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Encyclopedia Britannica

Volume 12, Part 1: Hydrozoa to Epistle of Jeremy

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Hysteresis
Hysteresis. If An Unmagnetized Iron Bar Be Subjected To A Gradually Increasing Magnetizing Force, And The Sponding Values Of The Magnetic Induction (flux Density) In The Iron Be Determined, Then On Plotting The Magnetizing Force Against The Induction A Curve Obc Is Obtained. If Now The Netizing Force Is Gradually ...

Hysteria
Hysteria, A Term Applied To A Mental Affection Which Occurs Usually In Individuals Of Neurotic And Unstable Constitu Tions. It Is Manifested By An Undue Susceptibility To External Impressions, Emotional Episodes, And Marked Sensory, Psychic And Motor Disturbance. Though Classed Among So-called "nerv Ous" Diseases, It Is Functional In Origin, ...

Hythe
Hythe, A Market Town And Watering-place, One Of The Cinque Ports, And A Municipal Borough Of Kent, England, 67 M. S.e. By E. Of London On A Branch Of The S.r. Pop. (1931) It Is Situated Near The Eastern Extremity Of Romney Marsh, About Half A Mile From The Sea, ...

Iacandones
Iacandones, An Indian Tribe Belonging To The Maya Quiche Stock. They Occupy The Tributary Streams West Of The Usumacintla River In Chiapas, Mexico. Their Tongue Is Closely Re Lated To The Maya Of Yucatan. Living In Scattered Family Groups, Their Total Number To-day Is Only A Few Hundred. Formerly, How ...

Iambic
Iambic, A Verse Or Succession Of Verses Composed Wholly Or Principally Of The Foot Called An Iambus (v —) . It Is Generally Described By A Compound Name Consisting Of A Greek Numeral And The Word Metron, Signifying A Group Of Two Iambi; As, Iambic Dimeter, A Line Consisting Of ...

Iamblichus
Iamblichus (d. C. A.d. 33o), The Chief Representative Of Syrian Neoplatonism, Was Born At Chalcis In Coele-syria Of An Illustrious Family. He Studied Under Porphyry In Rome, And Later Taught In Syria. Although His Commentaries On Plato And Aris Totle, And Works On The Chaldaean Theology And On The Soul, ...

Iamblichus_2
Iamblichus, Of Syria, The Earliest Of The Greek Romance Writers, Flourished In The End Century A.d. He Was The Author Of L3vxwvtarcer, Ba The Loves Of Rhodanes And Sinonis, Of Which An Epitome Is Preserved In Photius (cod. 94). Only A Few Fragments Have Been Preserved. According To Suidas Iamblichus ...

Iapetus
Iapetus, In Greek Mythology, Son Of Uranus And Ge, One Of The Titans, Father Of Atlas, Prometheus, Epimetheus, And Menoetius (hesiod, Theog. 507). As A Punishment For Having Revolted Against Zeus, He Was Imprisoned In Tartarus (homer, Iliad, Viii. 479) Or Underneath The Island Of Inarime Off The Coast Of ...

Iapydes
Iapydes (i-ahp'-ii-das) Or Iapodes, One Of The Three Chief Peoples Of Roman Illyria. They Occupied The Interior Of The Country On The North Between The Arsia And Tedanius, Which Separated Them From The Liburnians. Their Territory Formed Part Of The Modern Croatia. A Mixed Race Of Celts And Illyrians, Who ...

Iatrochemistry
Iatrochemistry (coined From Gr. I Arpos, A Physician, And "chemistry") , A Stage In The History Of Chemistry, During Which The Object Of This Science Was Held To Be "not To Make Gold But To Prepare Medicines." This Doctrine Dominated Chemical Thought During The I6th Century, Its Foremost Supporters Being ...

Iazyges
Iazyges (i-ahz'ii-gas), Sarmatian Tribe On The Maeotis, Allies Of Mithridates The Great (q.v.). Moving Westward Across Scythia, They Were On The Lower Danube By The Time Of Ovid, And About A.d. 50 Occupied The Plains East Of The Theiss. Here, Under The General Name Of Sarmatae, They Were A Perpetual ...

Ibadan
Ibadan, A Town Of British West Africa, In Yorubaland, Southern Nigeria, 123 M. By Rail North-east Of Lagos, And About 5o M. North-east Of Abeokuta. Ibadan Is The Largest Negro City In Africa, Having An Urban Population Of Over 17 5,000, And With Its Farm Suburbs, 387,133 Inhabitants. It Occupies ...

