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Encyclopedia Britannica

Volume 11, Part 1: Gunnery to Hydroxylamine

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Hackney
Hackney, A North-eastern Metropolitan Borough Of Lon Don, England, Hounded W. By Stoke Newington And Islington, And S. By Shoreditch, Bethnal Green And Poplar, And Extending N. And E. To The Boundary Of The County Of London. Pop. (1931), 215,380. In The 13th Century The Name Appears As Hackenaye Or ...

Hackney_2
Hackney, Originally A Riding-horse (from Fr. Haquenee, An Ambling Horse Or Mare, Especially For Ladies To Ride ; The Eng Lish "hack" Is Simply An Abbreviation). Now, However, The Hack Ney Is Bred For Driving As Well As Riding (see Horse: Breeds). From The Hiring-out Of Hackneys, The Word Came ...

Hadad
Hadad, The Name Of A Syrian Deity, Is Met With In The Old Testament As The Name Of Several Human Persons; It Also Occurs In Compound Forms Like Benhadad And Hadadezer. The Divinity Primarily Denoted By It Is The Storm-god Who Was Known As Addu Ramman. The Word Hadadrimmon (zechariah ...

Haddington
Haddington, Royal, Municipal And Police Burgh, Parish And County Town, East Lothian, Scotland. Pop. (1931) It Is Situated On The Tyne, 18 M. E. Of Edinburgh By The L.n.e.r. On The Right Bank Of The River Lies The Old Suburb Of Nungate, In Teresting As Having Contained The Giffordgate, Where ...

Haddock
Haddock (gadus Aeglefinus), A Fish Distinguished From Its Relative, The Cod, By The Smaller Mouth And The Blackish Lateral Line. From Iceland It Ranges Southward On Both Sides Of The Atlantic ; In The North Sea It Constitutes Nearly Half The Total Weight Of Fish Taken In The Trawl. It ...

Haddonfield
Haddonfield, A Borough Of Camden County, New Jersey, 6 M. S.e. Of Camden, On The Pennsylvania Railroad. The Population Was 5,646 In 1920 Native White) And Was 8,857 In 193o By The Federal Census. It Is A Residential Suburb, With Several Manufacturing Industries, Including Potteries And A Factory Making Nautical ...

Haderslev
Haderslev, A Town Of Denmark In The Province Of North Slesvig. Pop. (1925) 14,326. It Lies In A Valley On The Haders Leben Fjord, Which Is About 9 M. In Length, And Communicates With The Little Belt, And Is Also An Important Railway Junction. The Beautiful Church Of St. Mary ...

Hadhramaut
Hadhramaut, A Province On The South Coast Of Arabia, Bounded West By Yaman, East By Oman And North By The Great South Desert. Its Actual Limits Are Vague, But Are Generally Under Stood To Include The Mahra And Qara Country Between 51 ° And 56° E., Where The Desert And ...

Hadith
Hadith. The Name Given To A Compilation Of The Teachings And Life Of The Prophet Mohammed, Which With The Koran Forms The Supreme Authority On Matters Connected With The Moham Medan Religion And Legislation. This Enormous Literature Of Tra Ditions, Which Was Primarily Meant For Personal Guidance And Edification, Has ...

Hadleigh
Hadleigh, A Market Town In Suffolk, England ; 7o M. N.e. From London, The Terminus Of A Branch Of The L.n.e. Railway. Pop. Of Urban District (1931) 2,952. Hadleigh, Called By The Saxons Heapde-leag, Appears In Domesday Book As Hetlega. About 885 Aethelflaed, With The Consent Of Aethelred, Her Hus ...

Hadria
Hadria [mod. Atri (q.v.)], An Ancient Town Of Picenum, Belonging To The Praetuttii. It Became A Colony Of Rome In 290 B.c. And Remained Faithful To Rome. The Family Of Hadrian Came From Here. The Crypt Of The Cathedral Of The Modern Town Was Originally A Large Roman Cistern ; ...

Hadrian Publius Aelius Hadrianus
Hadrian (publius Aelius Hadrianus), Roman Emperor A.d. 117-138, Was Born On Jan. 24, A.d. 76, At Italica In Hispania Baetica, Where His Ancestors, Originally From Hadria In Picenum, Had Been Settled Since The Time Of The Scipios. On His Father's Death In 85 Or 86 He Was Placed Under The ...

