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John Almon
Almon, John English Political Pamphleteer And Publisher, Was Born At Liverpool On Dec. 27, 1737, And Died On Dec. 12, 1805. He Came To London In 1758 At A Time When The Whig Opposition, Hampered And Harassed By The Government To An Extent That Threatened The Total Suppression Of Independent ...

John Anderson
Anderson, John (1726-1796), Scottish Natural Philo Sopher, Born At Roseneath, Dumbartonshire, Was A Professor Of Natural Philosophy In The University Of Glasgow. He Devoted Himself Particularly To The Application Of Science To Industry, Instituting Courses Of Lectures Intended Especially For Artisans, And He Bequeathed His Property For The Foundation Of ...

John Andre
Andre, John (1751-178o), British Soldier, Was Born In London In 1751 Of Genevese Parents. Accident Brought Him In I 769 To Lichfield, Where, In The House Of The Rev. Thomas Sew Ard, He Met The Beautiful Miss Honora Sneyd. A Strong Attach Ment Sprang Up Between The Two, But Miss ...

John Campbell Gordon Aberdeen
Aberdeen And Temair, John Campbell Gordon, 1st Marquess Of P.c., G.c.m.g., G.c.v.o., K.t., Second Son Of The Fifth Earl Of Aberdeen, Was Born In Edinburgh Aug. 3, 1847. He Was Educated At Oxford And Suc Ceeded His Brother As Sixth Earl Of Aberdeen In 1870, Taking His Seat In The ...

John Couch Adams
Adams, John Couch (ist9-18921, British Astronomer, Was Horn At Lidcot Farmhouse, Laneast, Cornwall, On June 5, 1819. He Was Educated At St. John's College, Cambridge, And Was Senior Wrangler And First Smith's Prizeman Of His Year, While Still An Undergraduate He Read Of Certain Unexplained Irreg Ularities In The Motion ...

John Emerich Edward Dalberg
Acton, John Emerich Edward Dalberg Acton, 1st Baron (1834-1902), English Historian, Only Son Of Sir Richard Acton, 7th Baronet, And Grandson Of The Neapolitan Admiral, Sir J. F. E. Acton, 6th Baronet (q.v.), Was Born At Naples On Jan. Io, 1834. Coming Of A Roman Catholic Family, Young Acton Was ...

John Jacob Abel
Abel, John Jacob (1857-1938), American Pharmacol Ogist And Physiological Chemist, Was Born In Cleveland, 0., On May 19, 1857. He Began Life As A Teacher And In 1879-82 Was A Principal And Superintendent Of Schools In Indiana. In 1883 He Graduated From The University Of Michigan And, After A Year ...

John Julius Angerstein
Angerstein, John Julius London Merchant And Patron Of The Fine Arts, Was Born At St. Petersburg And Settled In London About 1749. His Collection Of Paintings, Consisting Of About 4o Of The Most Exquisite Specimens Of The Art, Purchased By The British Government By A Vote Of £6o,000, On His ...

John Leycester Adolphus
Adolphus, John Leycester (1795-1862), English Lawyer And Author, Well-known London Barrister. Adolphus Wrote Letters To Richard Heber, Esq. (1821) In Which He Discussed The Authorship Of The Then Anonymous Waverley Novels, And Fixed It Upon Sir Walter Scott. This Conclusion Was Based On The Resem Blance Of The Novels In ...

John Peter Altgeld
Altgeld, John Peter (1847-1902), American Poli Tician, Was Born In Nieder Selters, Prussia, Germany, On Dec. 3o, 1847. In Infancy He Was Brought To The United States By His Parents Who Settled Near Mansfield, Ohio. In 1864 He Entered The Union Army And Served For One Hundred Days As A ...

John Quincy Adams
Adams, John Quincy (1767-1848), Eldest Son Of President John Adams, Sixth President Of The United States, Was Born On July 11, 1767, In That Part Of Braintree That Is Now Quincy (mass.), And Was Named After John Quincy (1689-1767), His Mother's Grandfather, Who Was For Many Years A Prominent Member ...

