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Encyclopedia Britannica

Volume 9, Part 1: Extraction to Gambrinus

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Fluorspar
Fluorspar Derives Its Name From Its Use In Metallurgical Operations As A Flux (cf. Lat. Fluere, To Flow, And Its Ger. Name Muss-spat). It Is The Native Fluoride Of Calcium, Also Called Fluorite Or Fluor, One Of The Most Interesting Characters Of Fluorspar Is Its Colour. Specimens Have Been Found ...

Flushing
Flushing (dutch Vlissingen), In The Province Of Zeeland, Holland, On The South Side Of The Island Of Walcheren, At The Mouth Of The Estuary Of The Western Scheldt, 4 M. S. By W. Of Middel Burg, With Which It Is Also Connected By Tramway And Canal. Pop. (193o) 21,716. An ...

Flushing_2
Flushing, Formerly A Township And A Village Of Queens County, N.y., U.s.a., On Long Island, At The Head Of Flushing Bay, Since 1898 A Part Of The Borough Of Queens, New York City. It Was Settled In 1644 By A Company Of English Nonconformists Who Had Probably Been Living At ...

Flute
Flute, In Music, Is A General Term Applied To Wood-wind Instruments Consisting Of A Pipe Pierced With Lateral Holes And Blown Directly Through The Mouthpiece Without The Intervention Of A Reed. The Flute Family Is Classified According To The Type Of Mouth Piece Used, I.e., (i) Those With The Simple ...

Flux
Flux, In Metallurgy, A Substance Introduced In The Smelting Of Ores. To Promote Fluidity, And To Remove Objectionable Impuri Ties In The Form Of A Slag. The Substances In Commonest Use Are : 様ime Or Limestone, To Slag Off Silica And Silicates, Fluorspar For Lead, Calcium And Barium Sulphates And ...

Fluxions
Fluxions, A Form Of The Calculus (q.v.) Developed By Sir Isaac Newton (q.v.), Beginning In 1663. The Word Fluxion, As Used By Him, Denoted The Rate At Which A Variable (flowing Quan Tity, Fluent) Increases Or Decreases At A Given Instant Of Time. If X And Y Were Taken To ...

Fly River
Fly River, A Large Stream In Southern New Guinea, The Largest In Papua (british New Guinea). It Rises In The Victor Emanuel Mountains Near The Centre Of The Island And Flows First South And Then Southeast Into The Gulf Of Papua. It Is About Boo M. In Length And Is ...

Fly
Fly, A Name Given To The Winged Stage Of Many Insects Such As Butterfly (see Lepidoptera), Dragon-fly (q.v.), May-fly (q.v.), Caddis-fly (q.v.), Etc.; Also Specially Used By Entomologists To Mean Any Species Of Two-winged Flies Or Diptera (q.v.). In Ordi Nary Parlance Fly Is Often Used In The Sense Of ...

Flycatcher
Flycatcher, The Name For Birds Of The Family Muscica Pidae, The Best Known Of Which Is The Spotted Flycatcher (musci Capa Grisola), A Summer Visitor To Most Of Europe. It Is A Small Grey Bird, Fond Of Perching On Railings Or Posts, Whence, Ever And Anon, It Darts To Snap ...

Flying Bridge
Flying Bridge, A Type Of Ferryboat Propelled By The Re Sistance Of A Rope Or Chain Attached To A Fixed Buoy Acting Against The Forces Of The Stream. The Rudder Is Fixed Obliquely Which Causes The Boat To Move At Right Angles Towards The Buoy. See Also Ferryboat. ...

Flying Buttress
Flying Buttress, In Architecture, A Term Given To An Arched Strut Which Transmits The Thrust Of An Arch Or Vault Across An Open Space, Such As A Side Aisle Or Chapel, To An Independent, Vertical Buttress Built In The Line Of The Outer Wall Of The Space. Certain Late Roman ...

Flying Corps
Flying Corps: See Air Forces. ...

Flying Fish
Flying Fish, The Name Generally Given To Fishes Of The Genus Exocoetus, In Which The Pectoral Fins Are Greatly Enlarged. The Lower Lobe Of The Caudal Fin Is Very Long And, With Strong Strokes Of The Tail, These Fishes Emerge Rapidly From The Water And, With The Pectoral Fins Outspread, ...