Hadrians Wall
Hadrian's Wall, The Name Usually Given To The Remains Of The Roman Fortifications Which Defended The Northern Frontier Of The Roman Province Of Britain. It Extends From Wallsend On The Estuary Of The Tyne To Bowness On The Solway, Cir. 734 English Miles, And Was Erected By Order Of The ...

Hadrumetum
Hadrumetum, A Town Of Ancient Africa On The Southern Extremity Of The Sinus Neapolitanus (mod. Gulf Of Hammamet) On The East Coast Of Tunisia. The Site Is Partly Occupied By The Modern Town Of Susa (q.v.) . The Form Of The Name Hadrumetum Varied Much In Antiquity; The Greeks Called ...

Haematite Or Hematite
Haematite Or Hematite, A Mineral Consisting Of Ferric Oxide (corresponding To 7o% Of Iron). The Name Is Derived From The Gr. Aiµa, "blood," In Allusion To Its Typical Colour, Whence The Mineral Is Also Called Red Iron-ore. When Crystallized It Is Often Black; But The Powdered Mineral Shows The Characteristic ...

Haematocele
Haematocele, The Medical Term For A Localized Collec Tion Of Blood, Particularly In The Tunica Vaginalis Or Cord. It Is Usually The Result Of A Sudden Blow Or Severe Strain, But May Arise From Disease. At First It Forms A Smooth, Fluctuating, Opaque Swelling, But Later Becomes Hard And Firm. ...

Haemophilia
Haemophilia, The Medical Term For A Condition Of The Blood, Particularly Deficiency Of Blood Platelets, And Possibly Also Of The Vascular System, Often Running In Families, The Members Of Which Are Known As "bleeders," Characterized By A Disposition Towards Bleeding, Whether With Or Without The Provocation Of An Injury To ...

Haemorrhage
Haemorrhage, A General Term For An Escape Of Blood From A Blood-vessel (see Blood). It Commonly Results From In Jury, As The Tearing Or Cutting Of A Blood-vessel, But Certain Forms Result From Disease, As In Haemophilia, Scurvy, And Purpura. The Chief Varieties Of Haemorrhage Are Arterial, Venous, And Capillary. ...

Haemorrhoids Or Hemorrhoids
Haemorrhoids Or Hemorrhoids, Commonly Called Piles, Swellings Formed By The Dilatation Of Veins Of The Low Est Part Of The Bowel, Or Of Those Just Outside The Margin Of Its Aperture. The Former, Internal Piles, Are Covered By Mucous Mem Brane; The Latter, External Piles, Are Just Beneath The Skin. ...

Haemosporidia
Haemosporidia. Parasitic Single-celled Animals (pro Tozoa) Which Live In The Red Blood-corpuscles Of Vertebrates, And Gradually Destroy Them. We Find, Therefore, Among The Haemo Sporidia The Causes Of Many Maladies, Including The Organisms Which Cause The Various Kinds Of Malaria. (see Protozoa.) ...

Hafiz
Hafiz. Shams-ud-din Mohammed, Better Known By His Takhallus Or Nom De Plume Of Hafiz, One Of The Most Famous Writers Of Persian Lyrical Poetry, Was Born At Shiraz, The Capital Of Fars, In The Early Part Of The 8th Century Of The Mohammedan Era (c. A.d. 1300) . The Exact ...

Hafnium
Hafnium Is The Name Given By Its Danish Discoverers (d. Coster And G. Von Hevesy) To A Metallic Element Which Always Occurs In Close Association With Zirconium; Symbol Hf, Atomic Number 72, Atomic Weight 178.6. The Chemists, G. Urbain And A. Dauvillier, On The Grounds Of An Indication Of The ...

Haftara
Haftara (lit. Conclusion), The Second Or Prophetic Lesson (also Called Shelemta) Which Ended The Ancient Service. These Were Shorter In The Days Of Jesus (luke Iv. 16) Than At Present And Were Accompanied By Exegesis. A Spanish Translation Still Ac Companies The Haftara Of The Fast Of Ab In London. ...

Hag
Hag, A Word Common During The 16th And 17th Centuries For A Female Demon Or Evil Spirit, And So Particularly Applied To Harpies And Fairies Of Classical Mythology, And Also To Witches. (ger. Hexe, Fr. O.e. Haegtesse.) The Name Is Also Used Of An Eel-like Parasitic Fish, Myxine, Allied To ...

