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Encyclopedia Britannica

Volume 5, Part 2: Cast-Iron to Cole

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Claymore
Claymore (from The Gaelic Claidheamli Mar, "great Sword"), The Old Two-edged Broadsword With Cross Hilt, Of Which The Guards Were Usually Turned Down, Used By The Highlanders Of Scotland. The Name Is Also Wrongly Applied To The Single-edged Basket-hilted Sword Adopted In The I 6th Century And Still Worn As ...

Clayton Bulwer Treaty
Clayton-bulwer Treaty, A Famous Treaty Be Tween The United States And Great Britain, Negotiated In 185o By John M. Clayton And Sir Henry Lytton Bulwer (lord Dalling) In Consequence Of The Situation Created By The Project Of An Inter Oceanic Canal Across Nicaragua, Each Signatory Being Jealous Of The Activities ...

Clazomenae
Clazomenae, An Ancient Town Of Ionia And A Member Of The Ionian Dodecapolis (confederation Of Twelve Cities), On The Gulf Of Smyrna, About 20 M. W. Of That City. Though Not In Existence Before The Arrival Of The Ionians In Asia, Its Original Founders Were Largely Settlers From Phlius And ...

Cleanthes
Cleanthes (c. 301-232 Or 252 B.c.), Stoic Philosopher, Was Born At Assos In The Troad. He Came To Athens, Where He Listened First To The Lectures Of Crates The Cynic, And Then To Those Of Zeno The Stoic, Supporting Himself Meanwhile By Working All Night As Water-carrier To A Gardener ...

Clearchus
Clearchus, The Son Of Rhamphias, A Spartan General And Condottiere. Born About The Middle Of The 5th Century B.c., Cle Archus Was Sent With A Fleet To The Hellespont In 41i And Became Harmost Of Byzantium. His Severity, However, Made Him Unpop Ular, And In His Absence The Gates Were ...

Clearfield
Clearfield, A Borough Of Clearfield County, Pennsylvania, U.s.a., 35m. N. Of Altoona, On The West Branch Of The Susque Hanna River, At An Altitude Of I,io8ft., In The "central Pennsyl Vania" Coal-field. It Is On Federal Highway 322 ; Is Served By The Buffalo, Rochester And Pittsburgh, The New York ...

Clearing House
Clearing House. When Business Houses Or Firms En Gaged In The Same Kind Of Activity Have Large Dealings With Each Other It Is An Obvious Convenience And Economy To Establish A Mutual Institution To Enable Them To Set Off Their Transactions With Each Other And To Clear Them, Thus Making ...

Clearwater
Clearwater, A City On The West Coast Of Florida, U.s.a., 3om. W. Of Tampa ; The County Seat Of Beautiful Pinellas County, Which Occupies A Small Peninsula Between The Gulf Of Mexico And Clearwater Bay. It Is Served By The Atlantic Coast Line And The Seaboard Air Line Railways. In ...

Cleat
Cleat, A Wedge-shaped Piece Of Wood Fastened To Ships' Masts And Elsewhere, To Prevent A Rope, Collar Or The Like From Slipping, Or To Act As A Step ; More Particularly A Piece Of Wood Or Metal With Double Or Single Horns Used For Belaying Ropes. A "cleat" Is Also ...

Cleator Moor
Cleator Moor, An Urban District, West Cumberland, England, 44 M. S.e. Of Whitehaven, Served By The L.m.s.r. Pop. 6,582. The Town Lies Between The Valleys Of The Ehen And Its Tributary The Dub Beck, In A District Rich In Coal And Iron Ore. The Mines Together With Metal Works Employ ...

Cleavers Or Goose Grass
Cleavers Or Goose-grass, Galium Aparine (family Rubiaceae), A Common Plant In Hedges And Waste Places, With A Long, Weak, Straggling, Four-sided, Green Stem, Bearing Whorls Of Six To Eight Narrow Leaves, To Gin. Long, And, Like The Angles Of The Stem, Rough From The Presence Of Short, Stiff, Downwardly Pointing, ...

Cleft Palate
Cleft Palate And Harelip, In Surgery. Cleft Palate Is A Congenital Cleavage In The Roof Of The Mouth, And Is Frequently Associated With Hare-lip. Both Conditions Are Due To Faulty Development And May Be Hereditary. The Infant Is Pre Vented From Sucking, And An Operation Is Necessary. The Most Favourable ...