John Stevens Cabot Abbott
Abbott, John Stevens Cabot American Writer, Was Born In Brunswick, Me., On Sept. 18, 1805. He Was A Brother Of Jacob Abbott, With Whom He Was Associated In The Management Of Abbott's Institute, New York City, And In The Preparation Of His Series Of Brief Historical Biographies. He Is Best ...

John White Alexander
Alexander, John White American Painter, Was Born In Allegheny (pa.), Oct. 7, 1856. He Was Left An Orphan When Very Young, Became An Illustrator For Harper's Magazine, Studied In Europe, Became A Pupil Of The Royal Acad Emy At Munich, And Also Worked In Venice, In Holland And In Paris, ...

Jonas Alstromer
Alstromer, Jonas (1685-1761), Pioneer Of Swedish Industrialism, Was Born At Alingsas In Vestergotland, Jan. 7, 1685. He Left His Native Village At An Early Age, And In 17o7 Became Clerk To Alberg, A Merchant Of Stockholm, Whom He Accompanied To London. After Carrying On Business For Three Years, Alberg Failed, ...

Jose De Acosta
Acosta, Jose De (1539?-160o), Spanish Author, Was Horn At Medina Del Campo About The Year 1539. He Joined The Jesuits In 1551, And In 1571 Was Sent As A Missionary To Peru; He Acted As Provincial Of His Order From 1576 To 1581, Was Appointed Theological Adviser To The Council ...

Joseph Addison
Addison, Joseph , English Essayist, Poet And Man Of Letters, Eldest Son Of Lancelot Addison, Later Dean Of Lichfield, Was Born At His Father's Rectory Of Milston In Wilt Shire, On May 1, 1672. After Having Attended Several Schools, The Last Charterhouse, He Was Entered A Commoner Of Queen's Col ...

Joseph Alleine
Alleine, Joseph (1634-1668), English Nonconformist Divine, Was Born At Devizes, Wiltshire, And Educated At Oxford, Where He Became A Fellow And Tutor Of Corpus Christi. He Was Curate To George Newton, Vicar Of St. Mary Magdalene, Taunton, From 1655 To 1662, When Both He And His Vicar Were Ejected For ...

Joseph Allston
Allston, Joseph (c. American Planter And Governor Of South Carolina, Was Born Probably In All Saints' Parish, S.c., About 1779. He Was Educated At Princeton But Left In His Senior Year Without Graduating And Studied Law In The Office Of Edward Rutledge. He Was Elected A Member Of The Lower ...

Joseph Ames
Ames, Joseph (1689-1759), English Author, Was Born At Yarmouth On Jan. 23, 1689. He Wrote An Account Of Printing In England From 1471 To 1600, Typographical Antiquities (1749) . Ames Disregarded Printed Lists And Consulted The Title-pages Of The Books Themselves. An Interleaved Copy Of The Work With Many Notes ...

Joseph Sweetman Ames
Ames, Joseph Sweetman ), American Physicist, Was Born In Manchester, Vt., On July 3, 1864. He Received His Education At Johns Hopkins University From Which He Graduated In 1886 And Received The Degree Of Doctor Of Philosophy In 1890. He Was Assistant And Associate In Physics There In 1888 93 ...

Jost Amman
Amman, Jost Swiss Artist, Celebrated Chiefly For His Engravings On Wood, Was Born At Zurich. Of His Personal History Little Is Known Beyond The Fact That He Removed In 1560 To Nuremberg, Where He Continued To Reside Until His Death In March 1591. A Large Number Of His Original Drawings ...

Juan Alvarez
Alvarez, Juan (178o-1867), Mexican General, Was Born At Concepcion De Atoyac (now Ciudad Alvarez), Territory Of Guerrero, Mexico, On Jan. 27, 1780. He Joined The Revolt Of Morelos Against The Spanish Rule In Nov. 181 O, And In Various Battles In The Ensuing Struggle For Independence Won Distinction As A ...

