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Encyclopedia Britannica

Volume 12, Part 2: Hydrozoa to Epistle of Jeremy

Irony
Irony, A Form Of Speech In Which The Real Meaning Is Con Cealed Or Contradicted By The Words Used (gr. Eipwv€la From E14)(.2)v, "one Who Says Less Than He Means"). It Is Particularly Employed For The Purpose Of Mockery Or Contempt. The Greek Word Was Used For An Understatement In ...

Iroquois
Iroquois (ir'o-kw6 Or -kwoi). During The Colonial Period The Iroquois Were, North Of Mexico, The Native American People Of Greatest Political Importance. The Name Has Been Adopted For The Entire Linguistic Family Of Which They Were The Most Conspicuous Representatives. The Iroquoian Family Occupied Three Territories, A Northern, Southern, And ...

Irrawaddy Or Irawadi
Irrawaddy Or Irawadi, The Principal River In The Province Of Burma, Traversing The Centre Of The Country, And Running Throughout Its Entire Course In British Territory. It Is Formed By The Confluence Of The Mali And N'mai Rivers (usually Called Mali-kha And N'mai-kha, The Kha Being The Kachin Word For ...

Irredentists
Irredentists, An Italian Patriotic And Political Party Which Was Prominent In The Last Quarter Of The I9th Century. The Name Was Formed From The Words Italia Irredenta—unredeemed Italy—and The Party Had For Its Object The Emancipation Of All Italian Lands Still Subject To Foreign Rule. The Lands Which They Claimed ...

Irrigation
Irrigation. The Artificial Application Of Water To Land (lat. In, And Rigare, To Water Or Wet). Normally Vegetation Grows On Soil Saturated By Rain. Where Rain Is Seasonal, Deficient Or Practically Nonexistent, As It Is, For Instance, In Egypt, The Desiccation Of The Soil Prevents Vegetable Growth. In Such Areas ...

Irula
Irula, The Darkest-skinned Tribe Of The Nilgiri Hills In South India (from Tamil Irul, "darkness"), As The Badagas (q.v.) Are The Fairest. Speaking Corrupt Tamil And Practising A Rude Form Of Vishnu-worship, The Irulas Have As Yet No Marriage-rite Beyond A Feast. They Bury Their Dead In A Sitting Posture ...

Irun
Irun, A Frontier Town Of Northern Spain, In The Province Of Guipuzcoa, On The Left Bank Of The River Bidasoa. Pop. (193o) 17,670. Irun Is The Northern Terminus Of The Spanish Northern Railway, And A Thriving Industrial Town, With Ironworks, Tan-yards, Potteries And Paper Mills. It Derives Its Prosperity From ...

Irvine
Irvine, A Royal Burgh, Parish And Seaport Of Ayrshire, Scotland. Pop. (1931) 12,032. It Is Situated On The North Bank Of The Estuary Of The Irvine, 294 M. S.w. Of Glasgow By The L.m.s. Railway. It Is Connected With The Suburb Of Fullarton On The South Side Of The River ...

Irving Trust Company
Irving Trust Company. This Company, With Head Quarters At One Wall Street, New York City, Takes Its Name From The Irving Bank, New York, Originally Organized In 1851 As A New York State Bank. It Was Chartered In 1864 As A National Bank. It Took The Name Irving National Exchange ...

Irvington
Irvington, A Town Of Essex County, New Jersey, U.s.a., Just S.w. Of Newark; Served By The Lehigh Valley Railroad And By Electric Trolley And Motor-coach Lines. The Population Was 25,480 Was By The Federal Census 193o. It Is A Residential Suburb Of Newark And New York; And Has Numerous And ...

Isaac Ben Salomon Israeli
Israeli, Isaac Ben Salomon (c. 940), Jew Ish Physician And Philosopher, Was Born In Egypt, And Became Court Physician At Kairawan. Constantine The African Translated Into Latin His Medical Works, Including The Popular Treatise On Fevers, While Gerard Of Cremona Translated His Elements, An Exposition Of Aristotle's Physics, And His ...

Isaac I Comnenus
Isaac I. (comnenus), Emperor Of The East (1057-1059), Was The Son Of An Officer Of Basil Ii. Named Manuel Comnenus, Who On His Deathbed Commended His Two Sons Isaac And John To The Emperor's Care. Basil Had Them Carefully Educated At The Monastery Of Studion, And Advanced Them To High ...