Flying Fox Or
Flying-fox Or The Name Applied To The Fruit-eating Bats Of The Genus Pteropus, Which Contains More Than Half The Family Pteropidae. This Genus Is Confined To The Tropi Cal Regions Of The Eastern Hemisphere And Australia. It Comprises Numerous Species, A Considerable Proportion Of Which Occur In The Islands Of ...

Flying Squirrel
Flying-squirrel, The Name Applied To Two Very Differ Ent Groups Of Rodents, In Both Of Which A Parachute-like Expansion Of The Skin Of The Flanks Enables Them To Take Long Flying Leaps From Tree To Tree. The First Group, Allied To The True Squirrels, Comprises Three Genera. Pteromys, Characterized By ...

Flysch
Flysch, The Term Long Used In Geology To Denote A Peculiar Formation Occurring Specially In The Northern Alpine Zone. In The Swiss-german Dialect It Means "slippery Earth"; It Is Applied Typically To Very Thick, Light Grey Shales With Intercalations Of Small Beds Of Ferruginous Sandstone And Calcareous Nodules. When Modified ...

Flywheel
Flywheel. The Heavy Rim Of A Flywheel Stores Up Energy And Is Necessary For Two Main Purposes : (1) To Prevent Irregular Running Of An Engine, (2) To Give Off A Reserve Of Force With Which To Overcome Sudden Resistance. Steam, Gas, Oil And Petrol Engines, Air-compressors, Pumps And Some ...

Foca
Foca, A Town Of Bosnia, Yugoslavia. Pop. (1931) 4,613. It Is Famous For Its Silver Filigree Work And Inlaid Weapons. The Soil Produces Excellent Walnuts, But Poor Tobacco. Lying Close To The Frontiers Of Novipazar And Montenegro, Foca (chocha) Was The Scene Of Almost Incessant Border Warfare During The Middle ...

Focal Infection
Focal Infection, A Localized Area Or Pocket In The Tissues Which Affords Favourable Conditions For Germs To Grow And Produce Their Poisons And From Which These Germs And Poisons May Be Absorbed Into The Blood Stream And Thence Carried To Different Parts Of The Body. The Most Common Situations For ...

Fochabers
Fochabers, Burgh Of Barony And Village, Moray, Scot Land. Pop. (192i) 1,020. It Is Delightfully Situated On The Spey About 9 M. E. By S. Of Elgin, The Terminus Of A Branch Of The L.m.s.r. Connecting At Orbliston Junction With The Main Line From Elgin To Keith. The Town Was ...

Focsani
Focsani, A Town Of Rumania, Capital Of The Department Of Putna; On The River Milcov, Which Formed The Ancient Frontier Between Moldavia And Walachia. Pop. (193o) 3 2, 799 ; Of Whom C. 6,000 Were Jews. The Chief Buildings Are The Prefecture, Schools, Synagogues, And Many Churches, Including Those Of ...

Focus
Focus (latin For "hearth" Or "fireplace"), A Point At Which Converging Rays Meet, Toward Which They Are Directed, Or From Which Diverging Rays Are Directed ; In The Latter Case It Is Called The Virtual Focus (see Microscope; Telescope; Lens). In Geometry The Word Is Used To Denote Certain Points, ...

Fog Bow
Fog Bow, A White Rainbow, About 4oー In Radius. It Has A Reddish Outer Margin And An Inner Margin Of Bluish Tinge, But The Whole Of The Middle Of The Band Is Uncoloured. It Occasionally Accompanies Fogs (q.v.) And Its Origin Resembles That Of The Normal Rainbow, But The Smallness ...

Fog
Fog, Defined By Shaw As A "cloud, Devoid Of Structure, Formed On Land In The Layers Of Air Which, Though Nearly Stationary, Really Move Slowly Over The Ground." (see Ci.oud.) The Same Kind Of Surface Cloud May Be Found At Sea Accompanied By Light Breezes Or Even By Wind Of ...

Foggia
Foggia, A Town And Episcopal See Of Apulia, Italy, Capital Of The Province Of Foggia, 243 Ft. Above Sea Level, In The Centre Of The Great Apulian Plain 205 M. By Rail S.e. Of Ancona And 123 M. N.e. By E. Of Naples. The Pop. Of The Commune In 1931 ...

