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Encyclopedia Brittanica

Volume 5, Part 1: Cast-Iron to Cole

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Chibouque Or Chibouk
Chibouque Or Chibouk, A Long Turkish Pipe (fr. Form Of The Turk. Chibuk, A Stick), Often Ornamented With Pre Cious Stones. ...

Chic
Chic, In French Artistic Slang, The Quality Of Facile But Super Ficial Brilliance In A Work Of Art, Or An Effect Produced By Imagina Tion Without Reference To A Model; In Its General Sense, It Connotes Smartness In Dress. The Use Of The Word In France Dates From Louis Xiv.'s ...

Chica
Chica, A Fermented Liquor Resembling Beet Made By The Natives Of South America From Indian Corn; Also An Orange-red Pigment Or Dye Stuff Obtained From The Leaves Of Bignonia Chica By The Orinoco Indians. ...

Chicacole
Chicacole, A Town Of British India In The Ganjam District Of Madras, Situated On The Right Bank Of The River Languliya, Here Crossed By A Bridge, 4 M. From The Sea. Pop. (1931) 16,588. Under Mohammedan Rule It Was The Capital Of One Of The Northern Circars, And Afterwards Of ...

Chicago And North Western
Chicago And North Western Railway Company, A Railroad Which Comprises 8,428.05m. Of Rail Way Located In Illinois, Iowa, Nebraska, Wyoming, Wisconsin, Michigan (northern Peninsula), Minnesota, South And North Dakota. It Owned (1934) 1,682 Locomotives, 1,892 Passenger Cars And 6o,o88 Freight Train Cars. The Balance Sheet Shows Fixed Property Of $563,000,000, ...

Chicago Heights
Chicago Heights, A City Of Cook County, Illinois, U.s.a., On Federal Highway 3o, 28m. S. Of Chicago. It Is Served By The Chicago And Eastern Illinois, The Chicago, Milwaukee And St. Paul, The Elgin, Joliet And Eastern, The Michigan Central, The Baltimore And Ohio Chicago Terminal, And The Chicago Heights ...

Chicago Sanitary And Ship
Chicago Sanitary And Ship Canal, In The United States, Is An Engineering Development Of Special Importance To The City Of Chicago And Surrounding Districts. It Was First Opened In 1900 And The Cost Of Construction With Improvements Has Been About $70,000,000. Before The Construction Of The Canal Chicago Discharged Sewerage ...

Chicago
Chicago, A City, A Port Of Entry And The County Seat Of Cook County, Illinois, The Second City Of The United States In Population, Commerce And Manufacture; Pop. (1900) 1,698,575; (191o) 2,185,283; (1920) 2,701,705; The In Crease In The Decade, 1920-30, Partly As A Result Of Annexations, Was The Largest ...

Chicane
Chicane, The Pettifogging Subterfuge And Delay Of Sharp Law-practitioners, Also Any Attempt To Gain Unfair Advantage By Petty Tricks. A More Common English Form Of The Word Is "chi Canery." Chicane Was Also Used Until Recent Years As A Term In The Game Of Bridge For The Points A Player ...

Chichen Iza Or Chichen
Chichen-i:'za Or Chichen, The Ruins Of An Ancient Mayan City Of That Name, In The South-central Part Of The State Of Yucatan, Mexico, Near The Boundary Of Quintana Roo, About 20° 3o' N. Lat. And 88° 3o' W. Longitude. The Dry, Waterless Region Round About Chichen-itza Is Of Limestone Formation, ...

Chichester
Chichester, A City And Municipal Borough In The Chich Ester Parliamentary Division Of Sussex, England, 69m. S.w. Of London By The S.r. Pop. (1931) 13,911. It Lies In The Coastal Plain At The Foot Of A Spur Of The South Downs, A Mile From The Head Of Chichester Harbour, An ...

Chickadee
Chickadee, Common American Name (derived From The Call-note) For The Black-capped Titmouse (pares, Or Penthestes, Atricapillus), Of The North-eastern States. The Brown-capped Chickadee (p. Liudsonicus) Is Resident In Canada. The Carolina Chickadee Breeds In The South-eastern States. The Mountain Chick Adee (p. Gambeli) Is Resident In The Rocky Mountains And ...

