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Encyclopedia Britannica

Volume 12, Part 2: Hydrozoa to Epistle of Jeremy

The Iron Age
The Iron Age The Celtic (iron Age) Immigration.—this Ancient People Remained In Undisturbed Possession Of The Country Down To About 400-35o B.c. It Is Possible That There Were Occasional Immigrations Such As A Gold-producing Country Would Naturally Attract ; But If So These Became Absorbed In The Aboriginal Population, And ...

The Jacobins
Jacobins, The, The Most Famous Of The Political Clubs Of The French Revolution. It Originated In The Club Breton, Estab Lished At Versailles Shortly After The Opening Of The States General In 1789. At First Composed Of Deputies From Brittany, It Was Soon Joined By Others From Various Parts Of ...

The Jacquerie
Jacquerie, The, An Insurrection Of The French Peas Antry Which Broke Out In The Ile De France And About Beauvais At The End Of May 1358. The Hardships Endured By The Peasants In The Hundred Years' War And Their Hatred For The Nobles Who Oppressed Them Were The Principal Causes ...

The Japanese Industrial Bank
Japanese Industrial Bank, The. This Bank, The Nippon Kogyo Ginko, Was Established By The Se Gov Ernment In 19o2 As A Joint Stock Company With An Authorized Capi Tal Of 5o,00o,00o Yen Fully Paid Up. The Business Of The Industrial Bank Is (i) To Make Loans On Pledges Of National ...

The Kamakura Period
The Kamakura Period Instead Of Trying To Rule The Court At Kyoto As The Fujiwara And Taira Had Done, Yoritomo With The Help Of His Celebrated Counsellor, Oye Hiromoto, Set Up At Kamakura A New Military Government Called The Bakufu With A Council, Home Office, Treas Ury And Supreme Law ...

The Letter J Of
The Letter J Of The Alphabet. This Letter Was Not Differentiated From I Until Com Paratively Modern Times. It Was The Custom In Mediaeval Mss. To Lengthen The Letter I When It Was In A Prominent Position, Notably When It Was Ini Tial. As Initial I Usually Had Consonantal Force, ...

The Mediaeval Period
The Mediaeval Period The Loth Century Iron-working Among The English Was As Fully Developed As At Any Time During The Next Three Centuries. It Appealed To The Sturdy English Temperament As A Difficult Material Calling For Swift Action ; It Suggested Strength, Stability And Protection, All Of Which Qualities Were ...

The Napoleonic Period
The Napoleonic Period, 1796-1814 At The End Of The 18th Century The Austrian Habsburgs Pos Sessed The Duchies Of Milan (including Mantua) And Tuscany; While Through A Marriage Alliance With The House Of Este Of Mo Dena It Dominated That Duchy And Also Had A Few Fiefs In Piedmont And ...

The New Nationalism
The New Nationalism Foreign Affairs.—soon After Coming Into Power Mussolini Attended The Opening Of The Lausanne Conference On The Peace With Turkey, And There He First Came Into Contact With His British And French Colleagues. On Aug. 27, 1923, The Italian Tellini, President Of The Inter-allied Commission For The Delimita ...

The Rise Of The
The Rise Of The Left Depretis.—the Fall Of The Right On March 18, 1876, Was An Event Destined Profoundly, And In Many Respects Adversely, To Affect The Course Of Italian History. Except At Rare And Not Auspi Cious Intervals, The Right Had Held Office From 1849 To 1876. For Years ...

The Risorgimento
The Risorgimento Since 1821 The Literature Of Italy Has Been Mainly Con Cerned With Political Events. The Names Of Romanticists And Classicists Survived, But The Representatives Of Either School Were Actuated By Patriotism. Pellico's Mie Prigioni And Niccolini's Arnaldo Have Been Mentioned ; Leopardi And Manzoni Themselves Had Given Expression ...

The Risorgimento_2
The Risorgimento As The Result Of The Vienna Treaties, Austria Came To Be The Predominant Power In Italy—lombardy And Venetia She Ruled Directly, The Duchies Through Austrian Princes, And The Other States By Indirect Influence And Alliances. Victor Emmanuel I. Of Sar Dinia Was More Independent Than The Other Italian ...

The Tokugawa Period
The Tokugawa Period The Dutch.—it Was At This Time That The Dutch First Landed In Japan. In I600 The "lief De" Was Towed Into The Harbour Of Funai In Bungo Of Ter A Terrible Voyage. On Board Was The "pilot Major" Of The Expedition, An Englishman, Will Adams Of Kent, ...

The Tokugawa Period_2
The Tokugawa Period The Tokugawa Era (1603-1867), Which Popularized The Drama, Had Memorable Effects Upon Japanese Literature. Yedo, The Sho Gun's Capital, Displaced Kioto As The Centre Of Literary Activity. An Unparalleled Development Of Mental Activity Necessitated Wholesale Drafts Upon The Chinese Vocabulary. To This May Be Attributed The Appearance ...