Fohn
Fohn, A Warm, Relaxing Wind Experienced On The Northern Side Of The Alpine Range Most Frequently In Winter And Early Spring. Similar Local Winds Occur Elsewhere, E.g., Norway, Green Land And North America. In The Last Case It Is Known As The Chinook And Descends The Rocky Mountains To The ...

Fohr
Fohr, A German Island In The North Sea, Belonging To The Province Of Schleswig-holstein, And Situated Off Its Coast. It Comprises An Area Of 32 Sq.m. Far, The Most Fertile Of The North Frisian Islands, Is Principally Marshland, And Comparatively Well Wooded. The Inhabitants Are Mainly Engaged In The Fishing ...

Foil I
Foil. I. A Leaf (from Lat. F Olium) ; So Used In Heraldry And In Plant Names, E.g., The "trefoil" Clover, And Hence Applied To Any Thing Resembling A Leaf. In Architecture, The Word Appears For The Small Leaf-like Spaces Formed By The Cusps Of Tracery In Windows Or Panels, ...

Foix
Foix, A Town Of South-western France, In The Middle Ages Capital Of The Counts Of Foix, And Now Capital Of The Department Of Ariege, 51 M. S. Of Toulouse, On The Southern Railway From That City To Ax. Pop. (1931), 4,567. It Stands At The Confluence Of The Arget With ...

Fold
Fold, A Pleat Or Bend In A Flexible Material. The Termination "-fold" Added To Numbers, As Hundredfold, Is Of The Same Origin (o.eng. Fealdan), But Fold In The Sense Of An Enclosure For Ani Mals And Hence Applied To A Community Of Worshippers Has Another Root, Apparently Meaning A Planked ...

Folgore Da San Geminiano
Folgore Da San Geminiano, A 13th Century Ital Ian Poet, Of Whose Life Nothing Is Known. Some Of His Anti-ghibel Line Political Sonnets, And A Few Of His Sonnets On The Pleasures Of The Months And The Days Of The Week, Have Been Translated By D. G. Rossetti And By ...

Foligno
Foligno, A Town And Episcopal See Of Umbria, Italy (anc. Fulginiae, Q.v.), 771 Ft. Above Sea-level, Province Of Perugia, From Which It Is 25 M. S.e. By Rail. Pop. (town), 37,993 (commune). It Lies In A Fertile Plain, On The Topino, A Tributary Of The Tiber ; It Is Almost ...

Folio
Folio, A Term In Bibliography And Printing, With Reference Either To The Size Of Paper Employed, Or Of The Book, Or To The Pagination. In The Phrase "in Folio" It Means A Sheet Of Paper Folded Once, And Thus A Book Bound Up In Sheets So Folded Is A Book ...

Folk Dancing
Folk-dancing. The Term Folk-dance Is Of Modern Origin. Its Existence Implies A Certain Complexity Of Development In The Social Order, And A Distinction Based, More Or Less Roughly, On This Complexity. In A Primitive Community The Whole Body Of Persons Composing It Is The "folk," And In The Widest Sense ...

Folkestone
Folkestone, A Municipal Borough, Seaport And Watering Place Of Kent, England, Within The Parliamentary Borough Of Hythe, 71 M. S.e. By E. Of London On The Southern Railway. Pop. Folkestone Is An Important Port Of The Con Tinental Passenger Service To Boulogne (3o M.). The Older Part Of The Town ...

Folkland
Folkland (f Olcland) . This Term Occurs Three Times In Anglo-saxon Documents. In A Law Of Edward The Elder (c. I. 2) It Is Contrasted With Bookland In A Way Which Shows That These Two Kinds Of Tenure Formed The Two Main Subdivisions Of Land Ownership: No One Is To ...

Folklore
Folklore. The Word Was Coined By W. J. Thoms In 1846 To Denote The Traditions, Customs And Superstitions Of The Uncultured Classes In Civilized Nations. The Meaning Of Words, However, Is Prescribed Not By Definition But By Usage, And To-day The Scope Of Folklore Includes What Was Deliberately Excluded In ...

Fond Du Lac
Fond Du Lac, A City Of Wisconsin, U.s.a., 6om. N. By W. Of Milwaukee, At The South End Of Lake Winnebago; The County Seat Of Fond Du Lac County. It Is On Federal Highways 41 And 151, And Is Served By The Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul And Pacific, The Chicago ...