Juan Andres
Andres, Juan (174o-1817), Spanish Jesuit, Wrote On Science, Music, Etc., But His Chief Work Was Dell'origine, Prog Ressi, E Stato Attuale D'ogni Letteratura (parma, 1782-99). A Spanish Translation Was Made By His Brother Carlos (madrid, 1784-1806), And An Abridgment In French (1838-46) Was Com Piled By Alexis Nerbonne. See C. ...

Juan Ruiz De Alarcon
Alarcon, Juan Ruiz De (c. 1581-1639), Spanish Dramatist, Was Born About 1581 At Tlacho (mexico), Where His Father Was Superintendent Of Mines, And Died At Cordova On Aug. 4, 1639. Alarcon Was Educated In Spain, Then, After A Brief Stay In Mexico, Returned To Spain And Occupied A Small Post ...

Juliette Adam
Adam, Juliette (1836-1936), French Writer, Known Also By Her Maiden Name Of Juliette Lamber, Was Born At Verberie (oise) Oct. 4, 1836. She Has Given An Account Of Her Childhood, Rendered Unhappy By The Dissensions Of Her Parents, In Le Roman De Mom Enfance Et De Ma Jeunesse (eng. Trans., ...

Julius Andrassy
Andrassy, Julius, Count (1860-1929), Hungarian Statesman, Was Born June 3o, 186o, The Son Of Count Julius Andrassy. He Was Elected Deputy In 1885, And In 1906 Became Minister Of The Interior, In The So-called Coalition Cabinet. At The Collapse Of This Ministry In 1910, He Refused To Join The Khuen-hedervary ...

Julius Gyula Andrassy
Andrassy, Julius (gyula), Count (1823-189o), Hungarian Statesman, The Son Of Count Karoly Andrassy And Etelka Szapary, Was Born At Kocire, Slovakia (then In North Hungary) On March 3, 1823. In 1846 He Attracted Attention By His Bitter Articles Against The Government In Kossuth's Paper, The Pesti Hirlap, And Was Returned ...

Karl Adolf Agardh
Agardh, Karl Adolf (1785-1859), Swedish Bot Anist, Was Born On Jan. 23, 1785, At Badstad. He Was Educated At Lund, Where In 1807 He Became Lecturer In Mathematics, And In 1812, Professor Of Botany And Rural Economy. After Being Ordained In 1816, He Was Elected To The Diet Where, As ...

Karl Andree
Andree, Karl (1808-1875), German Geographer, Was Born At Brunswick On Oct. 20, 1808, And Died At Wildungen On Aug. Io, 1875. He Was Educated At Jena, Gottingen, And Berlin. From 1855 He Devoted Himself Entirely To Geography And Ethnog Raphy, Working Successively At Leipzig And At Dresden. In 1862 He ...

Karl Friedrich Abel
Abel, Karl Friedrich , German Musi Cian, Was Born In Cothen And Died In London, Where He Lived During The Greater Part Of His Career. He Was A Great Player On The Viola Da Gamba, Composed Much Music For That Instrument And Was One Of The Most Prominent Figures In ...

Karl Jonas Ludwig Almqvist
Almqvist, Karl Jonas Ludwig Swedish Writer, Was Born At Stockholm In 1793. He Became A Student At Uppsala, Where His Father Was Professor Of Theology, In 18o8, And Took His Degree In 1815. In 1823 He Threw Up The Posi Tion He Held In The Capital To Lead A Colony ...

Kigrard Aldrich
Aldrich, Kigrard ), Music Critic, Was Born At Providence, R.i., July 31, 1863. He Studied At "harvard Under J. K. Paine And In Germany. Associate Critic Of The New York Tribune 1891-1902, He Then Became Music Critic To The New York Times, Holding The Position To 1924, Except For The ...

King Theodore
King Theodore Origin And Rise.—lijkassa Was Born In Kwara, A Small Dis Trict Of Western Amhara, In 1818. His Father Was A Small Local Chief, And His Uncle Was Governor Of The Districts Of Dembea, Kwara And Chelga Between Lake Tana And The Undefined N.w. Frontier. He Was Educated In ...