Ibans Sea Dayaks
Ibans (sea Dayaks). Mostly In The South-west Of Borneo, But Scattered, On Account Of Their Migratory Habits, Over Various Parts, Usually Not Far From The Coast, Are The Ibans, Who May Be Described As A Butterfly People. The Word Iban, Or Ivan, Meaning "wanderer," Was Applied To Them By The ...

Iberians
Iberians, An Ancient People Inhabiting Parts Of The Spanish Peninsula. The Name Was Applied By The Earlier Greek Navigators To The Peoples Who Inhabited The Eastern Coast Of Spain; Originally Those Who Dwelt By The River Iberus (mod. Ebro). The River's Name Itself May Represent The Basque Phrase Ibay-erri, "the ...

Ibex
Ibex, The Alpine Wild Goat, Capra Ibex. Formerly Common In The Alps, The Ibex Is Now Confined To The Gran Paradiso Range In The Neighbourhood Of Cogne, And To The Swiss National Park In The Engadine. It Measures About 4 Ft. In Length And Stands About 4oin. At The Shoulder. ...

Ibis
Ibis, One Of The Sacred Birds Of Ancient Egypt, Ibis Aethiopica. The Myth Of The Ibis Is Explained By Renouf In His Hibbert Lec Tures. The Ibis Inhabits The Nile Basin From Dongola Southward, As Well As Kordofan And Sennar. It Arrives In Egypt In Summer, Disappearing Again As The ...

Iblis
Iblis, In Muslim Mythology The Counterpart Of The Christian And Jewish Devil. He Figures Oftener In The Qur'an Under The Name Shaytan, Iblis Being Mentioned 11 Times, Whereas Shaytan Appears In 87 Passages. Iblis Rebelled Against Allah And Was Expelled From Paradise But Was Afterwards Respited Till The Judg Ment ...

Ibn Abd Rabbihi
Ibn `abd Rabbihi (abu `umar Ahmad Ibn Mohammed Ibn `abd Rabbihi) (860-940), Arabian Poet, Was Born In Cordova. He Enjoyed A Great Reputation For Learning And Eloquence. No Diwan Of His Is Extant, But Many Selections From His Poems Are Given In The Yatimat Ud-dalir, I. 412-436 (damascus, 1887). His ...

Ibn Arabi
Ibn `arabi [muhyiuddin Abu `abdallah Ibn Ul-`arabi] Muslim Theologian And Mystic, Was Born In Murcia And Educated In Seville. When Thirty-eight He Travelled In Egypt, Arabia, Baghdad, Mosul And Asia Minor, After Which He Lived In Damascus For The Rest Of His Life. In Law He Was A Zahirite, In ...

Ibn Athir
Ibn Athir, The Family Name Of Three Brothers, All Famous In Arabian Literature, Born At Jazirat Ibn `umar In Kurdistan. The Eldest Brother, Majd Ud-din (1149-1210), Was Long In The Service Of The Amir Of Mosul. His Dictionary Of Traditions (kitdb Un-nihaya) Was Published At Cairo (1893), And His Dictionary ...

Ibn Duraid
Ibn Duraid (abu Bakr Mohammed Ibn Ul-hasan Ibn Duraid Ul-azdi) (837-934), Arabian Poet And Philologist, Was Born At Basra Of South Arabian Stock, But Fled In 871 To Oman At The Time Basra Was Attacked By The Negroes, Known As The Zanj, Under Muhallabi. In 883 He Went To Persia, ...

Ibn Faradi
Ibn Faradi `abdallah Ibn Ul-faradi) (962 1012 ), Arabian Historian, Was Born At Cordova And Studied Law And Tradition. In 992 He Made The Pilgrimage And Proceeded To Egypt And Kairawan. After His Return In 1009 He Became Cadi In Valencia, And Was Killed At Cordova When The Berbers Took ...

Ibn Farid
Ibn Farid `umar Ibn Ul-farid) (1181-1235) Arabian Poet, Was Born In Cairo, Lived For Some Time In Mecca And Died In Cairo. His Poetry Is Entirely Sufic, And He Was Es Teemed The Greatest Mystic Poet Of The Arabs. His Diwan Was Published With Commentary At Beirut, 1887, Etc. ; ...

Ibn Gabirol Solomon Ben
Ibn Gabirol (solomon Ben Judah, Or Avicebron And Avencebrol To The Schoolmen) (c. 1021—c. 1058-1070), Jewish Poet And Philosopher, Was Born At Malaga. His Early Years Were Spent At Saragossa, Where He Came Under The Protection Of Samuel Ha-nagid, The Well Known Patron Of Learning. At The Age Of 16 ...

