Drawn Up By A Professional Valuer Of The Various Items For Which An Outgoing Tenant Of A Farm Is Entitled To Be Paid By The Incoming Tenant. This Is More Properly Termed ...

Farm
Farm, In The Most Generally Used Sense, A Portion Of Land Leased Or Held For The Purpose Of Agriculture ; Hence "farming" Is Equivalent To The Pursuit Of Agriculture, And "farmer" To An Agri Culturist. (see Agriculture; Farm Management, Etc.) ...

Farmers Clubs
Farmers' Clubs. One Of The Effects Of The General Out Break Of Agricultural Enthusiasm In England At The End Of The 18th Century Was The Formation Of Associations Throughout The Country For The Promotion Of Improvements In Farming. ' For The Most Part These Were Societies Which Made The Holding ...

Farmers Educational And Co Opera
Farmers' Educational And Co-opera Tive Union Of America, Commonly Known Simply As The Farmers' Union, A Society Of Farmers Founded In 1902 By Newt Gresham Of Emory, Texas. It Was At First Confined To Rains County, Texas. Its Success There In Collective Bargaining In Connection With Cotton Led To Rapid ...

Farmers Organizations
Farmers' Organizations. In The United States These Organizations Have Grown To Greater Dimensions Than In Any Other Country, Although They Do Not As Yet Occupy The Place Of Supreme Importance In Agriculture That Co-operation Occupies In Some Other Countries; For Instance, Denmark. For Similar Organizations In Other Agricultural Countries The ...

Farming The Taxes
Farming The Taxes. A Method Of Collecting Taxes Indirectly Through Contractors Instead Of Directly Through Officials Of The State. The System Is Best Known Through The Publicani Of Rome, Who Formed Companies Or Syndicates To Farm Not Only The Indirect Taxation Of The State, But Also Sources Of The State ...

Farnborough
Farnborough, An Urban District In The Aldershot Parlia Mentary Division Of Hampshire, England, 33+ M. S.w. By W. From London, With Two Stations On The Southern Railway. Pop. (1931) (including The Military). The Old Parish Church In Farn Borough Park Has A I2th Century Nave And Ancient Timber Details. Farnborough ...

Farne Islands
Farne Islands [also Fearne, Fern Or The Staples], A Group Of Rocky Islands And Reefs Off The Northumberland Coast, England. In 1921 They Had Only Three Inhabitants. They Extend In A Line Of Some 6 M. In A North-easterly Direction From The Coast. The Fairway, I 4 M. Across, Separates ...

Farnese
Farnese, Italian Family Which Ruled The Duchy Of Parma For Two Centuries. The Farnese Are First Heard Of As Lords Of Farneto Or Farnese, A Castle Near The Lake Of Bolsena, And They Were Consuls And Signori Of Orvieto. They Seem Always To Have Been Guelphs, And In The Civil ...

Farnham
Farnham, A Market Town In The Farnham Parliamentary Division Of Surrey, England, 384 M. S.w. By W. From London On The Southern Railway. Pop. Of Urban District (1931) But In 1926 The Area Of The Urban District Was Enlarged. Farnham Lies On The Left Bank Of The River Wey, On ...

Farnworth
Farnworth, Urban District, Farnworth Parliamentary Di Vision, Lancashire, England, On The Irwell, 3 M. S.w. From Bolton On The L.m.s. Railway. Pop. (1931), 28,711. Collieries, Cotton Mills, Iron Foundries, Brick And Tile Works Employ Many Hands. ...

Faro
Faro, The Capital Of A District Bearing The Same Name, In Southern Portugal ; At The Terminus Of The Lisbon-faro Railway, And On The Atlantic Ocean. Pop. (1930) 18,019. Faro Is An Episcopal See. Its Broad But Shallow Harbour Is Protected On The South By The Long Island Of Caes, ...