Hagen
Hagen, A Town Of Germany, In The Prussian Province Of Westphalia. Pop. (1933) 148,426. It Lies At The Confluence Of The Ennepe With The Volme, 15 M. N.e. Of Elberfeld, On The Main Line To Brunswick And Berlin, And At The Junction Of Important Railway Lines, Connecting It With The ...

Hagerstown
Hagerstown, A City Of Maryland, U.s.a., 72m. W.n.w. Of Baltimore, Near Antietam Creek; The County Seat Of Washington County. It Is On Federal Highways 11 And 4o, And Is Served By The Baltimore And Ohio, The Norfolk And Western, The Pennsylvania, And The Western Maryland Railways, And By Inter-urban Trolleys ...

Haggadah
Haggadah ("narrative"), Or `agada, And Halakhah ("conduct") Are Two Varieties Of Midrash (q.v.). The Former Constitutes The Poetical Element And The Latter The Legal, Though The Two Often Are Closely Connected. The Theory Of H. P. Chajes (markus-studien, 1899, P. I I) That Mark I. 22 ("he Taught In Parables ...

Haggai
Haggai, The Tenth In Order Of The "minor Prophets," Whose Writings Are Preserved In The Old Testament. The Book Contains Four Short Prophecies Delivered Between September And Decem Ber Of The Second Year Of Darius; That Is, Darius Hystaspis B.c.). The Language Of The Prophet In Ii. 3 Has Sug ...

Haggis
Haggis. A Dish Consisting Of A Calf's, Sheep's Or Other Ani Mal's Heart, Liver And Lungs, And Also Sometimes Of The Smaller Intestines, Boiled In The Stomach Of The Animal With Seasoning Of Pepper, Salt, Onions, Etc., Chopped Fine With Suet And Oatmeal. It Is Considered Peculiarly A Scottish Dish, ...

Hagiology
Hagiology, That Branch Of The Historical Sciences Which Is Concerned With The Lives Of The Saints (gr. Aywos, Saint, Xhyos, Discourse). If Hagiology Be Considered Merely In The Sense In Which The Term Has Come To Be Understood In The Later Stages Of Its Development, I.e., The Critical Study Of ...

Hagioscope
Hagioscope, In Architecture, Any Opening, Usually Oblique, Through The Side Or Front Walls Of A Church Chancel To Enable The Congregation In Transepts, Chapels Or Other Portions Of The Church, From Which The Altar Would Not Otherwise Be Visible, To Witness The Elevation Of The Host During Mass. Similar Openings ...

Hagonoy
Hagonoy, A Municipality (with 15 Barrios Or Districts) Of The Province Of Bulacan, Luzon, Philippine Islands, Near Manila Bay On The West Branch Of The Delta Of Pampanga River, About 25 M. N.w. Of Manila. It Was Founded In 1581. Pop. (1918) 22,49o. It Is In The Midst Of A ...

Hague Conferences
Hague Conferences, The Two International Confer Ences Held At The Hague In 1899 And 1907, And Known As Peace Conferences. Both Were Organized At The Instance Of The Emperor Nicholas Ii. Of Russia. The Chief Object Of The First Conference, As Set Out In The Note Of Count Mouraviev, The ...

Haguenau
Haguenau, A Town Of France, And Capital Of An Arron Dissement In The Department Of Bas-rhin, In The Middle Of The Haguenau Forest, On The Moder, And On The Railway From Strass Burg To Weissenburg, 1 O M. N.n.e. Of The Former City. Pop. (1930 14,573. Haguenau Owes Its Origin ...

Hai Phong
Hai-phong, A Seaport Of Tongking, French Indo-china, On The Cua-cam, A Branch Of The Song-koi (red River) Delta. Pop. 74,000. It Is Situated About 20 M. From The Gulf Of Tong King And 58 M. E. By S. Of Hanoi, With Which It Communicates By River And Canal And By ...

Hai
Hai (939—io38), Jewish Talmudical Scholar, Was Born In 939. He Was Educated By His Father Sherira, Gaon Of Pombeditha (pumbedita), Whom He Succeeded In This Office In 998. He Died On March 28, 1038. Hai Is Famous Chiefly For His Answers To Problems Of Ritual And Civil Law, In Which ...