Chickamauga
Chickamauga. The Battle Of Chickamauga Was Fought (sept. 19-20, 1863) In Northern Georgia Between The Federal Army Of The Cumberland Under Rosecrans And Bragg's Confeder Ate Army. It Was The One Great Confederate Victory In The West, Rendered Indecisive By Subsequent Events. Bragg, Afraid Of Being Surrounded In Chattanooga, Evacuated ...

Chickasaw
Chickasaw, An American Indian People Of Muskogi Stock For Long Resident In Northern Mississippi, And Later Forming One Of The "five Civilized Tribes" Of Oklahoma. They Were Foes Of The French, Friends Of The British, And Fierce Fighters. They Never Numbered More Than About 5,000, Which Is Also Their Present ...

Chickenpdx Or
Chickenpdx Or Varicella, A Specific Contagious Disease Characterized By An Eruption Of Vesicles In The Skin. The Disease Usually Occurs In Epidemics, And The Patients Are Generally Be Tween Two And Six Years Old. The Incubation Period Is From Ten To 15 Days; There Are Practically No Prodromal Symptoms, Though ...

Chickweed
Chickweed (stellaria Media Or Alsine Media), An Annual Herb Of The Pink Family (caryophyllaceae) , Called Also Satin Flower, Tongue-grass And Winter Weed. It Is Native To Europe And Asia And Widely Naturalized Throughout North America And Other Regions. The Plant Has Weak, Reclining, Much-branched Stems, Oval Or Ovate Leaves ...

Chicle Or Chicle Gum
Chicle Or Chicle-gum, The Coagulated Milky Juice (latex) Of The Sapodilla (sapota Aclzras), A Tropical American Tree Of The Family Sapotaceae (q.v.). It Was First Brought To The United States As A Substitute For Rubber Or Balata, But Since 1890 Has Been Imported In Increasing Quantities, Being The Basic Ingredient ...

Chico
Chico, A City Of Butte County (calif.), U.s.a., 96m. N. Of Sacramento, On The Southern Pacific Railway. The Population In 1930 Was 7,961. Almonds, Prunes And Other Fruits, Alfalfa, Rice And Other Small Grains Are Produced In The Region. The City Has Flour And Rice Mills, A Dried Fruit Packing-house, ...

Chicopee
Chicopee, A City Of Hampden County, Mass., U.s.a., Just North Of Springfield, On The East Bank Of The Connecticut River At The Mouth Of The Chicopee, And Served By The Boston And Maine Railroad. It Has An Area Of 22.9sq.m., And Includes Five Villages: Chicopee Center, Chicopee Falls, Willimansett, Fairview ...

Chicory
Chicory, Cicliorium Intybus (family Compositae), In Its Wild State Is A Native Of Great Britain, Occurring Most Frequently In Dry Chalky Soils And By Road-sides. It Has A Long Fleshy Tap Root, A Rigid Branching Hairy Stem Rising To A Height Of 2 Or Aft.— The Leaves Around The Base ...

Chicoutimi
Chicoutimi, Industrial Town And Capital Of Chicoutimi County, Quebec, Canada, On The Saguenay River (q.v.), 227m. N. By E. From Quebec, On The Canadian National, And Roberval And Saguenay Railways; It Is Also Connected With Quebec By Regular Steamship Lines. Pop. (1931) 11,877. It Is The Centre For One Of ...

Chidambaram
Chidambaram, A Town Of British India, In The South Arcot District Of Madras, 7 M. From The Coast And 151 M. S. Of Madras By Rail. Pop. (1931) 25,084. The Fine Pagodas At Chidam Baram Are The Oldest In The South Of India. Here Is Supposed To Have Been The ...

Chief Justice
Chief Justice. In The Various States Of The United States There Is Uniformly Some Constitutional Provision For A Court Of Last Resort, But The Organization Of That Court Varies Materially. In The Older States, Notably Those In Existence At The Time Of The Adoption Of The Federal Constitution, The Provisions ...

Chief Rent
Chief Rent, The Annual Rent Paid By The Freeholders Of An English Manor To Its Lord. It Is A Payment Which Clears The Freeholder From All Obligations And Dues To The Lord Of The Manor. (see Quit Rent.) ...