Fondi
Fondi, A Town Of Lazio, Italy (anc. Fundi), Province Of Rome, 12 M. N.w. Of Formia, And 69 M. S. Of Rome By Rail. The Pop. Of The Commune 'in 1931 Was 13,32o. It Lies 25 Ft. Above Sea-level, At The North End Of A Plain Surrounded By Moun Tains, ...

Fonsagrada
Fonsagrada, A Town Of North-western Spain, In The Province Of Lugo; 38 M. E.n.e. Of Lugo By Road. Pop. (193o) 15,807. Fonsagrada, Over 3,00o Ft. Above Sea-level, Is The Market For The Agricultural And Dairy Produce Of The Fertile Valleys In The Surrounding Mountains, But Its Trade Is Mainly Local, ...

Font
Font, The Vessel Used In Churches To Hold The Water For Christian Baptism. In The Apostolic Period Baptism Was Adminis Tered At Rivers Or Natural Springs, Lat. Fops (cf. Acts Viii. 36), And No Doubt The Primitive Form Of The Rite Was By Immersion In The Water. Infusion用ouring Water On ...

Fontainebleau
Fontainebleau, A Town Of Northern France, Capital Of An Arrondissement In The Department Of Seine-et-marne, 37 M. S.e. Of Paris By Rail. Pop. (1931) 12,542. It Stands In The Forest Of Fontainebleau, Nearly 2 M. From The Left Bank Of The Seine. The Tambour Mansion, And A Portion Of The ...

Fontenoy
Fontenoy, A Village Of Belgium, In The Province Of Hen Negau, About 4m. S.e. Of Tournai, Famous As The Scene Of The Battle Of Fontenoy, In Which On May I 1, 1745, The French Army Under Marshal Saxe Defeated The Anglo-allied Army Under The Duke Of Cumberland. The Object Of ...

Fontevrault Or Fontevraud
Fontevrault Or Fontevraud (lat. Fons Ebraldi), A Town Of Western France, In The Department Of Maine Et-loire, 10 M. S.e. Of Saumur By Road, Near The Confluence Of The Loire And Vienne. Pop. (1931) 1,053. The Interest Of The Place Centres In Its Abbey, Since 1804 Utilized And Abused As ...

Foochow
Foochow, A Treaty Port Of China And The Capital Of The Province Of Fukien. Its Population, Estimated At 322,725, Ranks It Among The Larger Cities Of China. The Position Of Foochow Near The Mouth Of The Min River (26ー 7' N., 20' E.), Which Gathers Up The Drainage Of Fully ...

Food Controller
Food Controller. In The World War, This Name Was Given In Great Britain To The Member Of The Government Who Was Made Responsible For The Food Supplies Of The British People. The First Food Controller Was Viscount Devonport, Succeeded In Turn By Lord Rhondda And Others. In The United States ...

Food Council
Food Council. In Great Britain, After The Winding Up Of The Ministry Of Food In 1921, Considerable Popular Feeling Was Excited By The Continuation Of High Prices For Foodstuffs. This Led To The Appointment Of A Royal Commission On Food Prices, Which In Its Report Of April 23, 1925 (cmd. ...

Food Poisoning
Food Poisoning. The Term Food Poisoning As Used By Public-health Workers And Bacteriologists Does Not Include The Deliberate Addition To Food Of Poisonous Substances With Criminal Intent, Nor Yet Individual Idiosyncrasy Or Sensitisation To Certain Proteins Such As Those Contained In Strawberries, Eggs, Milk Or Shellfish. Food Idiosyncrasy Depends Primarily ...

Food Preservation
Food Preservation. As Food Material In Its Natural State Only Keeps Sound And Edible For A Comparatively Short Time, Its Preservation Has Engaged The Attention Of Mankind From The Very Earliest Times And Has Been Practised From The Dawn Of Civili Zation. Pastoral Man Preserved Milk In The Form Of ...

Food Service
Food Service, The Preparation And Serving Of Food To Large Numbers Of People Over A Continuous Period, Usually Through A Chain Or A Group Organization With Highly Standardized Methods. Such Quantity Food Service, Since The World War, Has Been A Factor Of Great Importance In Effecting Changes In The Restaurant ...