Haibak
Haibak, A Town And Khanate In Afghan Turkistan Famed In Persian Legend. The Valley Of Haibak, Which Is Ft. Above Sea Level, Is Fertile And Richly Cultivated. The Inhabitants Call Them Selves Jagatais, A Turki Race, Though Now Generally Mixed With Tajiks And Speaking Persian. In The Neighbourhood Of Haibak ...

Haida
Haida, The Natives Of Queen Charlotte Islands, B.c. The Kaigani Are An 18th Century Offshoot On Prince Of Wales Island. With The Tlingit And Tsimshian, The Haida Constitute The Indians That Have Carried The Peculiar Native Culture Of The North Pacific Coast (q.v.) To Its Highest Pitch. Their Speech, Usually ...

Haidra
Haidra, The Ancient Ammadaera, A Village On The Frontier Between Tunisia And Algeria, 2om. S.w. Of Kalaa Djerda, The Terminus Of The Railway From Tunis, And The Loading Point For The Phosphates From The Quarries Of That Name. The Ruins Of Am Madaera, Where A Colony Of Veterans Was Established ...

Haiduk
Haiduk, A Term Probably Derived From The Turkish Haidiid, "marauder." The Haiduks Of Serbia And Bulgaria Were Political Outlaws And Guerrilla Champions Of Liberty; And The National Movement In These Countries Was First Led By Bands Of Haiduks. In Hungary The Name Was Applied To A Class Of Mercenary Foot ...

Haifa
Haifa, A City Of Palestine At The Foot Of Mt. Carmel And South Of The Bay Of Acre, Anc. Sycaminum. Haifa's Place In His Tory Is But Small. It Was Completely Overshadowed By Acre. The Modern Town Lies East Of The Old. With A Roadstead Free From Reefs And A ...

Haik
Haik, A Piece Of Cloth, Usually Of Coarse Hand-woven Wool, Worn By Arabs, Moors And Other Mohammedan Peoples (arabic Hak, To Weave). It Is Generally 6 To 64 Yd. Long, And About 2 Yd. Broad. It Is Either Striped Or Plain, And Is Worn Equally By Both Sexes, Usually As ...

Hail
Hail Is Frozen Raindrops, Though Hailstones Are Frequently Much Larger Than Any Single Raindrop Which Could Be Formed By Any Means. Rising Convection Currents, Consequent On Some Local Instability Of The Atmosphere, Result First In A Heavy Cloud— Usually Cumulonimbus In Type—and Then In Raindrops Which Are Carried Upwards And ...

Hailsham
Hailsham, A Market-town Of Sussex, England, 54 M. S.s.e. From London By The Southern Railway. Pop. (1921) 4,907. The Church Of St. Mary Is Perpendicular. The Augustinian Priory Of Michelham, 2 M. W. By The Cuckmere River, Is Altered Into A Dwelling House, But Retains A Gate-house, Crypt And Other ...

Hainaut
Hainaut, A Province Of Belgium, Based On The Ancient County Of Hainaut. There Are About I Io,000 Men And Women Employed In The Coal And Iron Mines, And About Io,000 In Iron And Steel Works. The Chief Towns Are Mons, The Capital, Char Leroi, Tournai, Soignies And Thuin. The Rivers ...

Hainburg
Hainburg, A Small Town In Lower Austria, On The Right Bank Of The Danube, A Short Distance Above Its Confluence With The Morava. This Is A Significant Site, Commanding The Passage Of The Danube Through The Porta Hungarica, Between The Little Carpa Thians And The Leitha Mountains, With A Record ...

Hainichen
Hainichen, A Town Of Germany, In The Land Of Saxony, On The Kleine Striegis, 15 M. N.e. Of Chemnitz, On The Railway To Rosswein. Pop. (192 5) 7,809. Its Chief Manufacture Is Flan Nels, Baize, And Similar Fabrics. The Special Whiteness And Excel Lence Of The Flannel Made In Hainichen ...

Hair Tail
Hair-tail (trichiurus), A Marine Fish With A Long Band Like Body Terminating In A Thread-like Tail, And With Strong Promi Nent Teeth In Both Jaws. Several Species Are Known. ...

Hair
Hair, A Word Common To Teutonic Languages ; The General Term For The Characteristic Outgrowth Of The Epidermis Forming The Coat Of Mammals. The Word Is Also Applied By Analogy To The Filamentous Outgrowths From The Body Of Insects, Etc., Plants, And Metaphorically To Anything Of Like Appearance. For Anatomy, ...