Cleisthenes
Cleisthenes, The Name Of Two Greek Statesmen, (1) Of Athens, (2) Of Sicyon, Of Whom The First Is Far The More Important. ...

Cleisthenes_2
Cleisthenes Is Also The Name Of An Athenian Pilloried By Aristoph Anes (clouds, 354; Thesm. 574) As A Fop And A Profligate. ...

Cleitarchus
Cleitarchus, One Of The Historians Of Alexander The Great, Possibly A Native Of Egypt, Or At Least Spent Some Time At The Court Of Ptolemy Lagus. Quintilian (instit. X. I. 74) Credits Him With More Ability Than Trustworthiness, And Cicero (brutus, Ii.) Accuses Him Of Giving A Fictitious Account Of ...

Cleithral
Cleithral, An Architec,ural Term Applied To A Greek Temple Whose Roof Completely Covered It; In Contradistinction To Hypaethral, Applied To One Partly Or Wholly Open To The Sky. ...

Cleitomachus
Cleitomachus, Greek Philosopher, Was A Carthaginian, Who Came To Athens About The Middle Of The 2nd Century B.c. At The Age Of 24. He Studied Principally Under Carneades, Whose Views He Adopted And Propagated And Whom He Succeeded As Chief Of The New Academy In 129 B.c. Of Cleitomachus' Works ...

Cleitor Or Clitor
Cleitor Or Clitor, A Town Of Ancient Greece, Stood In A Fertile Plain Of Arcadia To The South Of Mt. Chelmos, Not Far From A Stream Of Its Own Name. In The Neighbourhood Was A Foun Tain, The Waters Of Which Were Said To Deprive Those Who Drank Them Of ...

Clematis
Clematis, In Botany A Genus Of The Crowfoot Family (ranunculaceae), Containing 220 Species And Widely Distributed. It Is Represented In England By Clematis Vitalba, Old Man's Beard Or Traveller's Joy, A Common Plant On Chalky Or Light Soil. The Plants Are Shrubby Climbers With Generally Compound, Opposite Leaves, The Stalk ...

Clement I
Clement I., Saint, Generally Known As Clement Of Rome, Or Clemens Romanus (fl. C. A.d. 96), Was One Of The "apostolic Fathers," And In The Lists Of Bishops Of Rome Is Given The Third Or Fourth Place—peter, Linus (anencletus), Clement. There Is No Ground For Origen's Identification Of Him With ...

Clement Ii
Clement Ii. (suidger) Became Pope On Dec. 25, 1046. He Belonged To A Noble Saxon Family, Was Bishop Of Bamberg, And Chancellor To The Emperor Henry Iii., Who Elevated Him To The Papacy. He Was The First Pope Placed On The Throne By The Power Of The German Emperors, But ...

Clement Iii
Clement Iii. (paolo Scolari), Pope From 1187 To 1191, A Roman, And Cardinal Bishop Of Palestrina, Was Chosen Pope On Dec. 19, 1187. In 1189 He Made Peace With The Emperor Frederick I. Barbarossa. He Settled A Controversy With William Of Scotland Concerning The Choice Of The Archbishop Of St. ...

Clement Iv
Clement Iv. (gui Foulques), Pope From 1265 To 1268, Son Of A Lawyer, Was Born At St. Gilles-sur-rhone. He Became A Valued Legal Adviser Of Louis Ix. Of France, And After The Death Of His Wife Took Orders. In 1257 He Was Made Bishop Of Le Puy, In 1259 Archbishop ...

Clement Ix
Clement Ix. (giulio Rospigliosi) Was Born In I600, Became Successively Auditor Of The Rota, Archbishop Of Tarsus In Partibus, And Cardinal, And Was Elected Pope On June 20, 1667. He Effected A Temporary Adjustment Of The Jansenist Controversy; Was Instru Mental In Concluding The Peace Of Aix-la-chapelle (1668) ; Healed ...

Clement Of Alexandria
Clement Of Alexandria (clemens Alexandrinus) Was Probably Born About A.d. Of Heathen Parents In Athens. The Earliest Writer After Himself Who Gives Us Any Information With Regard To Him Is Eusebius (d. 37o). The Only Points On Which His Works Now Extant Inform Us Are His Date And His Instructors. ...