Ibn Haukal
Ibn Haukal, Strictly Ibn Hauqal, A Loth Century Arabian Geographer. Nothing Is Known Of His Life. His Work On Geog Raphy, Written In 977, Is Only A Revision And Extension Of The Masalik Id-mamalik Of Al-istakhri Who Wrote In 951. This Itself Was A Revised Edition Of The Kitab Id-ash/ea ...

Ibn Hazm
Ibn Hazm (abu Mohammed `ali Ibn Ahmad Ibn Hazm) Moslem Theologian, Was Born In A Suburb Of Cor Dova. He Studied History, Law And Theology, And Became A Vizier As His Father Had Been Before Him, But Was Deposed For Heresy, And Spent The Rest Of His Life Quietly In ...

Ibn Hisham
Ibn Hisham (abu Mohammed `abdulmalik Ibn Hisham Ibn Ayyub Ul-himyari) (d. 834), Arabian Biographer, Studied In Kufa But Lived Afterwards In Fostat (old Cairo), Where He Gained A Name As A Grammarian And Student Of Language And History. His Chief Work Is His Edition Of Ibn Ishaq's (q.v.) Life Of ...

Ibn Ishaq
Ibn Ishaq (mohammed Ibn Ishaq Abu `abdallah) (d. 768), Arabic Historian, Lived In Medina, Where He Interested Himself To Such An Extent In The Details Of The Prophet's Life That He Was Accused Of Rationalism. He Consequently Left Medina In 733, And Went To Alexandria, Then To Kufa And Hira, ...

Ibn Jubair
Ibn Jubair [abu-1 Husain Mahommed Ibn Ahmad Ibn Jubair] (1145-1217), Arabian Geographer, Was Born In Valencia. At Granada He Studied The Koran, Tradition, Law And Literature, And Later Became Secretary To The Mohad Governor Of That City. During This Time He Composed Many Poems. In 1183 He Left The Court ...

Ibn Khaldun
Ibn Khaldun (abu Zaid Ibn Mohammed Ibn Mohammed Ibn Khaldun) (133 2-1406), Arabic Historian, Was Born At Tunis. In 1352 He Entered The Service Of The Marinid Sultan Abu Ivan (faris I.) At Fez, But In 1356, His Integrity Having Been Suspected, He Was Imprisoned For Two Years. Later, Having ...

Ibn Khallikan
Ibn Khallikan `abbas Ahmad Ibn Khallikan] (1211-1282), Arabian Biographer, Was Born At Arbela. When Eighteen He Went To Aleppo, Where He Studied For Six Years, Then To Damascus, And In 1238 To Alexandria And Cairo. In 1261 He Became Chief Cadi Of Syria In Damascus, From 1271 To 1278, He ...

Ibn Qutaiba Or Kotaiba
Ibn Qutaiba Or Kotaiba [abu Mohammed Ibn Mus Lim Ibn Qutaiba] (828-889), Arabian Writer, Was Born At Baghdad Or Kufa, And Was Of Iranian Descent. He Became Cadi In Dinawar And Afterwards Teacher In Baghdad, Where He Died. He Was The First Representative Of The Eclectic School Of Baghdad Philologists ...

Ibn Sad
Ibn Sad [abu `abdallah Mohammed Ibn Sa`d Ibn Mani' Uz-zuhri, Often Called Katib Ul-waqidi ("secretary Of Waqidi") Of Basra] (d. 845), Arabian Biographer, Lived Chiefly In Baghdad. His Kitab Ul-tabaqat Ul-kabir (15 Vols.) Contains The Lives Of Mahomet, His Companions And Helpers And Of The Following Generation. It Has Been ...

Ibn Saud Or Abdul
Ibn Sa'ud Or 'abdul 'aziz Ibn 'abdulrah Man Ibn Faisal Ibn Sa'ud, Was Born At Riyadh, Cap Ital Of Nejd, About 1880. His Father, 'abdulrahman (d. 1928), Was The Youngest Of The Four Sons Of The Amir Faisal, Sultan Of Nejd From 1834 To 1867. The Latter's Death Had Plunged ...

Ibn Tibbon
Ibn Tibbon, A Family Of Jewish Translators, Who Flourished In Provence In The 12th And 13th Centuries. They Rendered Into Hebrew The Chief Arabic Writings Of The Jews In The Middle Ages. These Hebrew Translations Were, In Their Turn, Rendered Into Latin (by Buxtorf And Others) And In This Way ...