Chief
Chief, The Head Or Upper Part Of Anything, And So, In Her Aldry, The Upper Part Of The Escutcheon, Occupying One-third Of The Whole (fr. Chef, Head, Lat. Caput). The Phrase "in Chief" (med. Lat. In Capite) Is Used In Feudal Law Of The Tenant Who Holds His Fief Direct ...

Chiefs
Chiefs. Chieftainship Occurs Among Many But Not All Primitive Peoples At All Levels Of Culture. Its Essential Feature Is The Fact That There Is Always Some Individual Person Who Is Re Garded As The Official Head Of The Community, And Who Acts As Its Leader, Ruler And Representative. Almost Everywhere ...

Chiemsee
Chiemsee, Also Called Bayrisc/zes Meer, The Largest Lake In Bavaria, Lies 1,600ft. Above The Sea, Between The Rivers Inn (to Which It Drains Through The Alz) And Salzach. With A Length Of 6 And A Breadth Of 9m., It Has An Area Of About 33sq.m., And Con Tains Three Islands, ...

Chieng Mai
Chieng Mai Is The Capital Of The Lao State Of The Same Name And Of The Provincial Division Of Siam Called Bayap. The Town, Enclosed By Massive But Decaying Walls, Lies On The Right Bank Of The Me Ping, One Of The Branches Of The Me Nam, In A Plain ...

Chieri
Chieri, A Town And Episcopal See Of Piedmont, Italy, Prov Ince Of Turin, 13m. S.e. By Rail And 8m. By Road From The Town Of Turin. Pop. (192 1) 9,385 (town) ; 13,667 (commune). Its Gothic Cathedral (1037, Rebuilt 1405), Is The Largest In Piedmont, And Has A 13th Century ...

Chieti
Chieti, A City Of The Abruzzi, Italy, The Capital Of The Prov Ince Of Chieti, And The Seat Of An Archbishop, 140 M. E.n.e. Of Rome By Rail, And 9 M. W. Of Castellammare Adriatico. Pop. (193o) 20,234 (town), 34,085 (commune). It Is Situated At A Height Of 1,083 Ft. ...

Chiffon
Chiffon. In Dress Fabrics, One Of The Most Delicate, Gauze Like And Transparent Of All Silk Tissues. Chiffon Consists Of A Plain Woven Texture Produced From Very Fine And Hard-twisted Warp And Weft Of Corresponding Denier (counts), With A Corre Sponding Number Of Warp Threads And Picks Per Inch, And ...

Chiffonier
Chiffonier, A Piece Of Furniture Differentiated From The Sideboard By Its Smaller Size And By The Enclosure Of The Whole Of The Front By Doors. Its Name (which Comes From The French For A Rag-gatherer) Suggests That It Was Originally Intended As A Recep Tacle For Odds And Ends Which ...

Chigwell
Chigwell, Parish And Residential District Of Essex, Eng Land, With Stations (chigwell Lane And Chigwell) On The L.n.e.r., 13m. N.e. Of London. Pop. (1921) 2,943. The Village, Which Fig Ures In The Domesday Survey, Lies In A Branch Of The Roding Valley, Fragments Of Hainault Forest Lying To The South ...

Chihli
Chihli, The Most North-easterly Of The Historic Eighteen Provinces Of China. The Name Means "under Direct Rule," For It Contains Peking Which, Except For A Short Period At The Beginning Of The Ming Dynasty, Has Been Continuously The Capital Of China From The Establishment Of Mongol Rule In 1280. In ...

Chihuahua
Chihuahua, A Northern Frontier State Of Mexico, Bounded N. And N.e. By The United States (new Mexico And Texas), E. By Coahuila, S. By Durango, And W. By Sinaloa And Sonora. The Population In 1930 Was 489,537, And The Area, 94,831 Sq.m. The Surface Of The State Is In Great ...

Chihuahua_2
Chihuahua, A City Of Mexico, Capital Of Chihuahua State, About 1,000m. N.w. Of Mexico City And 225m. S. By E. Of El Paso. Pop. (1910) 39,706; (193o) 59,607. The City Stands In A Beautiful Valley Opening Northward And Hemmed In On All Other Sides By Spurs Of The Sierra Madre. ...