Food Supply Of The
Food Supply Of The World. The Population Of The World Is Believed To Be About 1,800,000,000. The Land Area (excluding The Arctic Regions) Is Roughly 33,000,000,000ac., Less Than Half Of Which Is Now Regarded As Arable. Taking Good And Bad Land Together, It May Be Estimated That Five Acres Are ...

Food
Food, The General Term For What Is Eaten By Man And Other Creatures For The Sustenance Of Life. The Scientific Aspect Of Human Food Is Dealt With Under Nutrition; Diet And Dietetics. Infancy.葉he Influence Of A Normal Diet Upon The Health Of Man (we Exclude Here The Question Of Diet ...

Foodstuffs
Foodstuffs, A Term Applied To The Products Used For Human Food, As Distinguished From "feeding Stuffs" (q.v.), The Term Applied To Products Used For The Food Of Animals In Domestic Cultivation. For Foodstuffs Generally See The Articles Cereals, Grain, Meat, Dairy Farming, Oils, Fats, And Waxes, Etc., And For Specific ...

Fool
Fool, A Stupid Person; A Buffoon Or Jester. Professional Fools Or Jesters Appear To Have Existed In All Times And Countries. Not Only Have There Always Been Individuals Naturally Inclined And Endowed To Amuse Others; There Has Been In Most Communities A Definite Class, The Members Of Which Have Used ...

Fools Parsley
Fool's Parsley, In Botany, The Popular Name For Aethusa Cynapium, Of The Family Umbelliferae, A Common Weed In Cultivated Ground In Great Britain And Sparingly Naturalized In The Eastern United States And Canada. It Is An Annual Herb, With A F Usif Orm Root And A Smooth Hollow Branched Stem ...

Foolscap
Foolscap, The Cap, Usually Of Conical Shape, With A Cocks Comb Running Up The Centre Of The Back, And With Bells Attached, Worn By Jesters And Fools (see .foot.); Also A Conical Cap Worn By Dunces. The Name Is Given To A Size Of Writing Or Printing Paper, Varying In ...

Foot And Mouth Disease
Foot-and-mouth Disease (aphthous Fever, Epi Zootic Aphtha, Eczema Epizootica), A Virulent Contagious And Inoculable Malady Of Animals, Characterized By Initial Fever, Fol Lowed By The Formation Of Vesicles Or Blisters On The Tongue, Palate And Lips, Sometimes In The Nostrils, Fourth Stomach And Intestine Of Cattle, And On Parts Of ...

Foot
Foot, The Lower Part Of The Leg, In Vertebrate Animals Con Sisting Of Tarsus, Metatarsus And Phalanges, On Which The Body Rests When In An Upright Position, Standing Or Moving (see Anat Omy: Superficial And Artistic; And Skeleton : Appendicular). The Word Is Also Applied To Such Parts Of Invertebrate ...

Football
Football. Few Of The Investigators Who Tried To Discover The Origins Of The Game Of Football Have Gone Very Far, For They Have Soon Found That The Sport Of Football As Enjoyed By Ancient Peoples Had No Relation To The Organized Game Which Is Played In Modern Times. The Early ...

Footscray
Footscray, A Suburb Of Melbourne, Australia, On The Salt Water River. It Has Large Bluestone Quarries From Which Most Of The Building Stones In Melbourne And The Neighbourhood Is Ob Tained, And Is An Important Manufacturing Centre, With Numerous Sugar Mills, Jute Factories, Soap Works, Woollen Mills, Foundries, Chemical Works ...

Forage
Forage, Food For Cattle Or Horses, Chiefly The Provender Collected For The Horses Of An Army. In Early Usage The Word Was Confined To Dried Forage As Opposed To Grass. From This Word Comes "foray," An Expedition In Search Of "forage," And Hence A Pillaging Expedition, A Raid. The Word ...

Foraminifera
Foraminifera. Marine Single-celled Animals (proto Zoa) Which Have Their Protoplasm Contained In A Calcareous Shell, Which Is Usually Perforated By Numerous Pores, Through Which Issue Delicate Protoplasmic Processes (so-called Rhizopods), Which Serve For Catching Food And For Locomotion. They Are Frequently Present In Such Numbers That Their Shells Form A ...