Clement V
Clement V. (bertrand De Gouth), Pope From 1305 To 1314, Was Born Of A Noble Gascon Family About 1264. Af Ter Studying At Toulouse, Orleans, And Bologna, He Became A Canon At Bor Deaux, Then Vicar-general To His Brother, The Archbishop Of Lyons, In 1295 Bishop Of Cominges, And In ...

Clement Vi
Clement Vi. (pierre Roger), Pope From May 7, 1342, To Dec. 6, 1352, Was Born At Maumont, Limousin, In 1291, Joined The Benedictines As A Boy, Studied At Paris, And Became Succes Sively Prior Of St. Baudil, Abbot Of Fecamp, Bishop Of Arras, Chancellor Of France, Archbishop Of Sens And ...

Clement Vii
Clement Vii. (giulio De' Medici), Pope From 1523 To Was The Son Of Giuliano De' Medici, Assassinated In The Pazzi Con Spiracy At Florence. After The Death Of Lorenzo, Giulio In Went Into Exile; But, On Giovanni's Restoration To Power, Re Turned To Florence, Of Which He Was Made Archbishop ...

Clement Viii
Clement Viii. (ippolito Aldobrandini), Pope From 1592 To 16o5, Was Born At Fano In 1535. He Became A Jurist And In 1585 Was Made A Cardinal. On Jan. 3o, 1592, He Was Elected Pope, To Succeed Innocent Ix. To Emancipate The Papacy From Undue Spanish Influence, Clement Cultivated Closer Relations ...

Clement Viii_2
Clement Viii. (aegidius Munoz), Antipope From 1425 To July 26, 1429, Was A Canon At Barcelona Until Elected By Three Cardinals Created By The Antipope Benedict Xiii. Clement Was Recognized By Alphonso V. Of Aragon, Who Was Hostile To Pope Martin V. On Account Of The Latter's Opposition To His ...

Clement Vii_2
Clement Vii. (robert Of Geneva) (d. , Antipope, After Occupying The Episcopal Sees Of Therouanne And Cambrai, Became A Cardinal. In 1378 He Took Part In The Election Of Pope Urban Vi. At Rome, And Was Perhaps The First To Express Doubts As To The Validity Of That Tumultuous Election. ...

Clement X
Clement X. (emilio Altieri) Was Born In Rome On July 13, 159o. Before Becoming Pope, On April 29, 167o, He Had Been Auditor In Poland, Governor Of Ancona, And Nuncio In Naples. His Advanced Age Induced Him To Resign The Control Of Affairs To His Adopted Nephew, Cardinal Paluzzi, Who ...

Clement Xi
Clement Xi. (giovanni Francesco Albani), Pope From 1700 To 1721, Was Born In Urbino On July 22, 1649, And After Filling Various Important Offices In The Curia Became Pope On Nov. 23, 1700, Succeeding Innocent Xii. His Private Life And His Adminis Tration Were Blameless, But It Was His Misfortune ...

Clement Xii
Clement Xii. (lorenzo Corsini), Pope From 173o To 174o, Succeeded Benedict Xiii. On July 12, 173o. Clement Laboured For A Union With The Greek Church, And Was Ready To Facilitate The Return Of The Protestants Of Saxony. His Services To Learning And Art Include The Restoration Of The Arch Of ...

Clement Xiii
Clement Xiii. (carlo Della Torre Rezzonico), Pope From 1758 To 1769, Was Born In Venice On March 7, 1693, Filled Various Important Posts In The Curia, Became Cardinal In 1737, Bishop Of Padua In 1743, And Succeeded Benedict Xiv. As Pope On July 6, 1758. He Was A Man Of ...

Clement Xiv
Clement Xiv. (lorenzo Ganganelli), Pope From 1769 To Son Of A Physician Of St. Arcangelo, Near Rimini, Was Born On Oct. 31, 1705, Joined The Franciscans, And As Regent Of The College Of S. Bonaventura, Rome, Came Under The Notice Of Ben Edict Xiv., Who Made Him Consultor Of The ...

Clementine Literature
Clementine Literature, The Name Generally Given To The Writings Which At One Time Or Another Were Fathered Upon Pope Clement I. (q.v.), Commonly Called Clemens Romanus, Who Was Early Regarded As A Disciple Of St. Peter. Chief Among Them Are : (i) The So-called Second Epistle; (2) Two Epistles On ...