Chilachap
Chilachap, A Port In Java, Dutch East Indies, On The South Coast, In The Residency Of Banjumas, To The Left Of Schild Padden Bay. Its Harbour, The Most Favoured By Nature In The Whole Of Java, Is Formed By The Island Of Nusa Kambangan, Which Is Long And Narrow, And ...

Chilas
Chilas, A Hill Village Far Up The Indus Gorges In The North West Frontier Province Of India. It Is Dominated By A Fort On The Left Bank Of The Indus, About 5o M. Below Bunji, 4,100 Ft. Above Sea-level. It Was Occupied By A British Force Early In 1893, And ...

Chilblains
Chilblains (or Kibe; Erythema Pernio), A Mild Form Of Frostbite, Affecting The Fingers Or Toes And Other Parts, And Causing A Painful Inflammatory Swelling, With Redness And Itching Of The Affected Part. The Chief Points In Its Aetiology Are (1) The Lesions Occur In The Extremities Of The Circulation, And ...

Child Development In The
Child Development In The United States Within Recent Years Great Interest In The Scientific Study Of Children Has Arisen In The United States. A Number Of Institutes Which Co-operate With And Co-ordinate The Work Of Various Depart Ments Such As Anatomy, Pediatrics, Psychology, Home Economics, Education, Sociology, Etc.. Have Been ...

Child Labour In The
Child Labour In The United States The U. S. Census Of 1930 Reported Over 667,118 Children Io To 15 Years Of Age, Inclusive, As "engaged In Gainful Occupations" In The United States. This Number Was Approximately One-twentieth Of The Total Number (14,300,s 76) Of Children Of That Age In The ...

Child Labour
Child Labour The Movement For The Legal Prohibition Or Restriction Of Child Labour Developed During The Industrial Revolution When The Evil Effects Of Industrial Employment On The Physical, Mental And Moral Development Of Children First Attracted Public Attention. The First Legislative Measure Restricting Child Labour Was Adopted In England In ...

Child Psychology
Child Psychology. General Psychology Is Concerned Chiefly With The Mental Life Of Human Beings. Child Psychology Considers The Complicated Course Of Mental Development Which Precedes Maturity, And Embraces Newborn Infancy As Well As Childhood And Youth. Adolescence, The Complex Period Of Transi Tion Which Begins With Puberty In The Early ...

Child Study Associations
Child Study Associations Are Of Two Types, Those Whose Programmes Are Devoted To Child Study In General And Those Who Have Incorporated In Their Programmes A Depart Ment Of Special Work. In The United States The Associations Either Organize Or Encourage The Organization Of Study Groups, And Undertake Research, Lectures, ...

Child Welfare And Child
Child Welfare And Child Labour. Syste Matic Child Welfare Work, The Object Of Which Is To Promote The Mental, Moral And Physical Well-being Of Children, Is A Compara Tively Modern Development And It Received Little Official Recognition In Any Country Before The Middle Of The 19th Century. At First, The ...

Child Welfare
Child Welfare In All Civilized Countries There Will Be Found Legislation Directed Towards Securing Care And Protection For Children. Side By Side With These Official Provisions, There Will Be Found Work Carried On By Voluntary And Charitable Organizations Which Supplements, And Has Even In Many Cases Initiated, Official Child Welfare ...

Childebert I
Childebert I. (d. 558) Was One Of The Four Sons Of Clovis. In The Partition Of His Father's Realm In 511 He Received As His Share The Town Of Paris, And The Country To The North As Far As The River Somme, And To The West As Far As The ...

Childebert Ii
Childebert Ii. (57o-595), King Of Austrasia, Was A Son Of Sigebert. When His Father Was Assassinated In 575, Childebert Was Taken From Paris By Gundobald, One Of His Faithful Leudes, To Metz, Where He Was Recognized As Sovereign. He Was Then Only Five Years Old, And During His Long Minority ...

Childebert Iii
Childebert Iii. Was One Of The Last And Feeblest Of The Merovingians. A Son Of King Theuderich Iii., He Succeeded His Brother Clovis Iii. In 695, And Reigned Until 711. ...

Childeric I
Childeric I. (c. 437-481), King Of The Salian Franks, Suc Ceeded His Father Merwich (merovech) As King About 457. With His Tribe He Was Established Around The Town Of Tournai, On Lands Which He Had Received As A Foederatus Of The Romans, And For Some Time He Kept The Peace ...