La Albuera
Albuera, La (or Albuhera), A Small Village Of Spain, In The Province Of Badajoz, 13m. S.e. Of The Town Of That Name, Insignificant In Itself But Celebrated On Account Of The Victory Gained There On May 16, 1811, By The British, Portuguese And Spaniards, Under Marshal Beresford, Over The French ...

Lago Di Agnano
Agnano, Lago Di, A Crater Lake, 5 M. W. Of Naples, Italy; 4 M. In Circumference, Not Mentioned In Antiquity, Probably Formed In The Middle Ages, Drained In 1866. It Has A Large Modern Thermal Establishment With Springs, Natural Sulphurous Vapour Baths And A Grotto With Constant Exudation Of Warm ...

Lake A Nyanza Albert
Albert, Lake (a. Nyanza), Uganda, Situated In I° 9' To 2° 17' S., And 30° 30' To 31° 35' E. Its Greatest Length Is Loom., Its Greatest Breadth 22m., And Its Greatest Depth 55ft. The Area Is Approximately I,64osq.m. ; I.e., About The Size Of Lan Cashire. The Height Of ...

Lake Alexandrina
Alexandrina, Lake, In South Australia, Forms With Lake Albert And The Curious Boomerang-shaped Coorong A Series Of Extensive And Shallow Lagoons About The Outlet Of The River • Murray. (lake Alexandrina : Area, C. 220sci.m. ; Depth : 7–ioft.; L. Albert: C. 64sq.m.; 3-6ft.) A Relic Of A Sea-gulf—analogous To ...

Lancelot Andrewes
Andrewes, Lancelot Bishop Of Win Chester, Was Born In London. His Family Was An Ancient Suffolk One ; His Father, Thomas, Became Master Of Trinity House. Lan Celot Was Educated At Merchant Taylors' School And At Pem Broke Hall, Cambridge, And Became A Fellow Of His College In 1576. He ...

Land Tenure
Land Tenure Is Treated Under That Heading, And There Is An Article On Farm Rents. The Various Institutions Connected With Agricul Ture Are Treated Under The Headings : International Institute Of Agriculture; Agriculture, Chamber Of; Agricultural Societies And Shows ; Allotments Organization Society. For A Discussion Of Farm Relief Legislation ...

Lascelles Abercrombie
Abercrombie, Lascelles English Poet, Was Born At Ashton-upon-mersey, Cheshire, Jan. 9, 1881, And Educated At Malvern And Victoria University, Manchester, Where He Studied Science. His First Work, Interludes And Poems, Appeared In 1908. Other Works Are : Mary And The Bramble (1910) The Sale Of St. Thomas (ica* Emblems Of ...

Leone Battista Alberti
Alberti, Leone Battista (1404-1472), Italian Painter, Poet, Philosopher, Musician And Architect, Was Born In Venice On Feb. 18, 1404. He Was So Skilled In Latin Verse That A Comedy He Wrote In His Twentieth Year, Entitled Philodoxius, Deceived The Younger Aldus, Who Edited And Published It As The Genuine Work ...

Leone Leo Allatius Allacci
Allacci, Leone (leo Allatius) 0586-1669), Greek Scholar And Theologian, And A Voluminous Writer, Was Born In The Island Of Chios. His Early Years Were Passed In Calabria And At Rome, Where He Finally Settled As Teacher Of Greek At The Greek College, At The Same Time Devoting Himself To The ...

Leopold I Anhalt Dessau
Anhalt-dessau, Leopold I., Prince Of). Leopold Iv. (reigned 1817-71) In 1863 Reunited The Whole Of Anhalt. He Took The Title Of Duke Of Anhalt And Summoned One Landtag For The Whole Of The Duchy. In 1871 Anhalt Became A State Of The German Em Pire. In 1918, In Common With ...

Leopoldo Alas
Alas, Leopoldo (r 85 2-r 90 R) , Spanish Novelist And Critic, Was Born At Zamora. His Reputation Rests On His Psycholog Ical Novel, La Regenta (r 884-85 ), Whose Scene Is Laid In Oviedo. The Ruthless Analysis Of Its Characters Gives It A Place Among The Best Novels Of ...