Cleobulus
Cleobulus, One Of The Seven Sages Of Greece, A Native And Tyrant Of Lindus In Rhodes. He Was Distinguished For His Strength And His Handsome Person, For The Wisdom Of His Sayings, The Acuteness Of His Riddles, And The Beauty Of His Lyric Poetry. Diogenes Laertius Quotes A Letter In ...

Cleomenes I
Cleomenes I. Was The Son Of Anaxandridas, Whom He Succeeded About 52o B.c. His Chief Exploit Was His Crushing Victory Near Tiryns Over The Argives, Some 6,000 Of Whom He Burned To Death In A Sacred Grove To Which They Had Fled For Refuge (herodotus Vi. 76-82). This Secured For ...

Cleomenes Ii
Cleomenes Ii. Was The Son Of Cleombrotus I., Brother And Successor Of Agesipolis Ii. Nothing Is Recorded Of His Reign Save The Fact That It Lasted For Nearly 61 Years (370-309 B.c.) . ...

Cleomenes Iii
Cleomenes Iii., The Son And Successor Of Leonidas Ii., Reigned About 235-219 B.c. He Made A Determined Attempt To Reform The Social Condition Of Sparta Along The Lines Laid Down By Agis Iv., Whose Widow, Agiatis, He Married ; At The Same Time He Aimed At Restoring Sparta's Hegemony In ...

Cleon
Cleon (d. 422 B.c.), Athenian Politician During The Pelo Ponnesian War, Was The Son Of Cleaenetus, From Whom He In Herited A Tannery. He Was The First Prominent Representative Of The Commercial Class In Athenian Politics. He Came Into Notice First As An Opponent Of Pericles, And In His Opposition ...

Cleopatra
Cleopatra, The Regular Name Of The Queens Of Egypt, In The Ptolemaic Dynasty After Cleopatra, Daughter Of The Seleucid Antiochus The Great, Wife Of Ptolemy V., Epiphanes. The Best Known Was The Daughter Of Ptolemy Xiii., Auletes, Born 69 (or 68) B.c. At The Age Of 17 She Became Queen ...

Cleopatras Needles
Cleopatra's Needles, The Name Popularly Given To The Two Egyptian Obelisks Presented To The British And American People Respectively, And Now Standing On The Thames Embank Ment In London And In The Central Park Of New York City. Originally Set Up By Thotmes Or Tethmosis Iii. At Heliopolis About I ...

Clepsydra
Clepsydra, The Chronometer Of The Greeks And Romans, Which Measured Time By The Flow Of Water (gr. Kxe7rretv, To Steal, And Vhwp, Water). In Its Simplest Form It Was An Earthen Ware Globe Of Known Capacity, Pierced At The Bottom With Several Small Holes, Through Which The Water Escaped. It ...

Clerestorey Or Clearstory Clerestory
Clerestory, Clerestorey Or Clearstory, In Architecture, Any Wall Of A Room Carried Higher Than The Sur Rounding Roofs So That Windows Can Be Pierced In It To Light The Room. In A Large Building, Where Interior Walls Are Far From The Outside Of The Building, Some Such Method Of Lighting ...

Clergy Reserves
Clergy Reserves, In Canada. By The Act Of 1791, Establishing The Provinces Of Upper And Lower Canada, The British Government Set Apart One-eighth Of All The Crown Lands For The Support Of "a Protestant Clergy." These Reservations, After Being For Many Years A Stumbling-block To The Economic Development Of The ...

Clergy
Clergy, A Collective Term Signifying Strictly The Body Of "clerks," I.e., Men In Holy Orders (see Clerk) ; But Extended In Modern Times So As To Embrace All Varieties Of Ordained Christian Ministers, Though In England The Word "clergyman" Is Still Mainly Restricted To The Clergy Of The Established Church. ...

Clergyman
Clergyman, An Ordained Minister Of The Christian Church. In England The Term Is Usually Confined To The Ministers Of The Established Church. Educational Qualifications For This Work Vary With The Different Denominations, But The Majority Require At Least Two Or Three Years Of Religious Specialization Beyond A Four Year College ...

Clerk
Clerk, In Its Original Sense, As Used In The Civil Law, One Who Had Taken Religious Orders Of Whatever Rank, Whether "holy" Or "minor." In English Ecclesiastical Law, A Clerk Was Any One Who Had Been Admitted To The Ecclesiastical State, And Had Taken The Tonsure. The Application Of The ...