Forbach
Forbach, A Town Of France, Dept. Of Moselle (alsace-lor Raine) On An Affluent Of The Rossel, And On The Railway From Metz To Saarbriicken, 52 M. S.w. Of The Latter. Pop. (1931) 9,193. Its Industries Include The Manufacture Of Tiles And Pasteboard Wares, While There Are Coal Mines In The ...

Forbes
Forbes, A Municipal Town Of Ashburnham County, New South Wales, Australia, 289 M. W. By N. From Sydney, On The Lachlan River, And With A Station On The G.w. Railway. Pop. 5,356. It Has And Flour-mills, Breweries And Wool Scouring Establishments; While The Surrounding Country Produces Good Quantities Of Cereals, ...

Force
Force. In General, Strength Or Intensity Of Effort As Applied To Physical Action. It Is Also Used To Denote A Military Or Naval Unit ; For Its Legal Application See Duress. In Physics Force Is That Which Produces Acceleration. See Mechanics. ...

Forchheim
Forchheim, A Town In Upper Franconia, In The Land Of Bavaria, Near The Confluence Of The Wiesent And The Regnitz, 16 M. S.s.e. Of Bamberg. Pop. I0,346. Forchheim Was The Residence Of The Carolingian Sovereigns, Including Charle Magne, In The 9th Century. Many Diets Were Held Here, And Here Conrad ...

Ford City
Ford City, A Borough Of Armstrong County, Pa., U.s.a., On The Allegheny River, 35m. N.e. Of Pittsburgh. It Is Served By The Pennsylvania And (through West Ford City, Across The River) The Pittsburgh And Shawmut Railways. The Population Was 5,605 In 1920; And Was 6,127 In 1930. Ford City Has ...

Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company, Manufacturer Of Ford V-8 Automobiles And Trucks And The Other Earlier Ford Automobiles And Trucks Manufactured Since The First Car Was Sold In 1903, Is Situated In Dearborn, Michigan. It Was Incorporated In Michigan June 16, 1903 With A Capital Of $roo,000. Of The Original 12 Stockholders ...

Fordham
Fordham, Formerly A Village Of Westchester County, New York, U.s.a., And Now A Part Of New York City. It Lies On The Mainland, Along The Eastern Bank Of The Harlem River, East Of The Northern End Of Manhattan Island. It Is The Seat Of Fordham University (roman Catholic), Founded In ...

Foreclosure Sale
Foreclosure Sale, The Sale Of Property Conducted Pursuant To The Foreclosure Clauses Of A Mortgage Upon The Prop Erty. When Property Is Sold Under Foreclosure Proceedings The Proceeds Are Applied First. To The Legal Expenses Of The Sale, Then To The Principal Of The Debt On Account Of Which The ...

Foreclosure
Foreclosure, In The Law Of Mortgage, The Extinguish Ment By Order Of The Court Of A Mortgagor's Equity Of Redemption. In The Law Of Equity The Object Of Every Mortgage Transaction Is Eventually The Repayment Of A Debt, The Mortgaged Property Being Incidental By Way Of Security. Therefore, Although The ...

Foreign Exchange
Foreign Exchange: See Exchange, Foreign. Foreign Investment: See Capital, Export Of. Foreign Languages, Teaching Of. The Rev Olution That Has Taken Place In The Methods Of Teaching Modern Languages May Be Said To Date From Vietor's Pamphlet Der Sprachunterricht Muss Umkeliren (1886). His Doctrines Were Largely Adopted In The Frankfurter ...

Foreign Office
Foreign Office, In Great Britain, That Department Of The Executive Which Is Concerned With Foreign Affairs. The Head Of The Foreign Office Is Termed Principal Secretary Of State For Foreign Affairs, And His Office Dates From 1782. From The Revolu Tion Until That Time There Had Been Only Two Secretaries ...

Foreshore
Foreshore, That Part Of The Seashore Which Lies Between High And Low Water Mark At Ordinary Tides. In Great Britain It Is Ordinarily And Prima Facie Vested In The Crown, Except Where It May Be Vested In A Subject By Ancient Grant Or Charter From The Crown, Or By Prescription ...

Forest City
Forest City, A Borough Of Susquehanna County, Pa., U.s.a., In The Moosic Mountains, 2om. N.e. Of Scranton. It Is Served By The Delaware And Hudson, The Erie And The New York, Ontario And Western Railways. The Population Was 6,004 In 1920 (29% Foreign-born White) And Was 5,209 In 1930 By ...