The Triple Alliance
The Triple Alliance A Conviction Was Spreading That Escape From The Isolation Of Italy Lay In Agreement With Austria And Germany. Depretis Tardily Recognized The Need For Such Agreement, But He Was Opposed To Any F Ormal Alliance, Lest It Might Arouse French Resent Ment, While The New Franco-italian Treaty ...

The Tuscan Dialect
The Tuscan Dialect Tuscan Poetry.—in The I3th Century Tuscany Was Peculiarly Circumstanced Both As Regards Its Literary Condition And Its Political Life. The Tuscans Spoke A Dialect Which Most Closely Resembled The Mother-tongue, Latin—one Which Afterwards Be Came Almost Exclusively The Language Of Literature, And Which Was Already Regarded At ...

The Union Of Italy
The Union Of Italy While Mazzini's Influence Declined, A New Movement For The Union Of Italy Under Victor Emmanuel Gathered Strength. The Propaganda Was Organized By The Sicilian La Farina, By Means Of The Societa Nazionale, And Found Many Adherents, Including Not A Few Ex-republicans Such As Manin, Then An ...

The World War
The World War The Austrian Ultimatum Was Presented To Serbia On July 23, 1914. Italy Co-operated With Great Britain In Trying To Avert A Catastrophe, And Public Opinion, Although Realizing That If A Casus Foederis Under The Terms Of The Triple Alliance Were To Arise, Italy Would Be Bound To ...

Theodore Caldwell Janeway
Janeway, Theodore Caldwell (1872-1917), American Physician, Was Born In New York City Nov. 2, 1872. He Was Educated At The Sheffield Scientific School, Yale University, And The College Of Physicians And Surgeons, Columbia University. From 1898 To 1906 He Taught Medical Diagnosis In New York University. In 1907 He Became ...

Theory Of Hardening And
Theory Of Hardening And Tempering "slip Interference."—these Various Actions Which Go On Within Solid Steel At Moderate Temperatures Are Of The Greatest Commercial Importance, For They Control The Important Operations Of Hardening And Tempering Steels. In The Simplest Example These Consist Of Slowly Heating The Steel To A Temperature Somewhat ...

Thomas Gilchrist Discovery
Thomas-gilchrist Discovery Control Of Phosphorus.—this So-called Acid Process Demands Low-phosphorus Ores And Pig, And Such Material In Europe Is Relatively Scarce And Costly. Early Efforts To Remove Phosphorus In The Converter Failed. Arguing From An Analogy In The Puddling Furnace, Where A Slag Rich In Iron Oxide Will Carry Off ...

Thomas Henry Ismay
Ismay, Thomas Henry (1837-1899), British Ship Owner, Was Born At Maryport, Cumberland, On Jan. 7, 1837. In 1867 He Took Over The White Star Line Of Australian Clippers, And In 1868, Established, In Conjunction With William Imrie, The Oceanic Steam Navigation Company, Which Has Since Become Fa Mous As The ...

Thomas Jefferson
Jefferson, Thomas Third Of The United Of :he 771= Of Arneri:an Apostles Of Democracy. And Cne Ci The Gre.a: Liberals Of Was Born On Apr': A: Virginia. Elis Fe:er • Engineer Who Became A _:us:ice Of :he Peace. Cf The Militia And A Burgess. Served The Surveys. And Married Into ...

Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Jackson, Thomas Jonathan American General, Commonly Known As "stonewall Jackson," Was Born At Clarksburg, Virginia (now West Virginia), On Jan. 21, 1824. His Father Died Leaving His Family Almost Penniless, And The Son, Called Early To Help In The Support Of His Mother, Had Few Opportunities For Education, But By ...

Tomomi Iwakura
Iwakura, Tomomi, Prince (1835-1883), Japanese Statesman, Was Born In Kyoto. He Was One Of The Court Nobles (kuge) Of Japan, And He Traced His Descent To The Emperor Mura Kami (a.d. 947-967). He Took A Leading Part In The Complications Preceding The Fall Of The Tokugawa Shogunate, And Was Obliged ...

Turkish Hostility
Turkish Hostility Troubles On Turkish And Arabian Frontiers.—the Early Years Of King Feisul's Reign Were Troubled Without And Within. To The North Turkish Nationalism Adopted An Attitude Distinctly Hostile To 'iraq. Turkish Garrisons On The Frontier Were Increased, The Tribes Flooded With Propaganda, And The Whole Of Southern Kurdistan Was ...

Unity With The Allies
Unity With The Allies Italy Enters The War.—on May 20, 1915, The Chamber And The Senate Granted The Government Full Powers. On The 23rd The General Mobilization Was Ordered, And On The 24th War Against Austria Was Declared, While Diplomatic Relations With Germany Were Broken Off. Owing To The Persecution ...