Clerkenwell
Clerkenwell (klar'ken-wel), A District On The North Side Of The City Of London, England, Within The Metropolitan Borough Of Finsbury (q.v.). It Is So Called From One Of Several Wells Or Springs In This District, Near Which Miracle Plays Were Performed By The Parish Clerks Of London. This Well Existed ...

Clermont Lherault
Clermont-l'herault, A Town Of Southern France In The Department Of Herault, 10 M. S.s.e. Of Lodeve. Pop. (1931) 5,067. The Town Is Built On A Hill Crowned By An Ancient Castle And Skirted By The Rhonel, A Tributary Of The Lergue. The Church Dates From The 13th And 14th Centuries. ...

Clermont
Clermont, A Town Of Northern France, In The Department Of Oise, On The Right Bank Of The Breche, 41 M. N. Of Paris On The Northern Railway To Amiens. The Town Was Probably Founded During The Time Of The Norman Invasions And Was An Important Military Post During The Middle ...

Cleruchy
Cleruchy, A Kind Of Colony Of Athenian Citizens Planted In A Conquered Country. The Settlers Retained Their Status As Citizens Of Athens, And Their Allotments Were Politically Part Of Attic Soil. These Settlements Were Of Three Kinds: (i) Where The Inhabitants Were Extirpated And The Settlers Occupied The Whole Territory; ...

Clervaux
Clervaux (clara Vallis), A Town In The Northern Province Of Oesling, Grand-duchy Of Luxembourg, On The Clerf, A Tributary Of The Sure. Pop. (1927) 1,680. The Old Castle Of The Lannoy Family Still Exists. In 1798 The People Of Clervaux Specially Dis Tinguished Themselves Against The French Establishment Of Con ...

Cletus
Cletus, Formerly Regarded As An Early Successor Of St. Peter In The See Of Rome, Or, According To Epiphanius And Rufinus, As Directing The Roman Church With. Linus During Peter's Lifetime. He Is Now Identified With Anencletus (q.v.). See Colombier, In Rev. Des Questions Hist., Ap. 1st, 1876, P. 413. ...

Cleve
Cleve (cleves), A Town Of Germany In The Prussian Rhine Province, Formerly The Capital Of The Duchy Of Its Own Name, 46 M. N.w. Of Dusseldorf, 12 M. E. Of Nijmwegen, On The Main Cologne-amsterdam Railway. Pop. (1933) 22,116. The Town Was The Seat Of The Counts Of Cleve As ...

Clevedon
Clevedon, Watering-place, Somersetshire, England, On The Bristol Channel, 153m. W.s.w. Of Bristol On A Branch Of The G.w.r. Pop. Of Urban District The Cruciform Church Of St. Andrew Has Norman And Later Portions. Clevedon Court Is A Mediaeval Mansion, Dating Originally From The 14th Century, Though Much Altered In The ...

Cleveland Heights
Cleveland Heights, A City Of Cuyahoga County, Ohio, U.s.a., Adjoining Cleveland On The East. It Is A Residential Suburb, With A Population Of 2,955 In 191o, 15,236 In 192o, In Federal Census. It Has A Commission-manager Form Of Government. The Village Was Incorporated In 1903 And In 1922 It Became ...

Cleveland
Cleveland (or Cleiveland), John (1613-58), English Poet And Satirist, Was Born At Loughborough, And Edu Cated At Hinckley School Under The Puritan, Richard Vines. At The Age Of 14 He Entered Christ's College, Cambridge, And In 1634 Was Elected To A Fellowship At St. John's. He Opposed The Candidature Of ...

Cleveland_2
Cleveland, A City And Port Of Entry Of The State Of Ohio, U.s.a., And The County Seat Of Cuyahoga County, The Sixth Largest City In The United States. It Is On Lake Erie, At The Mouth Of The Cuyahoga River, About 26om. N.e. Of Cincinnati, 357m. E. Of Chicago And ...

Cleveland_3
Cleveland, A City Of Southern Tennessee, U.s.a., 29m. E.n.e. Of Chattanooga, On Federal Highway Ii And The Southern Railway; The County Seat Of Bradley County. It Has An Air-port, Emmett Field. The Population In 192o Was 6,522, And In 193o Was 9,136 By The Federal Census. There Are Manganese Mines ...