Hajji Khalifa
Hajji Khalifa (mustafa Ibn `abdallah Katib Chelebi Haj Ji Khalifa) (c. ' 599-1658), Arabic And Turkish Author, Was Born At Constantinople. He Became Secretary To The Commis Sariat Department Of The Turkish Army In Anatolia, Was With The Army In Baghdad In 1625 And Was Present At The Siege Of ...

Hajji
Hajji (arabic, "pilgrim"), One Who Makes The Hajj Or Greater Pilgrimage To Mecca, From The 8th To The Loth Of The Twelfth Month Of The Muhammadan Year. The Lesser Pilgrimage, Called `umrah, May Be Made To The Mosque At Mecca At Any Time Other Than That Of The Hajj Proper, ...

Hake
Hake (merluccius Merluccius), A Fish Of The Mediterranean And The Atlantic Coast Of Europe, Most Abundant South Of The British Isles. It Differs From Other Fishes Of The Cod Family In Skeletal Characters, And Is, Perhaps, Best Placed In A Separate Family. It Is A Slender Fish, With Long, Acute ...

Hakkas
Hakkas ("guests," Or "strangers"), A People Of S.w. China, Chiefly Found In Kwang-tung, Fu-kien And Formosa. Their Origin Is Doubtful. They May Be Related To The Burmese And Siamese. According To Their Tradition, They Were In Shantung And Northern China As Early As The 3rd Century B.c. In Disposition, Appearance ...

Hako Niwa
Hako-niwa (box-garden Or Box-yard) Is A Kind Of Bon-tei Or Bon-kei (q.v.) Generally Acknowledged To Be A Development Of Hako-niwa. It Is Therefore Sometimes Difficult To Distinguish Them. Hako-niwa Is A Small Landscape Garden In A Wooden Box, Which Nowadays Is Often Replaced By A More Durable Concrete With One ...

Hakodate
Hakodate, A Town On The South Of The Island Of Yezo, Japan, For Many Years Regarded As The Capital Of The Island Until Sapporo Was Officially Raised To That Rank. Pop. (1930) The Town Is Built Along The North-western Base Of A Rocky Promon Tory (1,157 Ft. In Height) Which ...

Hal
Hal, A Town Of Brabant, Belgium, About Xo M. S.w. Of Brus Sels, Situated On The River Senne And The Charleroi Canal. Pop. (1930) 17,408. The Church Of Notre Dame, Formerly Dedicated To St. Martin Is A Good Example Of Pure Gothic, Begun In 1341 And Finished In 1409. Its ...

Hala
Hala, A Town Of British India In Hyderabad District, Sind. Pop. (1931) 5,757. It Has Long Been Famous For Its Glazed Pottery And Tiles, Made From A Fine Clay Obtained From The Indus, Mixed With Powdered Flints. ...

Halaesa
Halaesa, An Ancient Town On The North Coast Of Sicily, About 14 M. E. Of Cephaloedium (cefalu), To The East Of The Modern Castel Di Tusa, Founded In 403 B.c. By Archonides, Tyrant Of Herbita, Whose Name It Sometimes Bore. It Was The First Town To Surrender To The Romans ...

Halberd Or Halbard Halbert
Halbert, Halberd Or Halbard, A Weapon Con Sisting Of An Axe-blade Balanced By A Pick And Having An Elongated Pike-head At The End Of The Staff, Which Was Usually About 5 Or 6ft. In Length. The Utility Of Such A Weapon In The Wars Of The Later Middle Ages Was ...

Halberstadt
Halberstadt, A Town In The Prussian Province Of Saxony, 56 M. By Rail N.w. Of Halle, And 29 S.w. Of Magdeburg. It Lies In A Fertile Country North Of The Harz Mountains, On The Holzemme, At The Junction Of Railways To Halle, Goslar And Thale. Pop. 50, 208. The History ...

Halden
Halden, A Town In The County Of Ostfold In The South Of Norway. It Is Situated At The Mouth Of The River Tista Near The Border Of Sweden. Pop. (193o), 10,278. In Early Times There Existed A Settlement Called Halden On The Same Site. This Settle Ment Gained Its Charter ...

Halebid
Halebid, A Village In Mysore State, Southern India. It Is The Site Of Dorasamudra, The Capital Of The Hoysala Dynasty Founded Early In The I 1 Th Century. In 13 1 O And In 1326 It Was Plundered By The First Mohammedan Invader Of South India. Two Temples, Still Standing, ...