Leroy Abrams
Abrams, Leroy ), American Botanist, Was Born In Sheffield, Ia., Oct. 1, 1874. He Graduated At Stanford University, Calif., In 1899, Continued Study There In 190o-04 And At Columbia University In 1904-05, Receiving His Ph.d. Degree In 1910. In 1906 He Became Assistant Professor Of Botany In Stanford University ; ...

Lieuwe Leo Van Aitzema
Aitzema, Lieuwe (leo) Van Dutch Historian And Statesman, Was Born At Doccum, In Friesland, Nov. 19, 1600, And Died At The Hague, Feb. 23, 1669. His Most Important Work Was The Saken Van Staet In Oorlogh In Ende Om Trent De Vereenigte Nederlanden (i655-7i), Embracing The Period From 1621 To ...

Lius
Lius (1486-153 5 ), German Writer, Soldier, Physician And By Common Reputation A Magician. Agrippa Was For Many Years In The Service Of Maximilian I., The German King, Who Sent Him In 151.0 On A Diplomatic Mission To England, Where He Was The Guest Of Dean Colet. From 1511 To ...

Loids
Loids). If We Consider The Adsorption Of Methylene Blue By Kaolin, We Find That The Adsorbent Is Very Efficient, Much More Efficient Than In The Adsorption Of The Fatty Acids, Etc. The Solute In The Case Of Methylene Blue Is Highly Ionized, And It Comes Into Contact With A Solid ...

Lope De Aguirre
Aguirre, Lope De (1508-1561), Spanish Adventurer. In 1559 He Joined Pedro De Ursua's Expedition To The Upper Ama Zon, In Search Of El Dorado, And Took Part In The Murder Of Ursua And His Lieutenant In 1561, After Which Guzman Was Elected Cap Tain By The Crew, With Aguirre As ...

Louis Antoine De Bourbon Angouleme
Angouleme, Louis-antoine De Bourbon, Duke Of (1775-1844), The Last Dauphin Of France, Elder Son Of The Count Of Artois (afterwards Charles X.) And Of Marie-therese Of Savoy, Was Born In Versailles On Aug. 6, 1775, And Died In Goritz, In Austria, On June 3, 1844. In 1789 He Left France ...

Louisa May Alcott
Alcott, Louisa May (1832-1888), American Author, Was Born In Germantown, Now Part Of Philadelphia (pa.), Nov. 29, 1832. Like Her Mother, She Felt Deeply The Family Trials And Privations Caused By The Unpracticality Of Her Father, Amos Bronson Alcott. In Later Life She Defined A Philosopher As "a Man Up ...

Louise Maximilienne Caroline Albany
Albany, Louise Maximilienne Caroline, Countess Of (1752-1824), Eldest Daughter Of Prince Gustavus Adolphus Of Stolberg-gedern, Was Born At Mons On Sept. 20, 1752. In Her Youth She Was A Canoness Of Ste. Wandru At Mons, But In Her Twentieth Year She Was Affianced, At The Instigation Of The Duke Of ...

Louise Victorine Choquet Ackermann
Ackermann, Louise Victorine Choquet (1813-1890), French Poet, Was Born In Paris On Nov. 3o, 1813. Educated By Her Father In The Philosophy Of The Encyclopaedists, Victorine Choquet Went To Berlin In 1838 To Study German, And There Married In 1843 Paul Ackermann, An Alsatian Philologist. After Little More Than Two ...

Lucius Afranius
Afranius, Lucius, Roman General, Lived In The Times Of The Sertorian (79-72 B.c.), Third Mithridatic (74-61 B.c.) And Civil Wars. In 6o B.c., Chiefly By Pompey's Support, He Was Raised To The Consulship. In The Following Year, While Governor Of Cisal Pine Gaul, He Obtained A Triumph, And On The ...