Isaac Ii Angelus
Isaac Ii. (angelus), Emperor Of The East 1185-1195, And Again 1203-1204, Was The Successor Of Andronicus I. He Inaugu Rated His Reign By A Decisive Victory Over The Normans In Sicily, But Elsewhere His Policy Was Less Successful. He Failed In An Attempt To Recover Cyprus From A Rebellious Noble, ...

Isaac Of Antioch
Isaac Of Antioch, Syriac Author, Is Said To Have Flourished Under Theodosius Ii. (408-450), And Was A Native Either Of Amid (diarbekr) Or Of Edessa. Several Writers Identify Him With Isaac, The Disciple Of S. Ephraim, Who Is Mentioned In The Anonymous Life Of That Father; But According To The ...

Isaac
Isaac, The Only Son Of Abraham And Sarah And Father Of Jacob And Esau. He Thus Occupies A Middle Position Between The Two Major Figures In The Ancestry Of Israel. Apart From The Inci Dents Described In Gen. Xxii. (the Rescue Of Isaac From The Sacri Ficial Altar), Gen. Xxiv. ...

Isabeau Isabella
Isabella, Isabeau, Or Elizabeth Of Bavaria (1370– '435), Wife Of Charles Vi. Of France, Was The Daughter Of Stephen Ii., Duke Of Bavaria. She Was Born In 1370, Was Married To Charles Vi. On July 17, 1385, And Crowned At Paris On Aug. 22, 1389. She Fell Under The Influence ...

Isabella Ii
Isabella Ii. (183o-1904), Queen Of Spain, Daughter Of Ferdinand Vii. And His Fourth Wife, Maria Christina, Was Born In Madrid On Oct. Io, 1830. In Virtue Of The Salic Law, Set Aside By The Cortes At Ferdinand Vii.'s Persuasion In 1830, Don Carlos Disputed Isabella's Title On Her Proclamation (sept. ...

Isabella Of Hainaut
Isabella Of Hainaut (ii70-1190), Queen Of France, Was The Daughter Of Baldwin V., Count Of Hainaut, And Margaret, Sister Of Philip Of Alsace, And Was Born In Ii7o At Lille. She Was Married To Philip Augustus, And Brought To Him As Her Dowry The Province Of Artois. She Was Crowned ...

Isabella
Isabella (1451-1504), La Catolica, Queen Of Castile, Daughter Of John Ii. Of Castile, By His Second Wife Isabella, Granddaughter Of John I. Of Portugal (thus Being Through Both Parents A Descendant Of John Of Gaunt), Was Born At Madrigal On April 2 2, 1451. On The Accession Of Her Brother, ...

Isabnormal Lines
Isabnormal Lines, In Meteorology, Lines Upon A Map Connecting Places Having Equal Departures From The Normal. A Better Term Is Isanomalous Lines. Each Parallel Of Latitude Can Be Considered As Having A Certain Normal Temperature Based On A General Mean Of Temperatures At Stations Along That Parallel. Places Which Are ...

Isaeus
Isaeus (c. 420 B.c.–c. 350 B.c.), Attic Orator, The Chrono Logical Limits Of Whose Extant Work Fall Between The Years 390 And 353 B.c., Is Described In The Plutarchic Life As A Chalcidian; By Suidas, Whom Dionysius Follows, As An Athenian. The Accounts Have Been Reconciled By Supposing That His ...

Isaiah
Isaiah. It Is Important To Realize That Practically All We Know Of The Life And Career Of The Prophet Isaiah Of Jerusalem Is Con Tained In The Book Of Isaiah. But The Book Itself, As It Lies Before Us In Our Bibles Contains Much More Material Than That Which Is ...

Isandhlwana
Isandhlwana, An Isolated Hill In Zululand, 8m. S.e. Of Rorke's Drift Across The Tugela River, And Io5m. N. By W. Of Durban. On Jan. 22, 1879, A British Force Encamped At The Foot Of The Hill Was Attacked By About Io,000 Zulus, The Flower Of Cetewayo's Army, And Destroyed. Of ...

Isanomalous Lines
Isanomalous Lines. Lines Connecting Places Of Similar Temperature And Pressure, Etc., To Equal Departures From The Average Values Of The Respective Zones Of Latitude. See Also Isabnormal Lines. Area Of 38,200 Sq.m. Below Munich The Stream Is 14o To 35o Yd. Wide, And Is Studded With Islands. It Is Not ...