Forest Laws
Forest Laws, The Restrictive Laws Applicable To Land Con Verted By Exercise Of The Royal Prerogative Into A "forest," In Which Game Was Preserved. But, Whereas An Offender Against The Ordinary Game Laws Was Punishable By The Courts Of Common Law, An Offender Against Forest Laws Was Punishable In Special ...

Forest Park
Forest Park, A City Of Cook County, Ill., U.s.a., 12m. W. Of Chicago, Served By The Chicago, Aurora And Elgin, The Chicago Great Western And The Soo Line Railways. The Population Was 10,768 In 1920 And Was 14,555 In 1930. It Is A Residential Suburb, And Also Has A Variety ...

Forestalling
Forestalling, In English Criminal Law, The Offence Of Buying Merchandise, Victual, Etc., Coming To Market, Or Making Any Bargain For Buying The Same, Before They Shall Be In The Mar Ket Ready To Be Sold, Or Making Any Motion For Enhancing The Price, Or Dissuading Any Person From Coming To ...

Forests And Forestry
Forests And Forestry. The Meaning Of The Word "forest" Has Undergone Many Changes With The Change In Economic, Political And Social Conditions Of The People. Originally The Word "voorst" Or Forest Designated The Segregated Property Of The King Or Leader Of The Tribe. Toward The End Of The Eighth Century, ...

Forfar
Forfar, Royal, Municipal And Police Burgh, Parish And County Town Of Forfarshire, Scotland. Pop. (1931) 9,66o. It Lies At The East End Of The Loch Of Forfar In The Valley Of Strath More, And Is 13 M. N. By E. Of Dundee By Road And 214 M. By The L.m.s.r. ...

Forfarshire Or Angus
Forfarshire Or Angus, An Eastern County Of Scotland, Bounded North By The Shires Of Kincardine And Aberdeen, West By Perthshire, South By The Firth Of Tay And East By The North Sea. The Island Of Rossie And The Bell Rock Belong To The Shire. The Name Angus Was Officially Adopted ...

Forfeiture
Forfeiture, In Law, The Termination Of A Right ; The Loss Or Liability To The Loss Of Property In Consequence Of An Offence Or Breach Of Contract ; It Is Also Applied To The Property Of Which The Party Is Deprived. Under The Common Law, Conviction And Attainder On Indictment ...

Forgery
Forgery Is Defined By Blackstone At Common Law As "the Fraudulent Making Or Alteration Of A Writing To The Prejudice Of Another Man's Right," Or "the False Making, Or Making Malo Animo, Of Any Written Instrument For The Purpose Of Fraud Or De Ceit." This Definition, It Will Be Seen, ...

Forget Me Not
Forget-me-not, Called Also Scorpion-grass, The Name Popularly Applied To The Small Annual Or Perennial Herbs Forming The Genus Myosotis Of The Family Boraginaceae, From The Greek Ain, A Mouse, And O Vs, An Ear, On Account Of The Shape Of The Leaves. The Genus Is Represented In Europe, North Asia, ...

Forging Press
Forging Press. Forging By Machine Can Be Done Under Steam And Pneumatic Hammers, Drop-hammers, Horizontal Die F Orging Machines, And Hydraulic Presses. The Last-named Give A Squeeze To The Metal, Instead Of A Blow, With Consequent Absence Of Shock And Vibration; The Pressure Penetrates Into The Interior Of The Forging, ...

Forging
Forging Is The Art Of Forming Or Shaping Metal By Heat Ing And Hammering. The Art Is As Old As History. Forging Differs From Founding Or Casting In The Fact That The Metal Is Never Melted, But Is Worked While Hot Enough To Be In A Plastic Or Pasty Condition. ...

Forli
Forli, A Town And Episcopal See Of Emilia (anc. Forum Livii), Italy, Capital Of The Province Of For11, 4o M. S.e. Of Bologna On The Railway To Rimini, 108 Ft. Above Sea-level. The Population Of The Commune In 1931 Was 60,824. The Church Of S. Mercuriale In The Square Contains ...