Clever
Clever, An Adjective Implying Dexterous Activity Of Mind Or Body, And Ability To Meet Emergencies With Readiness And Adroitness. The Etymology And The Early History Of The Word Are Obscure. Some Derive It, In The Sense Of "quick To Seize," From M.e. Cliver Or Clivre, A Claw. This Original Sense ...

Cliche
Cliche. In The Process Of Stereotype Printing A Matrix Or Mould Is Made In Papier-mache From The Set Type, And A Solid Cast Ing Is Produced From This Mould, Which Thus Bears A Surface Of Letters Cast In Relief, From Which The Actual Prints Are Taken. The Papier-mache Mould Is ...

Clichy
Clichy, A Manufacturing Suburb Of Paris. Pop. (1931) 55,332. It Was, Under The Name Of Clippiacum, A Residence Of The Merovingian Kings. The Church Dates From The 17th Century. The Industries Include The Manufacture Of Starch, Rubber, Oil And Grease, Glass, Chemicals And Soap. ...

Clicks
Clicks, Peculiar Sounds Of Unknown Origin, Found In Many Languages. The German Term Schnalze And The Afrikaans Klukken Are Both Attempts To Give A Descriptive Name, But The English Word Click Is As Onomatopoeic As Any. The Outstanding Examples Of Click-speech Are The Hottentot Languages (nama, !kora, Griqua, Etc.) With ...

Cliff Dwellers
Cliff-dwellers. Once Believed To Be A Mysterious Vanished Race, The Inhabitants Of The Cliff-dwellings In The South Western United States Are Now Recognized As But Pueblo Indians Of The Prehistoric Period Characterized By Black-on-white Pottery; Who, When Under Hostile Pressure, Lodged Their Homes And Granaries On Ledges Under Overhanging Cliffs, ...

Cliff Dwellings
Cliff-dwellings, The General Archaeological Term For The Habitations Of Certain Primitive Peoples, Formed By Utilizing Natural Recesses Or Shallow Caverns In The Faces Of Cliffs, Some Times With More Or Less Modification To Adapt Them To The Re Quirements Of The Buildings. They Are To Be Distinguished From Cave-dwellings, Which, ...

Clifford
Clifford, The Name Of A Famous English Family And Barony, Taken From The Village Of Clifford In Herefordshire. ...

Cliffside Park
Cliffside Park, A Borough Of Bergen County, New Jer Sey, U.s.a., On The Palisades Overlooking The Hudson River, About Opposite Tooth Street In New York City. The Railroad Station Is Weehawken (q.v.). It Is A Rapidly Growing Residential Suburb, With A Population Of 5,709 In 1920; And Was 15,267 In ...

Clifton Forge
Clifton Forge, A City Of Western Virginia, U.s.a., Amid The Superb Scenery Of The Allegheny Mountains, On The Jackson River; In Allegheny County, But Administratively Independent Of It. It Is On Federal Highway 6o, And Is Served By The Chesapeake And Ohio Railway. The Population In 1920 Was 6,164, Of ...

Clifton
Clifton, Watering-place And Western Residential Suburb Of Bristol, England, With Stations On The G.w.r. And L.m.s.r. It Occupies The Lofty Cliffs Overhanging The River Avon (q.v.), At A Height Of 245 Ft. Above Which Brunel's (q.v.) Famous Suspen Sion Bridge (1832-64), With A Span Of 702 Ft., Bestrides The Gorge. ...

Clifton_2
Clifton, A Town Of Arizona, U.s.a., On The San Francisco River And The Southern Pacific Railway, Near The Eastern Boundary Of The State; The County Seat Of Greenlee County. The Population In 193o Was 2,305. It Is In The Morenci-metcalf Copper-mining District, Which Through 1925 Had Produced 1,6s7,518,000 Lb. Of ...

Clifton_3
Clifton, A City Of Pass-tic County, New Jersey, U.s.a., Ad Joining The City Of Passaic On The North. It Is Served By The Lack Awanna And The Erie Railways. The Population In 192o Was 26,47o And In 193o It Was 46,875. It Has Important Manufactures, In Cluding Steel, Silk, Woollen ...

Clim Or Clym Of
Clim Or Clym Of The Clough, A Legendary English Archer, A Supposed Companion Of The Robin Hood Band. He Is Commemorated In The Ballad Adam Bell, Clym Of The Cloughe And Wyllyam Of Cloudeslee. The Three Were Outlaws Who Had Many Adventures Of The Robin Hood Type. The Oldest Printed ...