Isatin
Isatin, In Chemistry, An Oxygenated Derivative Of Indole (q.v.) Prepared By Oxidizing Indigo With Nitric Or Chromic Acid. It Crystallizes In Orange-red Prisms Melting At 2oo-2oi° C. Isatin, Which Furnishes Indirubin, The Red Pigment Of Indigo, On Con Densation With Indoxyl, Is Of Practical Importance In The Manu Facture Of ...

Isauria
Isauria, A District In The Interior Of Asia Minor. The Nucleus Of It Was That Section Of The Taurus Which Lies Direct Ly South Of Iconium And Lystra. Lycaonia Had All The Iconian Plain ; But Isauria Began As Soon As The Foothills Were Reached. When The Romans First Encountered ...

Ischia
Ischia (gr. Ilo7pcokaa, "the Apes' Island," Lat. Aenaria, In Poetry Inarime), An Island Off The Coast Of Campania, Italy, Province Of Naples, 16 M. S.w. Of Naples And 7 M. S.w. Of The Capo Miseno, The Nearest Point Of The Mainland. Pop. (1921) 27,631. It Is Situated At The West ...

Ischl
Ischl, Spa And Town In Upper Austria. Beautifully Situated Between The Rivers Ischl And Traun On A Peninsula At An Altitude Of 1,530 Ft., It Is One Of The Most Fashionable Watering-places In Europe, And Is Famous For Its Mild Climate (mean Annual Temp. F), Its Saline And Sulphur Drinking ...

Isere
Isere, A Department Of France, Formed In 1790 Out Of The Northern Part Of The Old Province Of Dauphine. Pop. (1931) 584,017. It Is Bounded North By The Department Of The Ain, East By Savoie, South By The Hautes Alpes And The Drome And West By The Loire And The ...

Isere_2
Isere (anc. Isara), Tributary Of The Rhone, South-east France, 18o M. Long, With A Descent Of 7,55o Ft. And A Drainage Area Of 4,275 Square Miles. It Flows Through The Departments Of Savoie, Isere And Drome. It Rises As A Torrent In The Galise Glaciers Of The French Graian Alps, ...

Iserlohn
Iserlohn, A Town In The Prussian Province Of Westphalia, On The Baar, 17 M. W. Of Arnsberg, And 3o M. E.n.e. From Bar Men By Rail. Pop. (1933) 34,153. Iserlohn Is A Very Old Town, Its Gild Of Armourers Being Referred To As "ancient" 1443. Both In The Town And ...

Isfahan
Isfahan (es-fah-hahn') (the Aspadana Of Ptolemy And Spahan Of The Pehlevi Texts), A Persian Province And City. The Province Is Bounded By The Districts Of Kashan And Gulpaigan On The North, Khuzistan On The West, Yazd On The East And Fars On The South. Data Are Insufficient On Which To ...

Ishim
Ishim, A Town In The Uralsk Area Of The R.s.f.s.r. In O' N. And 69° 18' E., On The Ishim River, A Left Bank Tributary Of The Irtish. Average January Temperature —3.8° F, Average July 66.o° F, Rainfall 17.5 In. Per Annum, Half Of Which Falls Between June And August. ...

Ishmael
Ishmael Was The Son Of Abraham And His Egyptian Con Cubine, Hagar. Through The Jealousy Of Sarah, Mother And Son Were Driven From The Tribe, And Saved From Death By Thirst Through The Miraculous Discovery Of A Well (gen. Xxi. 8-2o). Ishmael Grows Up An Archer (gen. Xxi. And A ...

Ishpeming
Ishpeming, City, Marquette County, Michigan, U.s.a., In The Northern Part Of The Upper Peninsula, 15m. From Lake Su Perior, At An Altitude Of 1,400 Feet. It Is On Federal Highway 41, And Is Served By The Chicago And Northwestern, The Duluth, South Shore And Atlantic And The Lake Superior And ...

Ishtar Or Istar
Ishtar Or Istar, The Name Of The Chief Goddess Of Baby Lonia And Assyria, The Counterpart Of The Phoenician Astarte (q.v.). The Earliest Written Form Of The Name Is Asli-dar, An Accadian Rendering Of The Older Sumerian Innini, "lady Of Hea Ven." Ishtar Was The Semitic Deity Identified With The ...