Ibn Tufail Or Tofail
Ibn Tufail Or Tofail [abu Bakr Mohammed Ibn `abd-ul-malik Ibn Tufail Ul-qaisi (or To The Schoolmen, Abuba Cer)] (d. 1185), Moslem Philosopher, Was Born At Guadix Near Granada. He Was Skilled In Philosophy, Mathematics And Medi Cine, And Was A Friend Of Averroes. He Became Secretary To The Governor Of ...

Ibn Usaibia Muwaffaquddin Abu L Abbas
Ibn Usaibi'a (muwaffaquddin Abu-l-`abbas Ahmad Ibn Ul-qasim Ibn Abi Usaibi`a) (1203-127o), Arabian Physi Cian, Was Born At Damascus, The Son Of An Oculist, And Studied Medicine At Damascus And Cairo. In 1236 He Was Appointed By Saladin Physician To A New Hospital In Cairo, But Resigned In 1237 To Serve ...

Ibo
Ibo. A Southern Nigerian Tribe Comprising 33 Sub-tribes, Inhabiting The Provinces Of Benin, Ogoja, Onitsha, Owerri And Warri, Whose Language Is Related To Ibibio. The Ibo On The West Of The Niger Were Long Subject To The Edo : The Rest Lived In Inde Pendent Towns Or Villages Under A ...

Ibrahim Al Mausili
Ibrahim Al-mausili (742-804), Arabian Singer, Was Born Of Persian Parents Settled In Kufa. In His Early Years His Parents Died And He Was Trained By An Uncle. Singing, Not Study, Attracted Him, And At The Age Of Twenty-three He Fled To Mosul, Where He Joined A Band Of Wild Youths. ...

Ibrahim
Ibrahim (d. 1536), Grand Vizier Of Turkey, Was The Son Of A Sailor At Parga, Was Sold Into Slavery, And Was Bought By The Sultan, Solyman Ii., Who Made Him His Grand Vizier And Married Him To His Own Sister. Ibrahim, Says A Venetian Record, Was "the Heart And Breath ...

Ibycus
Ibycus, Of Rhegium In Italy, Greek Lyric Poet, Contemporary Of Anacreon, Flourished In The 6th Century B.c. He Lived A Wan Dering Life, And Spent A Considerable Time At The Court Of Poly Crates, Tyrant Of Samos. Plutarch (de Garrulitate, Xiv.) Preserves The Legend Of His Death. Attacked By Robbers, ...

Ica
Ica, A Coast Department Of Southern Peru, Bounded On The North By The Department Of Lima, East By Huancavelica And Ayacucho, South By Arequipa, West By The Pacific. It Includes The Western Slopes Of The Cordillera And Desert Coast Zone, A Barren Waste Except For Fertile, Irrigated Valleys Of The ...

Ice Cream
Ice-cream. A Name Applied To A Great Variety Of Frozen Compounds, Ranging From A Cheap Mixture Of Custard Powder, Water Or Milk, Sugar, Flavouring And Colouring Matter, To Real Cream Compounds, Souffles And Parfaits, Water Ices And "sorbets," Ice-cream Blocks, Etc. Ice-cream Making Is An Important Branch Of The Confectionery ...

Ice Hockey
Ice Hockey, A Game Dating Probably From The I8th Cen Tury. In The Mid-victorian Age The Players, Four Or Five A Side, Used Curved Hockey Sticks And A Bung. From Stick And Bung The Game Evolved To "bandy" Or Hockey-stick And Ball, Usually The Lacrosse Ball Of Solid Rubber, Mainly ...

Ice Yachting
Ice-yachting, The Sport Of Sailing And Racing Ice-boats, Is Practised In Great Britain, Norway And Sweden To Some Extent, And Is Very Popular In Holland And On The Gulf Of Finland, But Its Highest Development Is In The United States And Canada. The Dutch Ice-yacht Is A Flat-bottomed Boat Resting ...

Ice
Ice Is The Solid Formed When Water Freezes. It Is A Colourless Substance Crystallizing In The Hexagonal System ( Vide Infra) ; The Crystals Display A Marked Tendency To "twinning," And This Is What Gives Rise To The Flower-like Patterns So Frequently Noticed On Windows. Hoar-frost, Snow And Hail Result ...

Iceberg
Iceberg, A Floating Mass Of Ice Broken From The End Of A Glacier Or A Polar Ice-sheet. Icebergs Drift According To The Direction Of The Sea Currents, Frequently From The Polar Regions To Navigable Waters, And They Are Therefore Occasionally En Countered Far Beyond The Polar Regions. When A Glacier ...