Childeric Ii
Childeric Ii. (c. 653-675), King Of Austrasia, Was A Son Of The Frankish King Clovis Ii., And In 66o, Although A Child, Was Pro Claimed King Of Austrasia, While His Brother, Clotaire Iii., Ruled Over The Rest Of The Dominions Of Clovis. After The Death Of Clotaire In 67o He ...

Childeric Iii
Childeric Iii. (d.c. 751), King Of The Franks, Was The Last Of The Fainéant Merovingian Kings. The Throne Had Been Vacant For Seven Years When The Mayors Of The Palace, Carloman And Pippin The Short, Decided In 743 To Recognize Childeric As King. We Can Not Say Whose Son He ...

Childrenite
Childrenite, A Rare Mineral Species; A Hydrous Basic Alu Minium Iron Phosphate, Orthorhombic In Crystallization, Found As Small Brilliant Crystals Of A Yellowish-brown Colour During The Cut Ting Of A Canal Near Tavistock In Devonshire In 1823. ...

Childrens Books
Children's Books. Children's "books" In Europe, Like Other Books, Were In Use Before The Invention Of Printing. Such Works As Gesta Romanorum, The Riddles And Scholastic Exer Cises Of Aelfric And Alcuin, Versions Of Aesop's Fables, Etc., Were All Used By Elder Children. They Are, However, A Piece Of Social ...

Childrens Courts Or Juvenile
Children's Courts Or Juvenile Courts, A Special System Of Tribunals For Dealing With Juvenile Offenders, Which Has Found Its Widest Development In The United States. The Earliest Trace Of Such Institutions Is However Contained In A Swiss Ordinance Of The Year 1862. In 1869 Massachusetts Adopted The Same Principle When ...

Childrens Diet
Children's Diet. At The End Of The First Year The In Fant Has Passed From An Entirely, Or Almost Entirely, Liquid Diet To One Which Includes Solid Food, And Yet Not To The Same Degree Nor Of The Same Sort As Is Given To Older Children. During The Second Year, ...

Childrens Games
Children's Games. The Study Of Traditional Games Has In Recent Years Become An Important Branch Of Folklore Research, And Has Contributed Not A Little Towards Elucidating Many Unre Corded Facts In Early History. These Games May Be Broadly Divided Into Two Kinds—dramatic Games, And Games Of Skill And Chance. These ...

Childress
Childress, A City In The "panhandle" Of Texas, U.s.a., Near The Red River And The Oklahoma Border ; The County Seat Of Childress County. It Is On Federal Highway 370, Is Served By The Colorado And Southern Railway, And Has An Airport. In 1900 The Population Was 692 ; In ...

Chile
Chile (possibly From The Quichua Tchili, Snow) Is A South American, West Coast Republic, Occupying The Limited Western Slopes Of The Continent South Of Peru. It Is A Narrow Ribbon-like Country, Varying From 46 To 25o M. Wide, With A Meridional Length Of 2,661 M., And Extending Approximately Between 17° ...

Chilean Civil War
Chilean Civil War (1891). The Chilean Civil War Grew Out Of Political Dissensions Between The President Of Chile, J. M. Balmaceda, And His Congress (see Chile : History), And Began In Jan. 1891. On The 6th, At Valparaiso, The Political Leaders Of The Congressional Party Went On Board The Ironclad ...

Chili Or Chiles
Chili Or Chiles, The Pods Of Several Kinds Of Peppers, Notanly The Capsicum, Used As Condiment. In Mexico A Dish Of Meat And Beans, Called Chili Con Came, Is Highly Flavoured With Chili. Chiles Are Generally Considered Too "hot" For Northern Dishes, But In Tropical Countries They Are Used In ...

Chilia
Chilia, A Town Of Bessarabia, Rumania, In The Department Of Ismail, And On The Chilia Branch Of The Danube. Pop. (1930), 17,050. Chilia Is A Small Fishing Centre And Port Of Some His Torical Interest. Anciently Known As Chilia, Chele Or Lycostom Ium, It Was A Place Of Banishment For ...

Chiliasm
Chiliasm, The Belief That Christ Will Return To Reign For A Thousand Years (from Gr. Xlxcaayos, )(aatm, A Thousand), The Doctrine Of The Millennium (q.v.). ...