Ishtib
Ishtib (shtip), Town, South Serbia, Yugoslavia. Pop. (1931) 12,080. There Are Several Mosques, A Bazaar And A Number Of Fountains. Wheat And The Poppy Are Cultivated And There Is A Vegetable Oil Factory In The Town. During The World War Ishtib Was An Important Military Centre, And A Railway Was ...

Isidore Of Alexandria
Isidore Of Alexandria' (f7. C. A.d. 50o), Greek Neoplatonist, Head Of The School In Athens In Succession To Marinus Who Followed Proclus. He Is Known Principally As The Preceptor Of Damascius Who Wrote A Favourable Life Of Isidorus. He Was More Of An Enthusiast Than A Thinker, And Inclined To ...

Isidore Of Seville Isidorus
Isidore Of Seville (isidorus Hispalensis) (c. 570— 636), Spanish Encyclopaedist And Historian, Was Born Of A Noble Family From Cartagena. Distinguishing Himself In Controversies With The Arians, In 6o9 He Was Chosen To Succeed His Brother Leander As Archbishop Of Seville. In The Provincial And National Councils He Played An ...

Isinglass
Isinglass, A Pure Form Of Commercial Gelatin Obtained From The Swimming Bladder Or Sound Of Several Species Of Fish. The Sturgeon Is The Most Valuable, Various Species Of Which, Espe Cially Acipenser Stellatus (the Seuruga), A. Ruthenus (the Sterlet) And A. Guldenstiidtii (the Ossetr), Flourish In The Volga And Other ...

Isis
Isis, The Most Famous Of The Egyptian Goddesses. She Was Of Human Form, In Early Times Distinguished Only By The Hieroglyph Of Her Name Upon Her Head. Later She Commonly Wore The Horns Of A Cow, And The Cow Was Sacred To Her; It Is Doubtful, However, Whether She Had ...

Iskelib
Iskelib, A Town In Asia Minor, Altitude 2,46o Ft., Near The Left Bank Of The Kizil Irmak (anc. Halys), Ioo M. In A Straight Line North-east Of Angora And 6o S.e. Of Kastamuni. Population (1927) 53,722. It Lies Several Miles Off The Road, Between Changri And Amasia In A Picturesque ...

Islam
Islam (arabic, "submission" To The Will Of God) Is The Name Which All Muhammadans Give To Their Religion; It Claims To Be A Divine Revelation Communicated To The World Through Muham Mad, Who Was The Last Of A Succession Of Inspired Prophets, Be Ginning With Adam. Its Doctrine And Practice ...

Islamabad
Islamabad, A Town Of India In The State Of Kashmir, On The North Bank Of The Jhelum. Pop. (1931) 10,736. It Is The Second Town In The Kashmir Valley, And Was Originally The Capital Of The Valley, But Is Now Decaying. It Contains An Old Summer Palace, Overshadowed By Plane ...

Islamic Institutions
Islamic Institutions. Of All The Institutions Of Islam The Caliphate Is The Oldest, The Most Fundamental, And In Essence The Most Enduring. For Its History See Caliphate; The Present Subject Is Its Origin And Nature. Muhammad Ruled Over His People As A Divinely Inspired And Guided Prophet. He Led The ...

Islamic Law Schools
Islamic Law Schools The First School To Take Definite Form Was The Hanifite, Founded By Abil Hanifa (d. 767), Who Left Behind Him A Definite System. He Used Few Traditions, And Preferred To Go Back To The Qur'an, And Extract From It By Reasoning The Rulings Which Fitted His Ideas. ...

Islamic Law
Islamic Law. Law (shari`ah) In Islam Has A Wider Appli Cation Than Any Western Secular Law, Since It Claims To Regulate All The Aspects Of Life—duty To God, To One's Neighbour, To One's Self. It Is Really A System Of Duties, Ethical, Legal, Religious, And Governs Not Only The Private ...

Island
Island, A Piece Of Land Surrounded By Water (0.e. Ieg =isle +land). The Words "island," "isle" Are Sometimes Used For A Piece Of Land Isolated During High Tide Or Surrounded By Marsh; E.g., Hayling Island, Isle Of Ely ; The Spelling "island," Accepted Before 1700, Is Due To A False ...