Iceland Moss
Iceland Moss, A Lichen (cetraria Islandica) Whose Erect Or Ascending Foliaceous Habit Gives It Something Of The Appear Ance Of A Moss, Whence Probably The Name. It Is Often Of A Pale Chestnut Colour, But Varies Considerably, Being Sometimes Almost Entirely Greyish White ; And Grows To A Height Of ...

Iceland
Iceland, An Island In The North Atlantic Ocean (dan. Island). Its Extreme Northerly Point Is Touched By The Arctic Circle; It Lies Between 13 ° 2 2' And 24° 35' W., And Between 12' And 66° 33' N., And Has An Area Of 40,437 Sq. Miles. Its Length Is 298 ...

Icelandic Language
Icelandic Language. Closely Akin To Norwegian, Old Icelandic Was Spoken In Iceland And In Greenland. A Volu Minous Literature Dates From The First Half Of The 12th Century, Written In The Latin Alphabet And Adapted To The Special Require Ments Of This Language. No Traces Are Found Of Any Older ...

Icelandic Literature
Icelandic Literature. Iceland Has Always Borne A High Renown For Song, But Has Never Produced A Poet Of The Highest Order, The Qualities Which In Other Lands Were Most Sought For And Admired In Poetry Being In Iceland Lavished On The Saga, A Prose Epic, While Icelandic Poetry Is To ...

Iceni
Iceni, A Race Of Ancient Britain Who Occupied The Part Of England Now Known As Norfolk And Suffolk. After The Death Of Their King Prasutagus In A.d. 6o The Romans Established Their Authority, And The Iceni Were Eventually Conquered And Became Part Of The Roman Empire. See Boadicea. The Popular ...

Ichang
Ichang, A Treaty Port Of China On The Left Bank Of The Yang-tze Kiang In Western Hupeh. Although A Relatively Small Town, With About Io8,000 Inhabitants, Ichang Serves An Important Economic Function In The Trade Of Szechwan And The Yang-tze Valley. Ten Miles Above The Port Begins The Rugged Country, ...

Ichneumon Fly
Ichneumon-fly, A General Name Applied To Parasitic Insects Of The Section Ichneumonoidea, Order Hymenoptera, From The Typical Genus Ichneumon, Belonging To The Chief Family Of That Section. The Species Of The Families Ichneumonidae, Bra Conidae, Evaniidae, Proctotrypidae, And Clialcididae Are Often Indiscriminately Called "ichneumons," But The "super-family" Of The Ichneumonoidea ...

Ichneumon
Ichneumon, The Name Applied To A Number Of Small African Weasel-shaped Mammals Belonging To The Carnivorous Family Viverridae, The Indian Representatives Being Known As Mongooses (q.v.). A Large Num Ber Of Species Of The Genus Her Pestes Are Known And Range Over Southern Asia And All Africa, Ichneumon Also Occurring ...

Ichthyosis Or Xeroderma
Ichthyosis Or Xeroderma, A General Thickening Of The Whole Skin And Marked Accumulation Of The Epidermic Ele Ments, With Atrophy Of The Sebaceous Glands, Giving Rise To A Hard, Dry, Scaly Condition. This Disease Generally First Appears In Infancy, And Is Probably Congenital. It Differs In Intensity And In Distribution, ...

Icknield Street
Icknield Street. (1) The Saxon Name Of A Prehis Toric (not Roman) "ridgeway"—along The Berkshire Downs And The Chilterns, Which Crossed The Thames Near Streatley And Ended Somewhere Near Tring Or Dunstable. In Places There Are Traces Of A Double Road, One Line On The Hills And One In The ...

Icon
Icon, Generally Any Image Or Portrait-figure. The Word Is Specially Applied To The Representations In The Eastern Church Of Sacred Personages, Which Are Either Flat Paintings Or In Very Low Relief, Sculptured Figures Being Forbidden. (see Byzantine Art.) The Term "iconography" Once Confined To The Study Of Engrav Ings Is ...

Iconium
Iconium (mod. Konia), A City Of Asia Minor, The Last Of The Phrygian Land Towards Lycaonia, Was Usually Attributed To Lycaonia In The Roman Time, But Retained Its Old Phrygian Con Nection And Population To A Comparatively Late Date. It Lies In An Excellently Fertile Plain, 6 M. From The ...