Lucius Afranius_2
Afranius, Lucius, Roman Comic Poet, Flourished About 94 B.c. He Dealt Chiefly With Everyday Subjects From Roman Middle-class Life, And Tells Us That He Borrowed Freely From Menander And Others. See Horace Epp. Ii. 1.57 ; Cicero, Brutus, 45. De Fin. I. 3; Quintilian X. 1. 100; Fragments, About 400 ...

Lucius Ampelius
Ampelius, Lucius, Possibly A Tutor Or Schoolmaster, And Author Of An Extremely Concise Summary—a Kind Of Index— Of Universal History (liber Memorialis) From The Earliest Times To The Reign Of Trajan. The Little Work, In 5o Chapters, Gives A Sketch Of Cosmography, Geography, Mythology (chaps. I–x.) And History (chap. X.–end). ...

Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus
Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, Son Of The Above, And Hus Band Of Porcia The Sister Of Cato Uticensis. Being A Convinced Aristocrat He Opposed Pompey And Caesar While They Were United, And When Their Friendship Cooled, Attached Himself To Pompey. He Was Consul In 54 B.c., And In 49 B.c. He ...

Lucrezia Agujari
Agujari, Lucrezia An Italian Operatic Singer, Possessed Of One Of The Most Extraordinary Voices, In Re Spect Of Its Almost Incredible Compass, Ever Known. Mozart, Who Heard Her At Parma In 177o, Noted Down Some Of The Passages Which She Sang, Showing Her Range To Have Extended From Middle C ...

Luigi Alamanni Or Alemanni
Alamanni Or Alemanni, Luigi Ital Ian Statesman And Poet, Was Born At Florence. Luigi Joined With Others In An Unsuccessful Conspiracy Against Giulio De' Medici, Afterwards Pope Clement Vii. He Was Obliged To Take Refuge In Venice, And, On The Accession. Of Clement, To Flee To France. When Florence Shook ...

Luigi Albertini
Albertini, Luigi (1871- ), Italian Journalist And Politician, Was Born At Ancona Oct. 19, 1871, And After Gradu Ating In Law Took To Journalism. In 1896 He Joined The Staff Of The Milan Newspaper, 11 Corriere Della Sera, And In 1 G09 Became Editor And Chief Proprietor. Under His Guidance ...

Luigi Anichini
Anichini, Luigi, Italian Engraver Of Seals And Medals, A Native Of Ferrara, Lived In Venice About 155o. Michelangelo Pro Nounced His "interview Of Alexander The Great With The High Priest At Jerusalem" "the Perfection Of The Art." His Medals Of Henry Ii. Of France And Pope Paul Iii. Are Highly ...

Lyman Abbott
Abbott, Lyman (1835-1922), American Divine And Author, Was Born At Roxbury (mass.), On Dec. I8, 1835, The Son Of Jacob Abbott. He Graduated At New York University In 1853, Studied Law, And Was Admitted To The Bar In 1856; But Abandoning The Legal Profession, After Studying Theology With His Uncle, ...

Madame Albert
Albert, Madame (c. 1805-1846), French Actress, Whose Maiden Name Was Therese Vernet, Was Born Of A Family Of Players. Her Grace, Beauty, And Distinction Of Manner Made Her The Idol Of Paris, And Her Circle Of Admirers Was Widened By Long Tours Of The Provinces And Abroad. ...

Manufacture Of Sodium Carbonate
Manufacture Of Sodium Carbonate The Manufacture Of Alkali And Chlorine By Modern Methods Re Quires Complicated Plant ; But The Relatively Few Plants In Opera Tion Are Highly Efficient And, Eco Nomically Placed As Regards Car Riage Of Raw Materials And Ship Ping Of Products, And Work On A Very ...

Marcelo Torcuato De Alvear
Alvear, Marcelo Torcuato De ), Argentine Politician, Was Born At Buenos Aires, On Oct. 4, 1868, The Son Of Torcuato De Alvear, Several Times Mayor Of Buenos Aires, And Grandson Of General Carlos De Alvear, First Argentine Minister To The United States. After Graduating From The Uni Versity Of Buenos ...