Islay
Islay, The Southernmost Island Of The Inner Hebrides, Ar Gyllshire, Scotland, 16 M. W. Of Kintyre And A M. S.w. Of Jura, From Which It Is Separated By The Sound Of Islay. Pop. (1931) 4,97o; Maximum Breadth 15 M. And Maximum Length 25 M. The Sea-lochs Gruinart And Indaal Cut ...

Isles Of The Blest
Isles Of The Blest Or Fortunate Islands (gr. At Ton, Yakapcov Vikroi., Lat., Fortunatae Insulae), Placed In Greek Mythology In The Western Ocean, And Peopled, Not By The Dead, But By Mortals Upon Whom The Gods Had Conferred Immor Tality. Like The Phaeacian Land In Homer (od. Or The Celtic ...

Islington
Islington (in Domesday And Later Documents Iseldon, Isendon And In The 16th Century Hisselton), A Northern Metro Politan Borough Of London, England, Bounded East By Stoke Newington And Hackney, South By Shoreditch And Finsbury, And West By St. Pancras, And Extending North To The Boundary Of The County Of London. ...

Islip
Islip, A Township Of Suffolk County, New York, U.s.a., In The Central Part Of The South Side Of Long Island. The Township Is 16m. Long From E. To W., And 8m. Wide In Its Widest Part. It Is Bounded On The S. By The Atlantic Ocean ; Between The Ocean ...

Isly
Isly, The Name Of A Small River On The Moroccan-algerian Frontier, A Sub-tributary Of The Tafna, Famous As The Scene Of The Greatest Victory Of The French Army In The Algerian Wars. The Intervention Of Morocco On The Side Of Abd-el-kader Led At Once To The Bombardment Of Tangier By ...

Ismail Hadji Maulvi Mohammed
Ismail Hadji Maulvi-mohammed (i781— 1831), A Muslim Reformer, Was Horn At Pholah Near Delhi. In Co-operation With Syed Ahmed He Attempted To Free Indian Mohammedanism From The Influence Of The Native Early Indian Faiths. The Two Men Travelled Extensively For Many Years And Visited Mecca. In The Wahhabite Movement They ...

Ismail
Ismail, A Town Of Bessarabia, Rumania, Capital Of The De Partment Of Ismail, Situated On The Left Bank Of The Chilia Branch Of The Danube. Pop. (1930) 26,123, Including, Besides Rumanians, Russians, Ukrainians, Bulgars, Turks, Jews And Gypsies. There Are Flour Mills And A Trade In Cereals, Woods, Tallow And ...

Ismailia
Ismailia, A Town Of Lower Egypt, On The North-west Shore Of Lake Timsah, A Salt Lagoon, About So M. From The Mediterranean And The Red Sea, And 93 M. N.e. Of Cairo By Rail. Population About 10,000. It Was Laid Out In 1863, In Connection With The Construction Of The ...

Ismet Pasha
Ismet Pasha (1884– ), Turkish Statesman, Was Born In Smyrna Of A Turkish Family Of Malatia. He Received His Edu Cation In The Military Schools Of Turkey, And In 1903 Graduated As An Artillery Lieutenant. Three Years Later He Became A Captain On The General Staff. After The Young Turk ...

Isnikmid Ismid Izmid
Ismid (izmid, Isnikmid) (anc. Nicomedia), A Town Of Asia Minor Situated On Rising Ground Near The Head Of The Gulf Of Ismid, Sea Of Marmora. Pop. (1927) 55,79o. It Is An Agricultural District, Producing Cocoons And Tobacco, And There Are Large Forests Of Oak, Beech And Fir. Near Yalova There ...

Isobar
Isobar, A Line Upon A Map Or Pressure Chart Connecting Places Having The Same Atmospheric Pressure. The Pressures Can Either Be "reduced To Sea-level" By Means Of A Calculated Factor, Or Can Be In The Form Of Unaltered Barometer (q.v.) Readings. A General Pressure Map Is Intended To Indicate By ...

Isochore
Isochore, In Physics, A Line On A Thermodynamic Diagram Showing Certain Relations Of Pressure And Temperature In A Gas. If A Gas Is Kept At A Constant Volume (e.g., In A Closed Vessel) While The Temperature To Which It Is Subject Is Varied, The Pressure Exerted On The Walls Of ...