Iconoclasts
Iconoclasts, Breakers Of Images, A Name Applied In The 8th And 9th Centuries To The Opponents Of The Use Of Images In Christian Worship. (see Roman Empire, Later.) At The Period Of The Reformation (q.v.) The Name Was Given To Those Who Advocated The Destruction Of Images In The Churches. ...

Icterus
Icterus, A Genus Of Birds Belonging To The Family, Icteridae Intermediate Between The Finches (q.v.) And Starlings (q.v.) ; Many Of Them Are Called Troup Ials ; Others Are Known As The American Grackles (q.v.). One Of The Best-known Species Is Icterus Spurius, The Orchard Oriole, An Inhabitant Of Nor ...

Ictinus
Ictinus, Greek Architect Of The 5th Century B.c., Was The Architect Of The Parthenon At Athens, Of The Hall Of The Mysteries At Eleusis, And Of The Temple Of Apollo Epicurius At Bassae, Near Phigalia. ...

Ida
Ida (d. 559), First King Of Bernicia, Became King In 547, Soon After The Foundation Of The Kingdom Of Bernicia By The Angles. He Built The Fortress Of Bebbanburh (bamborough) And After His Death His Kingdom, Which Did Not Extend South Of The Tees, Passed In Turn To Six Of ...

Idaho Falls
Idaho Falls, A City Of E. Idaho, U.s.a., On The Snake River, 123 M. S.w. Of The Western Entrance To Yellowstone Park, At An Altitude Of 4,708 Ft.; The County Seat Of Bonneville County. It Is On The Oregon Short Line Of The Union Pacific System, And On Federal Highway ...

Idaho
Idaho, The "gem State," One Of The Far North-western States Of The U.s., Is Situated Between 42° And 49° N. And Iii ° And I I 7 ° W. It Is Bounded On The North By British Columbia In The Dominion Of Canada, On The East By Montana And Wyoming, ...

Idar
Idar, An Indian State Forming Part Of The Mali Kantha Agency, Within The Gujarat Division Of Bombay. It Has An Area Of 1,668 Sq.m. And A Pop. (1931) Of 262,66o. Much Of The Ter Ritory Is Held By Kinsmen Of The Rajah On Feudal Tenure. The Products Are Grain, Oil-seeds ...

Idas
Idas, In Greek Legend, Son Of Aphareus Of The Royal House Of Messene, Brother Of Lynceus. In Homer (iliad, Ix. 556 Et Seq.), He Is Called The Strongest Of Men On Earth. He Carried Off Mar Pessa, Daughter Of Evenus, As His Wife, And Dared To Bend His Bow Against ...

Idea
Idea, A Term Used Both Popularly And In Philosophical Ter Minology With The General Sense Of "mental Vision," (gr. Is A Connected With May, To See). To Have No Idea How A Thing Happened Is To Be Without A Mental Picture Of An Occurrence. In This General Sense It Is ...

Ideal
Ideal Means Primarily That Which Is Of The Nature Of An Idea. It Is, However, More Commonly Used To Denote That Which Is Perfect Or Supreme Of Its Kind. See Idea And Idealism. ...

Idealism
Idealism, A Term Generally Used For The Attitude Of Mind Which Is Prone To Represent Things In An Imaginative Light And To Lay Emphasis Exclusively Or Primarily On Abstract Perfection (i.e., On "ideals") (from Gr. Ib A, Archetype Or Model, Through Fr. Idealisme). With This Meaning The Philosophical Use Of ...

Identity Philosophy
Identity Philosophy Is A System Of Philosophy Which Treats Mind And Matter, Subject And Object Or Thought And Existence, As Merely Two Aspects Or Expressions Of The Same Ulti , Mate Reality (or Underlying Identity). There Are Many Systems Of Philosophy Which Answer More Or Less To This General Descrip ...

Ideograph
Ideograph, A Symbol Or Character Painted, Written Or In Scribed, Representing Ideas, Not Sounds ; It Occurs In Chinese And In Most Egyptian Hieroglyphs (gr. 13fa, Idea And Witckecv, To Write) . (see Writing.) ...

Ides
Ides. The Name Given In The Roman Calendar To The 13th Day Of The Month With The Exception Of March, May, July And Oc Tober, The Ides In These Months Falling On The 15th Day. See Calendar. ...

Idioblast
Idioblast, A Botanical Term For An Individual Cell Which Is Distinguished By Its Shape, Size Or Contents, Such As The Stone Cells In The Soft Tissue Of A Pear. ...