Halesowen
Halesowen, Market Town, Stourbridge Parliamentary Division, Worcestershire, England, On The G.w. And L.m.s. Railways 61 M. S.w. Of Birmingham. Pop. (1921) 4,126. There Are Exten Sive Iron And Steel Manufactures. The Church Of Ss. Mary And John The Baptist Has Rude Norman Portions. There Are A Grammar School (165 2) ...

Half Beak
Half-beak, A Group Of Fishes Consisting Of Several Species Belonging To The Family Hemiramphidae, Distinguished From The Needlefish, Which They Closely Resemble By The Shortness Of The Upper Jaw, Whence They Take Their Name. The Half-beak Is A Small Attractively Coloured Fish Native To The Coasts Of Tropical Countries. An ...

Half Stock
Half Stock, In The United States A Name Often Applied To Shares Of Stock Which Have A Par Value Of $5o, Because Most Shares Of Stock Have A Par Value Of $too, Which Is Considered The Unit Of Value. The Name Does Not In Any Way Imply That One Is ...

Half Timber Work
Half-timber Work, In Architecture, A Type Of Con Struction In Which The Spaces Between Structural Timber Members, Such As Posts, Girts, Beams, Braces, Etc., Are Filled In With Lath And Plaster, Wattle And Daub, Or Brick Work, Leaving The Structural Members Exposed To View, Either Outside Or In. Half-timber Work ...

Halibut
Halibut (hippoglossius Vulgaris), The Largest Of The Flat Fishes, Reaching A Length Of Io Feet. It Is Found In The North Atlantic And North Pacific, And Extends Into The Arctic Ocean, But Is Not Certainly Circumpolar. The Eyes Are On The Right Side, And The Mouth Is Large ; The ...

Halicarnassus
Halicarnassus (mod. Budrum), An Ancient Greek City On The South-west Coast Of Caria, Asia Minor, On The Ceramic Gulf Or Gulf Of Cos. It Originally Occupied Only The Small Island Of Zephyria Close To The Shore (which Now Has The Great Castle Of St. Peter, Built By The Knights Of ...

Halicz
Halicz, A Small Town Of Galicia, Poland, 7o M. By Rail S.s.e. Of Lwow (lemberg). It Is Situated At The Confluence Of A Small Stream With The Dniester. In The Neighbourhood Are The Ruins Of The Old Castle, The Seat Of The Ruler Of The Former King Dom From Which ...

Halifax
Halifax, A City And Port Of Entry, Capital Of The Province Of Nova Scotia, Canada. It Is Situated In 44° 38' N. And 35' W., On The South-east Coast Of The Province, On A Fortified Hill, 225 F T. In Height, Which Slopes Down To The Waters Of Chebucto Bay, ...

Halifax_2
Halifax, A Municipal County And Parliamentary Borough In The West Riding Of Yorkshire, England, 194 M. N.n.w. From London And 7 M. S.w. From Bradford, On The L.n.e. And L.m.s. Railways. Pop. (1931), 98,122. It Lies In A Bare Hilly District On The Hebble, Near Its Confluence With The Calder. ...

Hall Or
Hall Or Is A Small Spa, Of About 1,40o Inhabit Ants, On A Tributary Of The River Krems, Upper Austria. Local Saline Springs Rich In Bromides And Iodides, Though Long Known, Have Grown In Popularity Since 1855 When They Became The Prop Erty Of The Government And A Large New ...

Hall
Hall (generally Known As Schwxbisch-hall, To Distinguish It From The Small Town Of Hall In Tirol And Bad-hall, A Health Resort In Upper Austria), A Town Of Germany, In The Land Of Wurttemberg, Situated On The Kocher, And On The Railway From Heilbronn To Krailsheim, 35 M. N.e. Of Stuttgart. ...

Halle
Halle (known As Halle-an-der-saale, To Distinguish It From The Small Town Of Halle In Westphalia), A Town In The Prus Sian Province Of Saxony, Situated In A Sandy Plain On The Right Bank Of The Saale, Which Here Divides Into Several Arms, 21 M. N.w. From Leipzig By The Railway ...

Halleflinta
Halleflinta (a Swedish Word Meaning Rock-flint), A White, Grey, Yellow, Greenish Or Pink, Fine-grained Rock Consisting Of An Intimate Mixture Of Quartz And Felspar. Many Examples Are Banded Or Striated; Others Contain Porphyritic Crystals Of Quartz Which Resemble Those Of The Felsites And Porphyries. Mica, Iron Oxides, Apatite, Zircon, Epidote ...