Isoclinic Lines
Isoclinic Lines, Lines Drawn On Maps, Connecting Those Parts Of The Earth's Surface Where The Magnetic Inclination Is The Same In Amount. (see Terrestrial Magnetism.) ...

Isocrates Bc
Isocrates B.c.), Attic Orator, Was The Son Of Theodorus Of The Deme Of Erchia. He Received The Best Education Athens Provided, And Plato (phaedrus, 278 E) Makes Socrates Prophesy A Brilliant Future For Him, Saying That He Will Leave The Whole Of His Generation Behind In Oratory, And That Even ...

Isodynamic Lines
Isodynamic Lines, Lines Drawn On Maps, Connecting Those Parts Of The Earth's Surface Where The Magnetic Force Has The Same Intensity (see Terrestrial Magnetism). ...

Isogamy
Isogamy, Term Applied In Biology To Conditions In Which The Sexual Cells (gametes, Q.v.) Are Alike, In Contradistinction To Betero Gamy Or Anisogamy, Where The Gametes Are Differentiated Into Male Elements (spermatozoa Or Spermatozoids) And Female Ele Ments (ova). Isogamy Occurs In Some Of The Lower Algae And Certain Protozoa, ...

Isogonic Lines
Isogonic Lines, Lines Drawn On Maps, Connecting Those Parts Of The Earth's Surface Where The Magnetic Declination Is The Same In Amount (see Terrestrial Magnetism). ...

Isola Del Liri
Isola Del Liri, A Town Of Lazio, Province Of Frosi None, Italy, 15 M. By Rail N.n.w. Of Roccasecca, Which Is On The Main Line From Rome To Naples, 10 M. N.w. Of Cassino. Pop. (1931), Town 1,741 ; Commune, 9,776. The Town, As Its Name Implies, Is Situated Between ...

Isomerism
Isomerism. In The Period When Chemical Analysis Was First Introduced, The Belief Was Generally Held That The Properties Of Every Substance Depended Solely Upon Its Chemical Composition. Two Substances Which Had The Same Properties Were Therefore Supposed To Be Identical In Composition; And, Conversely, If A Difference Could Be Detected ...

Isomorphism
Isomorphism, In Crystallography And Mineralogy (qq.v.), The Similarity Of Crystalline Form In Substances Which Are Chemi Cally Related. Isomorphism Is Also Used In Mathematics As Applied To Groups To Denote The Correspondence Between Their Operations (see Groups). ...

Isonzo
Isonzo, A River In Italy Which Played A Very Important Part In The World War On The Italian Front, No Less Than Twelve Battles Being Named After It. It Rises In The Val Trenta, North West Of Monte Tricorno, Flows Through The Plezzo Basin In A Southerly Direction, Past Caporetto ...

Isoperimetry
Isoperimetry, A Word Originally Used In Geometry To Refer To Figures Of Equal Perimeter ; E.g., A Circle And An Ellipse May Have Equal Perimeters (circumferences) Although Not Equal Areas. One Of The Simplest Of The Problems Arising In The Study Is To Determine, From All Plane Figures Having The ...

Isoprene
Isoprene, A Mobile Volatile Liquid, (sp. Gr. 0.69; B.p. 34° C) Which Is Of Interest Chiefly Because It Polymerizes Readily To Form Rubber-like Substances (see Terpenes And Poly Merization) . ...

Isoptera
Isoptera, An Order Of Insects (q.v.), Comprising The Ter Mites (q.v.) Or So-called "white Ants" Of The Tropics. (see Also Social Insects.) ...

Isotherm
Isotherm, A Line Upon A Map Connecting Places Having The Same Temperature At Any Particular Instant Or For Any Selected Period Of Time. Alexander Von Humboldt (1769-1859) First Em Ployed Them In A Discussion Of The Temperatures Occurring In The Northern Hemisphere. (see Mathematical Models.) ...

Isotopes
Isotopes Is The Term First Applied By F. Soddy In 1913 To Substances Which, Though They Had Different Atomic Weights, Yet Had Identical Chemical Properties And Occupied The Same Place In The Periodic Table Of The Elements. Over A Century Earlier Dalton Had Postulated That Atoms Of The Same Element ...

Isoxazoles
Isoxazoles, In Chemistry, Cyclic Compounds Containing A Five-membered Ring Of Three Carbon Atoms, One Nitrogen Atom, And One Oxygen Atom, The Last Two Being Adjacent To Each Other (see Chemistry : Organic : Heterocyclic Division). They Are Prepared By Eliminating Water From The Monoximes Of 0-dike Tones, 13-ketone Aldehydes, Or ...