Idiom
Idiom, A Form Of Expression In Words, Grammatical Construc Tion, Phraseology, Etc., Which Is Peculiar To A Language ; Sometimes Also A Variety Of A Particular Language, A Dialect (gr. Ihiwµa, Something Peculiar And Personal). ...

Idiosyncrasy
Idiosyncrasy, A Physical Or Mental Condition Peculiar To An Individual, Usually Taking The Form Of A Special Suscepti Bility To Particular Stimuli ; Thus It Is An Idiosyncrasy Of One In Dividual That Abnormal Sensations Of Discomfort Should Be Ex Cited By Certain Odours Or Colours, By The Presence In ...

Idocrase
Idocrase, A Rock-forming Mineral Of Complex Composition. It Is A Basic Calcium And Aluminium Silicate Containing Small Amounts Of Iron, Magnesium, Water, Fluorine, Etc., And Sometimes Boron; The Approximate Formula Is . It Crys Tallizes In The Tetragonal System, But Often Exhibits Optical Anom Alies, And The Optical Sign Varies ...

Idol
Idol, In Philosophy, Means A Prejudice Of Some Kind Which Is A Hindrance To Objective, Impartial Or Free Thought. The Term Was First Used In This Sense By Giordano Bruno And Adopted From Him By Francis Bacon, Who Is Chiefly Responsible For The Vogue Which It Has. Bacon Distinguished Four ...

Idolatry
Idolatry, The Worship Of Idols, I.e., Images Or Other Ob Jects Believed To Represent Or Be The Abode Of A Superhuman Personality. The Term Is Often Used Generically To Include Such Varied Forms As Litholatry, Dendrolatry, Pyrolatry, Zoolatry And Even Necrolatry. In An Age When The Study Of Religion Was ...

Idomeneus
Idomeneus (e-dom-en-us), In Greek Legend, Son Of Deu Calion, Grandson Of Minos And Pasiphae, And King Of Crete. He Courted Helen, And Took A Distinguished Part In The Trojan War. According To Homer (odyssey, Iii. 191), He Returned Home Safely With All His Countrymen Who Had Survived The War; In ...

Idria
Idria, A Mining Town In The Province Of Gorizia, Italy, 29 M. N.e. By Road From Gorizia. Pop. (1931) 5,698 (town), 10,629 (commune). It Is In The Narrow Alpine Valley Of The Idria, An Affluent Of The Isonzo, And Has Rich Mines Of Quicksilver Acci Dentally Discovered In 149o. The ...

Idrialin
Idrialin, A Mineral Wax Accompanying The Mercury Ore In Idria. According To Goldschmidt It Can Be Extracted By Means Of Xylol, Amyl Alcohol Or Turpentine; Also Without Decomposi Tion, By Distillation In A Current Of Hydrogen, Or Carbon Dioxide. It Is A White Crystalline Body, With Difficulty Fusible, Boiling Above ...

Idrisi Or
Idrisi Or Edrisi (abu Abdallah Mohammed Ibn Moham Med Ibn Abdallah Ibn Idrisi, C. A.d. 1099-1154), Arabic Geog Rapher. His Great-grandfather, Idrisi Ii., "biamrillah," A Mem Ber Of The Princely House Which Had Reigned As Caliphs In North West Africa, Was Prince Of Malaga. After His Death In Malaga Was ...

Idumaea
Idumaea, The Greek Equivalent Of Edom (o ), A Territory Which, In The Works Of The Biblical Writers, Is Considered To Lie S.e. Of The Dead Sea, Between The Land Of Moab And The Gulf Of Akaba. The Apparently Theophorous Name Obed-edom (2 Sam. Vi. Io) Shows That Edom Is ...

Idun Or Iduna
Idun Or Iduna, In Scandinavian Mythology, The Goddess Of Youth And Spring, Daughter Of The Dwarf Svald, Wife Of Bragi, Was Keeper Of The Golden Apples, The Eating Of Which Preserved To The Gods Their Eternal Youth. Idun Personifies The Year Between March And September, And Her Myth Represents The ...

Idyl Or Idyll
Idyl Or Idyll, A Short Poem Of A Pastoral Or Rural Char Acter, In Which Something Of The Element Of Landscape Is Pre Served Or Felt. The Earliest Commentators Of Antiquity Used The Term To Designate A Great Variety Of Brief And Homely Poems, In Which The Description Of Natural ...

Iesi
Iesi (anc. Aesis), A Town And Episcopal See Of The Marches, Italy, Province Of Ancona, 17 M. W. By S. From Ancona Town By Rail, 318 Ft. Above Sea-level. The Pop. Of The Commune In 1931 Was 29,090. It Lies On The Left Bank Of The River Aesis (mod. Esino). ...