Chill Hardening
Chill Hardening, The Process Of Hardening The Surface Of A Metal By Rapidly Cooling It While It Is Molten Or At A Very High Temperature. Usually The Chilling Is Done By Plunging The Object In A Bath Of Water Or Oil. In The Case Of Railway And Other Wagon And ...

Chillan
Chillan, A City And The Capital Of The Province Of Nuble, In The Southern Part Of Central Chile, 246 M. By Rail South-south West Of Santiago And About 56 M. Direct (io8 By Rail) North-east Of Concepcion. Pop. 56.974. Chilean Is One Of The Most Active Commercial Cities Of Central ...

Chillianwalla
Chillianwalla, A Village Of British India In The Pun Jab, Situated On The Left Bank Of The River Jhelum, About 85m. N.w. Of Lahore. It Is Memorable As The Scene Of A Battle On Jan. 13, 1849, Between A British Force Commanded By Lord Gough And The Sikh Army Under ...

Chillicothe
Chillicothe, A City Of Northern Missouri, U.s.a., On The Grand River, 8om. N.e. Of Kansas City; The County Seat Of Liv Ingston County. It Is On Federal Highways 36 And 65 And 23 Other Roads, And Is Served By The Burlington, The Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul And Pacific, And The ...

Chillicothe_2
Chillicothe, A City Of Ohio, U.s.a., On The Scioto River, 50m. S. Of Columbus; The County Seat Of Ross County. It Is On Federal Highways 23 And 5o, And Is Served By The Baltimore And Ohio And The Norfolk And Western Railways. The Population In 1920 (91.5% Native White) Was ...

Chilliwack
Chilliwack, A Town Of British Columbia, Canada, On Fraser River, 7o M. E. Of Vancouver. Pop. (1931) 2,461. It Is The Terminus Of The British Columbia Electric Railway From Van Couver, Is Served Also By The Canadian National Railways, And Is Connected By Ferry With Harrison Mills On The Canadian ...

Chiloe
Chiloe, A Province Of Southern Chile, And Also The Name Of A Large Island Off The Chilean Coast Forming Part Of The Province. The Province, Area About 12,738 Sq.m., Pop. (193o) About (including Llanquihue), Is Composed Of Three Groups Of Islands, Chiloe, Guaitecas And Chonos, And A Large Body Of ...

Chilon
Chilon, Of Sparta, Son Of Damagetus, One Of The Seven Sages Of Greece, Flourished About The Beginning Of The 6th Century B.c. In 56o (or S56) He Acted As Ephor, An Office Which He Is Even Said To Have Founded. According To Chilon, The Great Virtue Of Man Was Prudence, ...

Chilperic I
Chilperic I. (d. 584) Was One Of The Sons Of Clotaire I. Im Mediately After The Death Of His Father In 561 He Endeavoured To Take Possession Of The Whole Kingdom, Seized The Treasure Amassed In The Royal Town Of Berny And Entered Paris. His Brothers, However, Compelled Him To ...

Chilperic Ii
Chilperic Ii. (d. Tao) Was The Son Of Childeric Ii. He Became King Of Neustria In 715, On Which Occasion He Changed His Name From Daniel To Chilperic. At First He Was A Tool In The Hands Of Ragenfrid, The Mayor Of The Palace. Charles Martel, However, Overthrew Ragenf Rid, ...

Chiltern Hills Or The
Chiltern Hills Or The Chilterns, A Range Of Chalk Hills In England, Extending From South-west To North-east Through Part Of Oxfordshire, Buckinghamshire And Bedfordshire. They Form A Well-marked Escarpment, Facing North-westwards, With A Long South-eastern Slope, And Run From The Thames In The Neighbourhood Of Goring To The Headwaters Of ...

Chiltern Hundreds
Chiltern Hundreds. An Old Principle Of English Parliamentary Law Declared That A Member Of The House Of Com Mons, Once Duly Chosen, Could Not Resign His Seat. This Rule Was A Relic Of The Days When The Local Gentry Had To Be Compelled To Serve In Parliament. The Only Method, ...

Chilwa
Chilwa (incorrectly Shiawa) , '5° 15' S., 35° 40' E. ; A Shallow Lake Of Brackish Water In The Nyasaland Protectorate Abutting On Portuguese East Africa. Its Area Varies With The Rainfall, But Never Exceeds Zoo Sq. Miles. Formerly, At A Period Of Higher Level, The Lake Appears To Have ...