Faro_2
Faro, A Game Of Cards, Played With A Full Pack (from Pharaoh, A Picture Of The Egyptian King Appearing In A Card Of The Old French Pack) . Originally The Pack. Was Held In The Dealer's Left Hand, But Nowadays Very Elaborate And Expensive Implements Are Used. The Dealer Places ...

Farrell
Farrell, A Borough Of Mercer County, Pa., U.s.a., On The Shenango River, At The Western Boundary Of The State, 6om. N.n.w. Of Pittsburgh, And Adjoining The City Of Sharon, With Which It Forms Virtually An Industrial Unit. It Is Served By The Erie, The Mercer Valley, The New York Central, ...

Farrier
Farrier, And Farriery, The Name Given Generally Either To The Professional Shoer Of Horses Or In A More Extended Sense To A Practitioner Of The Veterinary Art; Farriery Is The Term For His Business. Primarily The Art Of Farriery Is Identical With That Of The Blacksmith, In So Far As ...

Farrukhabad
Farrukhabad, A City And District Of British India In The Agra Division Of The United Provinces. The City Is Near The Right Bank Of The Ganges, 87 M. By Rail From Cawnpore. It Forms A Joint Municipality With Fatehgarh, The Civil Headquarters Of The District. Pop. (1931) 56,503. At Fatehgarh ...

Fars
Fars, A Province Of Persia, Bounded On The North By The Provinces Of Khuzistan And Isfahan, On The East By Yazd And Kir Man, And On The South By The Persian Gulf. It Lies Roughly Between 5o And 57 E., And 26 And 32 N., And Is Composed Of A ...

Farthing
Farthing, The Smallest English Coin, Equal To The Fourth Of A Penny. (a. S. F Eortha, Fourth, +ing, Diminutive.) It Be Came A Regular Part Of The Coinage From The Reign Of Edward I., And Was, Up To The Reign Of Mary, A Silver Coin. No Farthing Was Struck In ...

Farthingale
Farthingale, A Case Or Hoop, Originally Of Bent Rods, But Afterwards Made Of Whalebone, Upon Which Were Hung The Voluminous Skirts Of A Woman's Dress (a Corruption Of Span. Ver Dagado, From Verdago, A Rod Or Stick) . The Fashion Was Intro Duced Into England From Spain In The I6th ...

Fasces
Fasces, In Rome, Bundles Of Elm Or Birch Rods From Which The Head Of An Axe Projected, Fastened Together By A Red Strap. As The Emblem Of Official Authority, They Were Carried By The Lictors, In The Left Hand And On The Left Shoulder, Before The Higher Roman Magis Trates, ...

Fascination
Fascination. The Art Of Enchanting Or Bewitching, Especially Through The Influence Of The "evil Eye," And So, Of The Exercise Of An Evil Influence Over The Reason Or Will (from Lat. Fascinare, To Bewitch) . The Word Is Thus Used Of The Supposed Paralysing Attraction Exercised By Some Reptiles On ...

Fascine
Fascine, A Large Faggot Of Brushwood Used In The Revet Ments Of Earthworks And For Other Purposes Of Military Engineer Ing (from The Lat. Fascina, Fascis, A Bundle Of Sticks) . The British Service Pattern Of Fascine Is I8ft. Long ; It Is Tied As Tightly As Pos Sible At ...

Fascism
Fascism (fash'izm), The Italian Fascist Movement, Dates Officially From The Foundation In March 1919 By Benito Mus Solini (q.v.), Then Editor Of 11 Popolo D'italia, Of The First Fascio Di Combattimento At Milan, Although Many Of Its Ideas Had Been Inspired By The Nationalist Movement Dating From 191o, And By ...

Fast And Loose
Fast And Loose, A Cheating Game Played At Fairs By Gypsies And Sharpers. A Strap, Usually In The Form Of A Belt, Is Rolled Or Doubled Up With A Loop In The Centre, And Laid Edgewise On A Table. The Showman Then Bets That The Loop Cannot Be Caught With ...