Igara
Igara, A People Closely Resembling The Yoruba, Inhabiting The Provinces Of Munshi And Nassarawa, Northern Nigeria, And Who Speak A Yoruba Dialect. See Meek, The Northern Tribes Of Nigeria (1925). ...

Iglesias
Iglesias, A Town And Episcopal See Of Sardinia In The Province Of Cagliari, 34 M. W.n.w. From Cagliari By Rail, 62o Ft. Above Sea-level. Pop. (1931) 12,812 (town), 23,564 (commune). It Is A Mining Centre With A School Of Mines In The Southwestern Mountains. Minerals Go By A Small Railway ...

Ignatius
Ignatius ('iyvarcos), Bishop Of Antioch, A Father Of The Church. Our Only Trustworthy Information Is Derived From The Letters Which He Wrote To Various Churches On His Last Journey From Antioch To Rome, And From The Short Epistle Of Polycarp To The Philippians. For The Complicated Controversy Over The Three ...

Ignis Fatuus
Ignis Fatuus, The Name Applied To The Pale Flame, Also Called Will-o'-the-wisp And Jack-o'-lantern, Sometimes Seen Flick Ering Over Marshy Ground And, It Is Said, Over Churchyards. No Entirely Satisfactory Explanation Has Been Put Forward But It Is Generally Believed That The Effect Is Due To The Spontaneous Ig Nition ...

Ignoramus
Ignoramus, Properly An English Law Term For The Endorse Ment On The Bill Of Indictment Made By A Grand Jury When They "throw Out" The Bill, I.e., When They Do Not Consider That The Case Should Go To A Petty Jury. The Expression Is Now Obsolete, "not A True Bill," ...

Ignorance
Ignorance. In The Law Among The English-speaking Peoples, As In Roman Law, Ignorance Of The Law Is, In General, No Ground For Avoiding The Consequences Of An Act. As Regards Criminal Offences, The Maxim As To Ignorantia Juris Admits Of No Exception, Even In The Case Of A Foreigner Temporarily ...

Ignorantines
Ignorantines, A Name Sometimes Given To The Brothers Of The Christian Schools, Owing To A Clause In The Constitution Of The Order Forbidding The Admission Of Priests With A Theological Training. (see Institute Of The Christian Brothers.) ...

Igorot
Igorot, A Tribe Of Luzon, In The Philippines, Calling Itself 1 F Ugao : A Name Used Separately Also For A Subtribe Of Igorot And The Linguistic Equivalent Of Apayao, A Name Used For A Member Of The Other Group Of Luzon Tribes, Which Includes The Ilocano, Tin Guian And ...

Igualada
Igualada, A Town Of North-eastern Spain, In The Province Of Barcelona, On The Left Bank Of The River Noya, A Right-hand Tributary Of The Llobregat, And At The Northern Terminus Of The Igualada-martorell-barcelona Railway. Pop. (193o) 13,885. Igu Alada Is The Central Market Of A Rich Agricultural And Wine-produc Ing ...

Iguana
Iguana, The Name Strictly Applicable To The Lizards Of The Family Iguanidae ; The Same Name, Or Its Corruption "goanna," Is Sometimes Misapplied To The Monitors (family Varanidae). With Three Exceptions All The Genera (numbering About 5o And Containing Over 40o Species) Belong To The New World; The Ex Ceptional ...

Iguanodon
Iguanodon, A Large Extinct Amphibious Reptile. Its Re Mains Were First Discovered In The Wealden (lower Cretaceous) Estuarine Deposits Of Sussex By G. A. Mantell, Who Named It Iguanodon, In Allusion To The Resemblance Between Its Teeth And Those Of The Lizard Iguana Of Tropical America. In 1877 Several Nearly ...

Iguvium
Iguvium (mod. Gubbio, Q.v.), A Town Of Umbria, Among The Mountains, About 23 M. North-north-east Of Perusia And Con Nected With It By A By-road, Which Joined The Via Flaminia Near The Temple Of Iuppiter Appenninus, At The Modern Scheggia. It Appears To Have Been Important In Pre-roman Times, Both ...

Ijaw
Ijaw, A People Inhabiting The Provinces Of Owerri And Warri, Southern Nigeria. No Tribal Organization Exists; Hereditary Chiefs In The Towns Have Civil And Religious Functions, Aided By Councils Of Elders. Extended Family Groups Live Side By Side. Marriage Is Permitted Between Near Relations. When The Bride-price Is High, The ...