Chimaera
Chimaera. This Term Is Used In Botany To Apply To Cer Tain Types Of Plants Formerly Known As "graft-hybrids." The Term Graft-hybrid Suggests A Plant Which Is A True Hybrid Pro Duced By Grafting, I.e., A Plant Produced By The Fusion Of Cells De Rived Respectively From The Two Plants ...

Chimaera_2
Chimaera. In Greek Mythology A Chimaera Was A Fire Breathing Female Monster Resembling A Lion In The Fore Part, A Goat In The Middle, And A Dragon Behind (iliad, Vi. 179) . She Devastated Caria And Lycia Until Finally She Was Slain By Bellero Phon (q.v.). In Art The Chimaera ...

Chimay
Chimay, A Town In The Extreme South-east Of The Province Of Hainaut, Belgium, Dating From The Seventh Century. Pop. (1931), 3,368. Owing To Its Proximity To The French Frontier It Has Under Gone Many Sieges, The Last Of Which Was In 1640, When Turenne Reduced It To Ruins. The Town ...

Chime Bells
Chime-bells, A Mediaeval Instrument Consisting Of A Set Of Small Bells Of Varying Pitch Which Were Arranged In A Frame And Struck With A Hammer Of Ter The Manner Of A Glockenspiel. They Ranged In Number From Four Or Five Up To As Many As 14 Or 15. The Chime-bells ...

Chime I
Chime. (i) Probably Derived From A Mistaken Separation Into Two Words, Chimbe Bell, Of Chymbal Or Chymbel, The Old Form Of "cymbal," Lat. Cymbalum. A Mechanical Arrangement By Which A Set Of Bells In A Church Or Other Tower, Or In A Clock, Are Struck So As To Produce A ...

Chimkent
Chimkent, A Town In The Syr Dania Province Of The Kazak (kirghiz) A.s.s.r. Of The R.s.f.s.r., Lat. 20' N., Long. 69° 40' E. Pop. (1926) Mostly Sarts. It Lies In A Fertile Valley Between The Alexander Range And The Ala-tau, And Is The Centre Of A Grain, Fruit Growing And ...

Chimney And Fireplace Construction
Chimney And Fireplace Construction Correct Chimney Construction Is Absolutely Essential To Economi Cal Home Heating. The Ideal And Most Efficient Chimney Is Vertical, With Round Flue And Smooth Interior Surfaces (fig. I). All Chim Neys Should Be Built With "fire-clay" Flue Linings (not "flue-tile," "terra-cotta" Or "clay" Flue Lining). Faulty ...

Chimney Piece
Chimney Piece, In Architecture, Originally A Hood, Pro Jecting From The Wall Over A Grate, Built To Catch The Smoke And Lead It Up To The Chimney Flue; Later, Any Decorative Development Of The Same Type Or For The Same Purpose; A Mantel Or Mantel Piece. Like The Chimney (q.v.), ...

Chimney
Chimney, That Portion Of A Building By Means Of Which Smoke Is Conveyed From Fires Inside To The Outside Air. The Necessity Of A Chimney Appears Only When Braziers Are Abandoned In Favour Of Large Fireplaces. Thus In Northern Europe In The 12th Century The Primitive Hole In The Roof ...

Chimpanzee
Chimpanzee, The Popular Name (of Native African Origin) Of The More Widely Distributed Of The Two Genera Of Anthropoid Apes Of The African Equatorial Forests; The Other Being The Closely Related But Larger Gorilla (q.v.). The Paramount Interest Of The Chimpanzee Lies In Its Resemblance To Man. Though It Walks ...

Chin
Chin, A Burmese Term For A Hill-man Applied In Particular To Branches Of The Kuki (q.v.) Race, Inhabiting The Hills Along The West Bank Of The Chindwin River South Of Manipur. ...

Classification Of The Elements
Classification Of The Elements As Early As 1815 Prout Put Forward The View That All The Elements Were Compounded Of Hydrogen, And All The Atomic Weights Were Simple Multiples Of That Unit. That So Many Of The Atomic Weights Approached Whole Numbers Very Closely Seemed To Exclude That This Was ...