Hallel
Hallel, A Jewish Liturgical Term, Including "the Great Hallel" Or Ps. Cxxxvi. And "the Egyptian Hallel," Ps. Cxiii.-cxviii., Possibly So-called Because Of Ps. Cxiv. (hebrew "praise," Cf . Halle Luiah "praise Ye Jah," Cognate To Arabic Root Hallala, To Sing Praises At The New Moon Or Hildl). According To The ...

Halloween Or All Hallows
Hallowe'en Or All Hallows Eve, The Name Given To Oct. 31, As The Vigil Of Hallowmas Or All Saints' Day, Now Chiefly Known As The Eve Of The Christian Festival. It Long Antedates Christianity. The Two Chief Characteristics Of Ancient Hallowe'en Were The Lighting Of Bonfires And The Belief That ...

Hallstatt
Hallstatt. The First Iron Age Of Central And Western Europe And The Balkans Is Known As The Hallstatt Period After The Place Of That Name In Upper Austria. It Is Not The Cradle Of The Earliest Iron Age Culture, But The Site Where Objects Char Acteristic Of It Were First ...

Hallucination
Hallucination, A Psychological Term Which Has Been The Subject Of Much Controversy, And To Which, Although There Is Now Fair Agreement As To Its Denotation, It Is Still Impossible To Give A Precise And Entirely Satisfactory Definition (from Lat. Alucinari Or Allucinari, To Wander In Mind, Gr. Awoaav Or Qxoav, ...

Halluin
Halluin, A Frontier Town Of Northern France, In The De Partment Of Nord, Near The Lys, 14 M. N. By E. Of Lille By Rail. Pop. 13,588. The Family Of Halluin, Which Became Extinct In The 14th Century, Is Mentioned In The I3th Century. Halluin Has A Gothic Church. The ...

Hall_2
Hall, A Large, Undivided Room ; Also An Entrance Room Or Passageway Affording Communication To Other Parts Of A Building. Originally The Word Was Limited To The Chief Room Of A Feudal House Or Castle, And Was Applied Even To The Entire Building, Probably Because In Early North Europe The ...

Halma
Halma (greek For "jump"), A Table Game, Invented In 1883 By George H. Monks, Of Boston, Massachusetts. It Is Played On A Board Divided Into 256 Squares, With Wooden Men Resembling Chess Pawns. In The Two-handed Game 19 Men Are Employed On Each Side, Coloured Respectively Black And White; In ...

Halmaheira
Halmaheira ("great Land"; Also Jilolo Or Gilolo), An Island Of The Dutch East Indies, Belonging To The Residency Of Ternate, Lying Under The Equator And About 128° E. Its Shape Is Extremely Irregular, Resembling That Of The Island Of Celebes. It Consists Of Four Peninsulas So Arranged As To Enclose ...

Halmstad
Halmstad, A Seaport Of Sweden, Chief Town Of The District (lan) Of Halland, On The East Shore Of The Cattegat, 76 M. S.s.e. Of Gothenburg By The Railway To Helsingborg. Pop. (1925) 23,171. Mention Of The Church Of Halmstad Occurs As Early As 1462, And The Fortifications Are Mentioned First ...

Halo
Halo, In Physical Science A Luminous Circle, With Various Auxiliary Features, Surrounding The Sun Or Moon. The Word Is Derived From The Greek &xcws, A Threshing-floor And Used To Denote The Disc Of The Sun Or Moon, Probably On Account Of The Circular Path Traced Out By The Oxen Threshing ...

Halogens
Halogens. This Term Is Applied To Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine And Iodine, On Account Of The Great Similarity Of Their Sodium Salts To Ordinary Sea-salt (gr. &xs, Salt, And Yevi' V, To Produce). These Four Elements Show A Great Resemblance To One Another In Their General Chemical Behaviour, And In That ...

Halophytes
Halophytes, A General Name Used In Botany To Denote Plants Growing In Salt Marshes And Similar Environments With A High Salt Content. Such Plants Show Adaptations For Conservation Of Water. (see Plants.) ...