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa
Agrippa, Marcus Vipsanius (63—i 2 B.c.), Roman Statesman And General, Son-in-law And Minister Of The Emperor Augustus, Was Of Humble Origin. He Was Of The Same Age As Octavian (as The Emperor Was Then Called), And Was Studying With Him At Apollonia When News Of Julius Caesar's Assassination (44 B.c) ...

Margaret Anglin
Anglin, Margaret (1876— ), American Actress, Was Born On April 3, 1876, At Ottawa, Canada. She Was Educated In The Convents Of Loretto Abbey, At Toronto, And Sault Recollet, At Montreal. She Studied Drama At The Wheatcroft School In New York, And Made Her Stage Debut In 1894 As Madeline ...

Marguerite Marie Alacoque Or
Alacoque Or Al Coq, Marguerite Marie (1647-169o), French Nun And Founder Of The Devotion To The Sacred Heart Of Jesus, Was Born At Lauthecourt On July 22, 1647, And Died On Oct. 17, 169o. Having Been Cured Of Paralysis, As She Believed By The Intercession Of The Blessed Virgin, In ...

Maria Fernandez Coronel Agreda
Agreda, Maria Fernandez Coronel, Abbess Of, Known In Religion As Sor (sister) Maria De Jesus (1602-1665), Was Born At Agreda, On The Borders Of Navarre And Aragon, On April 2, 1602. All Her Family Were Powerfully Influenced By The Ecstatic Piety Of Spain In That Age. From Childhood She Ex ...

Maria Gaetana Agnesi
Agnesi, Maria Gaetana Italian Mathematician, Linguist And Philosopher, Was Born At Milan On May 16, 1718. She Was An Extremely Precocious Child. Her Father Was A Professor Of Mathematics. Maria Was Only Fourteen When She Began To Read A Series Of Theses On Philosophical Ques Tions To The Learned Men ...

Marianna Alcoforado
Alcoforado, Marianna (1640-1723), Writer Of The Letters Of A Portuguese Nun, Was The Daughter Of A Landed Proprietor In Alemtejo. She Made Her Profession As A Franciscan Nun At 16 Or Earlier, Without Any Real Vocation, And Lived A Routine Life In The Convent Of The Concepcion At Beja Until ...

Marie Catherine Sophie De
Agoult, Marie Catherine Sophie De Fla Vigny, Comtesse (1805-1876), French Author, Whose Nom De Plume Was "daniel Stern," Was Born At Frankfurt-on Main On Dec. 31, 1805. Her Father Was A French Officer Who Had Served In The Army Of The Emigrant Princes, And Her Mother Was The Daughter Of ...

Marie Madeleine De Wig
Aiguillon, Marie Madeleine De Wig Nerod Du Pont De Courlay, Duchesse D' (1604- 75), Daughter Of Cardinal Richelieu's Sister. In 162o She Mar Ried A Nephew Of The Constable De Luynes, Antoine De Beauvoir Du Roure, Sieur De Combalet, Who Died In 1622. In 1625, Through Her Uncle's Influence, She ...

Marietta Alboni
Alboni, Marietta (1823-1894), Italian Opera-singer, Was Born At Cesena, Romagna, And Studied At Bologna, Where She Became A Pupil Of Rossini. She Had A Magnificent Contralto Voice, And Made Her First Appearance At La Scala, Milan, In In England Her Reputation Was Established By Her- Appearance At Covent Garden In ...

Mariotto Albertinelli
Albertinelli, Mariotto , Italian Painter, Was Born In Florence, And Was A Fellow-pupil And Partner Of Fra Bartolommeo, With Whom He Painted Many Works. His Chief Paintings Are In Florence, Notably His Masterpiece, The "visitation Of The Virgin" At The Uffizi. ...

Mark Akenside
Akenside, Mark English Poet And Phys Ician, Was Born At Newcastle-on-tyne. He Was The Son Of A Butcher, And Was Slightly Lame All His Life From A Wound He Re Ceived As A Child From His Father's Cleaver. He Was Sent To Edinburgh To Study Theology With A View To ...