Claude Chappe
Chappe, Claude (1763-1805), French Engineer, Was Born At Brulon (sarthe) In 1763. With His Brother, Ignace (1760 1829), He Was The Inventor Of An Optical Telegraph Widely Used In France Until It Was Superseded By The Electric Telegraph. His De Vice Consisted Of An Upright Post, On The Top Of ...

Compound Celluloses
Compound Celluloses The Celluloses From The Cell Walls Of The Phanerogams Are Generally Associated With Incrustants Of Complicated Structure : E.g., With Pectins To Form Pecto-celluloses; With Lignone To Form Ligno-celluloses; And With Fatty Acids To Form Adipo- Or Cuto Celluloses. These Cellulosic Materials Are Usually Called "compound Celluloses." Pecto-celluloses.—the ...

Conception And Evolution Of
Conception And Evolution Of Modern Census The Census, As Now Conceived, Has Two Main Objects. It Provides An Instantaneous Picture Of The Community—a Cross-section Of The Body-politic Exhibiting Its Constitution At The Point Of Time When It Is Made. It Thus Affords Knowledge Of Numbers And Conditions Which Is Valid ...

Council Of Chalcedon
Chalcedon, Council Of, The Fourth Oecumenical Council Of The Catholic Church, Was Held In 451, Its Occasion Being The Eutychian Heresy And The Notorious "robber Synod" (see ...

Cram
Cram, A Muslim Tribe Of Indo-china, Rather Dark Skinned With Oceanic Affinities (see Asia), Practising Circumcision But With Strong Traces Of Hinduism, Phallic Worship And Animism Surviving In Their Beliefs And Customs. Thus They Believe In A Plurality Of Souls, Eighteen Of Which Are Mortal, Attached To Each Individual, And ...

Crape
Crape, A Cover Or Metal Plate, Such As The Cap Upon The Needle In The Compass, Also The Transverse Guard Of A Sword Which Protects The Hand (fr. Chape, A Hood, Cope Or Sheath) ; Also, A Support Or Catch To Attach One Thing To Another, As The Hook On ...

Daltons Atomic Theory
Dalton's Atomic Theory Not Only Were Black And Cavendish Clearly Convinced That Chemical Combination Took Place In Definite Proportions By Weight, But All Lavoisier's Work Shows His Belief In This Law. On The Other Hand, Bergman And His Followers Had Worked On The Quan Tities Of Acid And Base Required ...

Danese Di Michele Cattaneo
Cattaneo, Danese Di Michele Italian Sculptor, Born At Colonnata, Near Carrara, Pupil Of Jacopo Sansovino In Rome. It Is Said He Was Taken Prisoner Three Times By The Imperialists During The "sacco Di Roma" In 1527. He Fled To Florence, Where He Carved The Marble Bust Of Alessandro De Medici ...

De La Frontera Chiclana
Chiclana, De La Frontera, A Town Of Southern Spain, In The Province Of Cadiz, 12m. S.e. Of Cadiz. Pop. (193o) 15,090. Owing To Its Position In The Fertile, Sheltered Valley Of The Irio, Facing The Gulf Of Cadiz, 3m. W., Chiclana Is The Centre Of A Great Fruit And Vine ...

Desire Charnay Claude Joseph
Charnay (claude Joseph), Desire (1828 1915), French Traveller And Archaeologist, Was Born In Fleurie (rhone), Studied At The Lycee Charlemagne, And In 185o Became A Teacher In New Orleans, Louisiana. He Travelled In Mexico Under A Commission From The French Ministry Of Education, In 1857-61; In Madagascar In 1863 ; ...

Dionysius Cato
Cato, Dionysius, The Supposed Author Of The Dionysii Catonis Disticha De Moribus Ad Filium. In The Middle Ages The Author Of The Disticha Was Supposed To Be Cato The Elder, Who Wrote A Carmen De Moribus, But Extracts From This In Aulus Gellius Show That It Was In Prose. Nothing ...

Diseases Of Children
Children, Diseases Of. The Study Of This Subject, Known Also As Pediatrics, Is Comparatively Modern. There Was No Recognition Of The Need For Special Instruction In It As Part Of The Curriculum At The Medical Schools, Until, In 1899, King's College Hospital (london) Appointed A Physician To Treat Children Only ...