Israel Isserlein
Isserlein, Israel (d. 1460, German Talmudist. His Fame Attracted Many Students To Neustadt, And His Profound Learning Did Much To Revive The Study Of The Original Rabbinic Authorities. After The Publication Of The Code Of Joseph Qaro (q.v.) The Decisions Of Isserlein In Legal Matters Were Added In Notes To ...

Israel
Israel, The National Designation Of The Jews. The Hebrew Name Means "god Strives" Or "rules" (see Gen. Xxxii. 28; And The Allusion In Hosea Xii. 4). It Was Borne By Their Ancestor, Jacob, The Father Of The 12 Tribes. For Some Centuries The Term Was Ap Plied To The Northern ...

Issachar
Issachar, Jacob's Ninth Son, His Fifth By Leah, Is The Eponymous Ancestor Of One Of The Northern Tribes Of Israel. Occupying Territory Which Included The Plain Of Esdraelon, Having Affinities With The Northern Group Of Tribes Rather Than With The Joseph Clans On Their Southern Border. Issachar Played But An ...

Issedones
Issedones, Name Of An Ancient People Of Central Asia At The End Of The Trade-route Leading North-east From Scythia (q.v.), Described By Herodotus (iv. 26). The Position Of Their Country Is Fixed As The Tarim Basin By The More Precise Indications Of Ptolemy, Who Tells How A Syrian Merchant Pene ...

Issi
(issi); Life Of The Fields (is7-_-..1 7aper He Ever Wrote. "the Pageant Cf Tra417:.:::: =ci He Work.:i,. Fr - " - Story Of See Sir Eulogy Of Rickard Ri.: ; : H. Salt. Richard Je=e-ries: A Study (i89.4 : E. Tt:: =as. . Life And Work (twig). ...

Issoire
Issoire, A Town Of Central France, Capital Of An Arron Dissement In The Department Of Puy-de-dome, On The Couze, Near Its Junction With The Allier, In The Fertile Plain Of Limagne, 2 2 M. S.s.e. Of Clermont-ferrand On The P.l.m. Railway To Nimes. Pop. (1931) 5,412. Issoire (iciodurum), Probably Founded ...

Issoudun
Issoudun, A Town Of Central France, Capital Of An Arron Dissement In The Department Of Indre, On The Right Bank Of The Theols, 17 M. N.e. Of Chateauroux By Rail. Pop. (1931) 10,368. Issoudun, In Latin Exoldunum Or Uxellodunum, Existed In And Before Roman Times. Louis Xiv. Rewarded Its Fidelity ...

Issue Price
Issue Price, The Price At Which An Investment Banking House Or A Syndicate Offers An Issue Of Securities For Sale To The Public. This Is To Be Distinguished From The "underwriting Price" At Which The Issuing Corporation Disposes Of The Issue To The Underwriter, And Also From The "syndicate Price" ...

Isthmus
Isthmus, A Narrow Land Connection Between Two Larger Portions Otherwise Separated By The Sea. (gr. 1o0,u6s, Neck.) ...

Istria
Istria, Formerly A Margravate And Crownland Of Austria, Now The Italian Province Of Pola, In The Region Of Venezia Giulia; Area 1,908 Sq.m. It Comprises The Peninsula Of The Same Name (area Sq.m.), Which Stretches Into The Adriatic Sea Between The Gulf Of Trieste And The Gulf Of Quarnero, And ...

Isyllus
Isyllus, A Greek Poet, Whose Name Was Discovered On An Inscription In The Temple Of Asclepius In Epidaurus. The Inscrip Tion Consists Of A Dedication In Prose, Giving The Author's Name, And 72 Lines Of Doric Verse In Various Metres, Recording A Proces Sion In Honour Of Asclepius And Apollo, ...

Itacolumite
Itacolumite, A Variety Of Porous Yellow Sandstone Or Quartzose Schist Occurring At Itacolumi, In The Southern Portion Of Minas Geraes, Brazil. The Rock Is Of Interest For Two Reasons ; It Is Believed To Be The Source Of The Abundant Diamonds Of The Dis Trict, And It Is The Best ...