Vaclav Jebavy
Jebavy, Vaclav (1868-1929), Czech Poet, Universally Known As Ottokar Bfezina, Was Born At Pontky, Bohemia, On Sept. 13, 1868. He Taught In A Secondary School At Jaromefic, Moravia, Where He Lived A Life Of Contemplative Seclusion, Declin Ing The Honours And Material Advantages Offered Him By The Gov Ernment. His ...

Van Nuyssen Janssens Or
Janssens Or Jansens, Van Nuyssen, Abra Ham (c. 1575-1632), Flemish Painter, Was Born At Antwerp. He Studied Under Jan Snellinck, Was A "master" In 1601, And In 1607 Was Dean Of The Master-painters. Till The Appearance Of Rubens He Was Considered The Best Historical Painter Of His Time. Jans Sens ...

Victor Honorius Janssens Or
Janssens Or Jansens, Victor Honorius (1658-1736), Flemish Painter, Was Born At Brussels. After Seven Years In The Studio Of L. Volders, He Spent Four Years In The House Hold Of The Duke Of Holstein. The Next 11 Years Janssens Passed In Rome, Where He Studied The Antique And The Works ...

War In Africa
War In Africa Eritrea.—the Foreign Policy Of The Second Crispi Adrninistra. Tion Was, As Before, Marked By A Cordial Interpretation Of The Triple Alliance, And By Close Accord With Great Britain. Graver Than Any Foreign Question Were The Complications In Eritrea. Under The Arrangement Concluded In 1891 By Rudini, Relations ...

Washington Irving
Irving, Washington American Man Of Letters, Was Born In New York City On April 3, 1783. Both His Parents Were Immigrants From Great Britain, His Father—orig Inally An Officer In The Merchant Service, But At The Time Of Irving's Birth A Considerable Merchant—having Come From The Orkneys And His Mother ...

Wilhelm Jensen
Jensen, Wilhelm German Novelist, Was Born At Heiligenhafen, Holstein, On Feb. 15, 1837, And Died At Munich On Nov. 24, 1911. He Wrote Some Tragedies, But His Best Work Lies In His Novels, Remarkable For Their Fine Descriptions Of Scene And Place. Among The Best Examples Are : Eddystone (1872), ...

William Henry Ireland
Ireland, William Henry , Forger Of Shakespearian Manuscripts, Born In London, Was The Son Of Samuel Ireland, An Engraver And Author, And Dealer In Rare Books And Curios. In Young Ireland, With His Father, Visited Stratford, Where He Met John Jordan, A Local Poet Who Had Forged The Will Of ...

William Irving
Irving, William (1766-1821), American Writer And Merchant, Was Born On Aug. 15, 1766, The Eldest Brother Of Wash Ington Irving, In Whose Literary Career He Evinced A Life-time Of In Terest. His Success As A Business Man In New York City Enabled Him To Send His Younger Brother Abroad From ...

William Jackson
Jackson, William (1730-1803), English Musician, Was Born At Exeter On May 29, 173o. He Published Many Works During His Lifetime, The Most Famous Of Which Were Twelve Songs ( 755), Which Deserved Their Great Popularity. But He Is Remembered Only For His Te Deum (jackson In F), Which Was A ...

William James
James, William (d. 1827), English Naval Historian, Author Of The Naval History Of Great Britain From The Declara Tion Of War By France In 1793 To The Accession Of George Iv., Practised As A Proctor In The Admiralty Court Of Jamaica Between 18oi And 1813. He Was In The United ...

Willis Linn Jepson
Jepson, Willis Linn ), American Botanist, Was Born At Vacaville, Calif., On Aug. 19, 1867. Following His Graduation At The University Of California In 1889 (ph.d., 1899), He Pursued Botanical Study At Cornell And Harvard Universities And Also At Kew And Berlin. After Serving As Assistant In Botany In 1891-94, ...

With Sweeping Brushes Mouths
Mouths, With Sweeping Brushes The Nucleus Of The Sect As A Strict Monastic Order, Which Eschewed Ownership Of Everything Mun Dane, Even Garments, As The Digambara Ascetic Does Still When Feasible. But Jain History Has Suffered Much From Schism. Still Some Facts May Be Regarded As Ascertained. About 317 B.c. ...

Works To Assure Supplies
Works To Assure Supplies Of Water Did Not Long Remain Content With The Sup Plies River Or Well Provided Him With. He Must Early Have Realized The Advantage Of Storing Water Against Times Of Shortage, As Rivers And Wells Run Low If They Do Not Even Run Dry. At What ...

Wrought Iron
Wrought Iron Wrought Iron, As Compared To The Total Tonnage Of Steel, Is An Unimportant Commodity. It Amounts To Less Than 3% Of The Total Production Of Steel. But It Is Important For Its Unique Combination Of Physical Properties, Enabling It To Survive Since The Time 75 Years Ago When ...