Form
Form (lat. Forma), In General, The External Shape, Appear Ance, Configuration Of An Object, In Contradistinction To The Matter Of Which It Is Composed ; Thus A Speech May Contain Excellent Arguments葉he Matter May Be Good, While The Style, Grammar, Arrangement葉he Form擁s Bad. The Term, With Its Adjective "formal" And ...

Formaldehyde
Formaldehyde, The First Member, H.cho Or Of The Series Of Saturated Aliphatic Aldehydes (q.v.) Is Most Readily Prepared By Passing The Vapour Of Methyl Alcohol, Mixed With Air, Over Heated Copper Or Platinum ; The Formaldehyde Vapour Is Condensed And Absorbed, Either In Water Or Alcohol. At Ordinary Temperatures Formaldehyde ...

Formalin
Formalin, An Agneous Solution Containing 4o% Of For Maldehyde (q.v.), Is A Commercial Product. After Dilution This Solution Is Used As A Disinfectant, For The Preservation Of Anatomi Cal Specimens, Etc. It Possesses The Property Of Converting Protein Substances (q.v.) Into A Hard Elastic Mass Insoluble In Water. It Is ...

Formalism
Formalism, In Philosophy Generally, Means Undue Atten Tion To Forms (of Thought, Or Reasoning, Etc.), At The Expense Of Content And Concrete Circumstances. In Ethics And Religion It Refers To The Attachment Of Undue Significance To The Externals Of Convention, Or To Ritual, At The Expense Of The Spirit And ...

Forme Or Form
Forme Or Form. In Printing, A Page Or Number Of Pages Of Type Arranged In A Metal Form Or Frame Termed A "chase." The Name Forme, Used In Great Britain, Is A Middle English Spelling Of Form. The Chase Secures The Type Or Stereo-plates In Position. (see Printing.) ...

Formeret
Formeret, An Architectural Term For The Rib Of A Gothic Vault That Connects Adjacent Piers On The Same Side Of The Nave Or Aisle, And Forms An Arch In The Plane Of The Wall; A Wall-rib (see Vault). ...

Formia
Formia, A Town Of Campania, Italy (anc. Formiae), Prov Ince Of Rome, On The New Direct Line Between Rome And Naples, 5o M. N.w. Of The Latter. Pop. (1931) 11,787 (town); (commune). It Is Situated At The North-west Extremity Of The Bay Of Gaeta, And Commands Beautiful Views. It Lay ...

Formic Acid
Formic Acid Was First Prepared By Distilling Red Ants (lat. Formica) . It Occurs In Some Mineral Waters, In Animal Se Cretions And In Muscle. Its Reputed Presence In Stinging Nettles Has Been Controverted. It Is The First Member Of The Series Of Aliphatic Monobasic Acids (q.v.), Distinguished From The ...

Formosa
Formosa, A Northern Territory Of The Argentine Republic, With The Pilcomayo And Bermejo Forming Its Northern And South Ern Boundaries. Estimated Area, 29,143 Sq.m. It Is A Vast Plain, Sloping Gently To The South-east, Covered With Grasslands, Marshes And Tropical Forests. The Interior Is Still Occupied By Tribes Of Indians. ...

Formosa_2
Formosa (taiwan), An Important Island In The Western Pacific Ocean Between The Southern And The Eastern China Seas, And Separated From The Province Of Fukien On The Chinese Mainland By The Formosa Strait, 90 M. In Width At Its Narrowest. The Name Formosa Was Given To The Island On Account ...

Formosus
Formosus, Pope From 891 To 896, First Appears In History When, As Bishop Of Porto, He Was Sent On An Embassy To The Bul Garians. Having Afterwards Sided With A Faction Against John Viii., He Was Excommunicated, But Marinus, The Successor Of John Viii., Restored Him To His Dignities; And ...

Forms Of Address
Forms Of Address. Every Country Has Its Own Con Ventions In Regard To Modes Of Address; In Few Countries Are These Conventions So Numerous As In England. The Anglo-saxon Has Evolved A Very Strict Code Of Style And Title, Which Has Grown Through The Centuries According To A Tradition Often ...

Formula
Formula, In General, A Stereotyped Form Of Words To Be Used On Stated Occasions, For Specific Purposes, Ceremonies, Etc. In The Sciences, The Word Usually Denotes A Symbolical Statement Of Certain Facts ; For Example, A Chemical Formula Exhibits The Composition Of A Substance (see Chemistry) ; A Botanical For ...