Halstead
Halstead, Market-town, Consisting Of Urban And Rural Parish, In Saffron Walden Parliamentary Division Of Essex, England, On The Colne, 17 M. N.n.e. From Chelmsford. Pop. (1931) 5,878. The Church Of St. Andrew Is Mainly Perpendicular. The Grammar School Dates From 1594. There Are Large Silk And Crape Works. Two Miles ...

Halt
Halt. Lame, Crippled; Also A Verb Meaning To Limp. "string Halt" Or "spring-halt" Is A Nervous Disorder Affecting The Muscles Of The Hind Legs Of Horses. ...

Haluntium
Haluntium, An Ancient City Of Sicily (gr. 'aaovrcov, Mod. S. Marco D'alunzio), 6 M. From The North Coast And 25 M. E.n.e. Of Halaesa. It Was Probably Of Sicel Origin, Though Its Foundation Was Ascribed To Some Of The Companions Of Aeneas. It Suffered Considerably At The Hands Of Verres. ...

Ham
Ham Is The Name Of Noah's Second Son. It Is True That, Con Trary To The Prevailing Tradition, He Appears In Gen. Ix. 24 As The Youngest Of Noah's Three Sons, But Close Examination Of This Story Makes It Clear That Here The Name Ham Has Replaced An Original Canaan. ...

Hama
Hama, An Ancient Hittite City, Built On Both Banks Of The Orontes, Now A Centre Of Commerce For The Bedouin : Pop. 51,000 (about 6,000 Christians). The Citadel Hill, Which Is Partly Arti Ficial, Rises To A Height Of About 130 Feet. European Competition Has Seriously Affected The Silk, Woollen ...

Hamadan
Hamadan, A Province And Town Of Persia. The Province Is Bounded North By Kazvin And Khamseh, West By Kermanshah, South By Malayer And Iraq And East By Tehran Provinces. It Has Many Well Watered Plains Producing Much Grain. Before The World War There Were Extensive Plantations Of Trees But Much ...

Hamadhani Abti L Fadl Ahmad
Hamadhani [abti-l Fadl Ahmad Ibn Ul-husain Ul Hamadhani] (967-1007), Arabian Writer, Known As Badi` Uz Zaman (the Wonder Of The Age), Was Born And Educated At Hamadhan. After 990 He Travelled In Jorjan, Nishapur, Khorasan And Sijistan, And Finally Settled In Herat Under The Protection Of The Vizir Of Mahmud, ...

Hamandryas
Hamandryas (papio Hymandryas), A Name For The Sacred Baboon Of The Ancient Egyptians, Inhabiting Arabia And Abyssinia. (see Baboon, Primates.) ...

Hamar Or Storehammer Great
Hamar Or Storehammer (great Hamar), A Town Of Norway In Hedemarken Amt (county), 78 M. By Rail N. Of Oslo. Pop. , It Is Pleasantly Situated Between Two Bays Of Lake Mjosen, And Is The Junction Of The Railways To Trondhjem And To Otta In Gudbrandsdal. The Existing Town Was ...

Hamburg
Hamburg, A State Of Germany, On The Lower Elbe, Bounded By The Prussian Provinces Of Schleswig-holstein And Hanover. The Whole Territory Has An Area Of 16o Sq.m., And Consists Of The City Of Hamburg With Its Incorporated Suburbs And The Surround Ing District, Including Several Islands In The Elbe, Five ...

Hamburg_2
Hamburg, A Seaport Of Germany, The Capital Of The Land Of Hamburg, On The Right Bank Of The Northern Arm Of The Elbe, 75 M. From Its Mouth At Cuxhaven And 178 M. N.w. From Berlin By Rail, Is The Largest Seaport On The Continent Of Europe. Pop. 1,079,126. In ...

Hamdani Abu Mohammed Ibn
Hamdani [abu Mohammed Ibn Ahmad Ibn Ya`qub Ul-hamdan'i] (d. 945), Arabian Geographer, Belonged To A Family Of Yemen. He Was Held In Repute As A Grammarian And Poet. He Compiled Astronomical Tables, Devoted Himself To The Ancient History And Geography Of Arabia, And Died In Prison At Santa In 945. ...

Hameg
Hameg, The Arabic Name Of Peoples Of Dar Fung Province, But Little, If At All, Islamized And Speaking Non-arabic Languages. The Province Of Dar Fung, Representing The Southern Part Of The Old Kingdom Of Sennar And Having Abyssinia As Its Eastern Neigh Bour, Is Inhabited By Arabs In Its Northern ...