Italian Cloth
Italian Cloth. "italians" And "italian Linings" Are Two Optional Trade Terms Denoting An Important Class Of Fabric Com Prising Various Qualities And Employed In The Dress Goods Trade Chiefly For Coat And Dress Linings, Aprons And Ladies' Overalls. These Fabrics Are Characterized By A Smooth And Glossy Surface Resulting Chiefly ...

Italian Codes
Italian Codes. The Principal Are The Civil And The Penal Codes. The Italian Civil Code Was Promulgated On June 25, 1865, And Came Into Force On Jan. 1, 1866. It Was Promulgated On Nov. 27, 187o, In The Province Of Rome And On June 25, 1871, In The Provinces Of ...

Italian Literature
Italian Literature. One Characteristic Fact Dis Tinguishes The Italy Of The Middle Ages With Regard To Its Intellec Tual Conditions—the Tenacity With Which The Latin Tradition Clung To Life (see Latin). At The End Of The 5th Century The Northern Conquerors Invaded Italy. The Political Structure Of Rome Crumbled To ...

Italian Wars
Italian Wars. The War Which Broke Out In 1848 Had For Its Theatre The Northern Provinces Of Italy And Was Due To The Inhabitants Endeavouring To Gain Their National Unity. To Expel The Austrians Who Were In Possession Of Lombardy And Venetia Was The Principal Aim Of The Inhabitants. The ...

Italic Languages
Italic Languages. The Italic Group Of Languages Comprises Latin, Oscan And Umbrian (qq.v.). There Were Cer Tainly Other, Perhaps Many Other, Dialects, Which By Political Con Ditions Were Prevented From Spreading Or Attaining Any Impor Tance. ...

Italic
Italic, I.e., Italian, In Roman Archaeology, History And Law, A Term Used Of That Which Relates To The Non-roman Parts Of Italy (see Italy: Ancient Languages And Peoples). In Architecture The Italic Order Means The Composite Order (see Order). The Term Was Applied To The Pythagorean School Of Philosophy In ...

Italo Celtic
Italo-celtic. In Many Important Respects The Celtic Languages (q.v.) Resemble The Italic Languages (q.v.) So Closely That It Has Been Proposed To Group Them Together As A Unit Group Of The Indo-european Family. When Historical Evidence Became Available, Differentiation Had Progressed So Far That, While An Earlier Unity Is Permissible, ...

Italo Turkish War
Italo-turkish War. Following The Diplomatic Dis Cussions Which Took Place Between Rome And Constantinople Dur Ing The Summer Of 191i, An Ultimatum From Italy Was Delivered To The Porte On Sept. 28, Demanding Turkey's Consent To A Military Occupation Of Tripolitania And Cyrenaica. A Period Of 24 Hours Was Set ...

Italy
Italy (italia), The Name Applied Both In Ancient And In Modern Times To The Great Peninsula That Projects From The Mass Of Central Europe Far To The South Into The Mediterranean Sea, Where The Island Of Sicily May Be Considered As A Continuation Of The Continental Promontory. The Portion Of ...

Ithaca
Ithaca, A City Of New York, U.s.a., At The Southern End Of Cayuga Lake; The County Seat Of Tompkins County. It Is Served By The Lackawanna And The Lehigh Valley Railways And By Lake Steamers. The Population In 1930 Was 20,708. The City Spreads Up From A Level Valley Over ...

Itinerarium
Itinerarium, A Term Applied To The Extant Descriptions Of The Ancient Roman Roads And Routes Of Traffic, With The Sta Tions And Distances (lat. Iter, Road). Earlier Than These, And Therefore To Be Treated As An Original Source, Are The Silver Cups Found At Vicarello, On The Lake Of Bracciano ...

Itius Portus
Itius Portus, The Name Given By Caesar To The Chief Harbour Which He Used When Embarking For His Second Expedition To Britain In 54 B.c. It Was Certainly Near Cape Grisnez (proinun Torium Itium), But The Exact Site Has Been Disputed. Many Have Assumed That Caesar Used The Port For ...

Itonaman
Itonaman, A Small Group Of Tribes Of South American In Dians, Supposed On Meagre Evidence To Constitute An Independent Linguistic Stock. The Stock Gets Its Name From The Itonamas, The Best Known Tribe Of The Group, Which Occupies A Small Area In North-eastern Bolivia Along The Itonama River (a Tributary ...