Mark Alexandrovich Aldanov
Aldanov, Mark Alexandrovich ), Russian Novelist And Publicist, Also Known As Landau-aldanov, Was Born At Kiev. His Most Considerable Work Is A Trilogy, The Thinker, In Which The French Revolution Is Treated With Learning, Understanding And Philosophy. He Also Discusses In Armageddon (1915) The World War, But Here Shows Himself ...

Mary Anderson
Anderson, Mary (1859– ), American Actress, Was Born In Sacramento (calif.), On July 28, 1859. Her Father, An Officer In The Confederate Service In The Civil War Died In 1863. She Was Educated In Various Roman Catholic Institutions, And At The Age Of 15, With The Advice Of Charlotte Cushman, ...

Mary Anning
Anning, Mary (1799-1847), English Fossil-collector, Was Born At Lyme Regis. When But A Child In 1811 She Discovered The First Specimen Of Ichthyosaurus Which Was Brought Into Scien Tific Notice; In 1821 She Found Remains Of A New Saurian, The Ple Siosaurus, And In 1828 She Procured, For The First ...

Mateo Aleman
Aleman, Mateo (i547-1609?), Spanish Novelist And Man Of Letters, Was Born At Seville. He Graduated At Seville Uni Versity In 1564, Studied Later At Salamanca And Alcala, And From 1571 To 1588 Held A Post In The Treasury; In 1594 He Was Arrested On Suspicion Of Malversation, But Was Speedily ...

Materials Used In Construction
Materials Used In Construction - Aeroplane Or Airplane. ...

Mathias De Albuquerque
Albuquerque, Mathias De (d. 1647), Portuguese General, Was Governor Of Pernambuco In 1624 And, After The Dutch Captured Bahia, Governor-general Of North Brazil. As Governor In Pernambuco Again, In 1629, He Had To Meet The Dutch Invasion Of That Province, And In 163o Was Forced To Surrender Olinda And The ...

Maude Adams
Adams, Maude ( 1 8 7 2– ), American Actress, Was Born In Salt Lake City, Utah, On Nov. I 1, 1872. The Family Name Was Kiskadden, But She Adopted The Maiden Name, Adams, Of Her Mother, An Actress. From An Early Age She Played Juvenile Parts, And At The ...

Maximilian Emmanuel Ainmuller
Ainmuller, Maximilian Emmanuel (1807 1870), German Artist And Glass-painter, Was Born At Munich On Feb. 14, 1807. In 1828 He Was Appointed Director Of The Newly Founded Royal Painted-glass Manufactory At Munich. The Method Which He Gradually Perfected There Was A Development Of The Enamel Process Adopted In The Renaissance, ...

Mechanical Advantage
Advantage, Mechanical. Mechanical Advantage Is Obtained By Using A Machine Which Exerts A Force Greater Than The Force Applied, And Is Expressed By The Ratio Force Obtained Force Applied "machine" Is Here Used In Its Widest Sense, The Simplest Form Be Ing The Lever. (see Mechanics.) ...

Mehemet Aali
Aali, Mehemet, Pasha ( I 815-1871), Turkish Statesman, Was Born At Constantinople, The Son Of A Government Official. He Was Ambassador In London And Then Foreign Minister Under Reshid Pasha. He Took Part In The Congress Of Vienna (1855) And In The Congress Of Paris (1856), And Was Five Times ...

Melchior Adam
Adam, Melchior (d. 1622), German Divine And Bio Grapher, Wrote Vitae Germanorum Philosophorum (heidelberg Frankfurt, 1615-2o). Pierre Bayle Acknowledges His Debt To This Work, Which Deals Principally With German Scholars Of The 16th Century. ...

Methods Employed And Experiments
Methods Employed And Experiments The Existing Law In Britain.—thepresent Law Relating To Experiments On Animals Was Passed In 1876. At That Time Bac Teriology Was In Its Infancy, Biochemistry Was Unborn And The Majority Of These Experiments Were Physiological. The Act, There Fore, Was Drafted With A View To Physiology. ...

Michel Adanson
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