Climacteric
Climacteric, A Critical Period In Human Life (from The Gr. Alilakr Ip, The Rung Or Step Of A Ladder) ; In A Medical Sense, The Period Known As The "change Of Life," Marked In Women By The Menopause. The Word Is Also Used Of Any Turning-point In The History Of ...

Climate And Climatology
Climate And Climatology. The Word Clima (from Gr. Kxivelv, To Lean Or Incline) Was Used By The Greeks For The Supposed Slope Of The Earth Towards The Pole, Or For The Incli Nation Of The Earth's Axis. A Change Of Clima Then Meant A Change Of Latitude. The Latter Was ...

Climate In The Treatment
Climate In The Treatment Of Disease. Broadly Speaking, Purity Of Air (i.e., Freedom From Solid Particles And Irritating Gases), Average Temperature, Range Of Temperature, Amounts Of Sunshine And Of Humidity Are The Most Important Con Siderations In The Climatic Treatment Of Disease. Social And Eco Nomic Conditions In Any Given ...

Climatic History
Climatic History. The Geological History Of The Earth Is Divided Into Five Main Divisions, Archaean Or Pre-cambrian, Palaeozoic, Mesozoic, Tertiary And Quaternary Periods (see Geology). These Different Periods Contain Evidence Of Many Great Changes Of Climate, But This Article Is Limited To Those Which Have Occurred Since The Appearance Of ...

Climatic Subdivisions
Climatic Subdivisions The Equatorial A Few Degrees Of The Equator And When Not Interfered With By Other Controls, The Annual Curve Of Temperature Has Two Maxima Following The Two Zenithal Posi Tions Of The Sun, And Two Minima At About The Time Of The Sol Stices. This Equatorial Type Of ...

Climbing Bittersweet
Climbing Bittersweet (celastrus Scandens), A North American Climbing Shrub Of The Staff-tree Family (celas Traceae), Called Also False Bittersweet And Waxwork. It Grows, Mostly In Rich Soil, From Quebec To Manitoba And Southward To North Carolina And New Mexico, Usually Trailing On Banks Or Small Shrubs But Sometimes Climbing To ...

Climbing Fern
Climbing Fern, The Botanical Genus Lygodium, With 25 Species, Chiefly In The Warmer Parts Of The Old World. The Plants Have A Creeping Stem, On The Upper Face Of Which Is Borne A Row Of Leaves. Each Leaf Has A Slender, Stem-like Axis, Which Twines Round A Support And Bears ...

Clinic
Clinic, An Institution That Offers Diagnostic, Therapeutic Or Preventive Treatment To Ambulatory Patients. Considered From The Standpoint Of Organization, Range Of Diseases Treated, General Purpose And Function, The Term May Be Used To Include Outpatient Departments Of Hospitals, Unattached Units, Teaching Clinics— Either Separate Or Attached—health Centres, Preventive, Curative, Public ...

Clinker
Clinker, In Industry, The Common Name For Coal Residues Which Are Formed In Lumps, Partly Fused, In Grates Or Furnaces. Such Clinker Is Used For Many Purposes As A Raw Material, And Is A Useful Matrix For Inferior Portland Cement Concrete. The Name Is Also Applied To The Fused Masses ...

Clinoclasite
Clinoclasite, A Rare Mineral Consisting Of The Basic Copper Arsenate It Is Deep Blue In Colour And Crystallizes In The Monoclinic System With A Perfect Cleavage Parallel To The Basal Plane ; Hardness 2 2-3 ; Specific Gravity 4.36. The Mineral Was Formerly Found With Other Copper Arsenates In The ...

Clinograph
Clinograph, A Set-square The Acute Angles Of Which Are Made Adjustable By Connecting The Side Opposite The Right-angle To One Of The Other Sides By A Hinge ; It Is Frequently Employed In Mechanical Drawing (see Drawing, Engineering). ...

Clinton
Clinton, A City Of Illinois, U.s.a., On Federal Highway 51 And The Illinois Central Railroad, 22m. S. Of Bloomington; The County Seat Of De Witt County. The Population In 1930 Was 5,92o. It Is In The Heart Of The Corn Belt ; And Has Railroad Shops And Cloth Ing Factories. ...

Clintonia
Clintonia, A Genus Of Beautiful Herbs Of The Lily Family (liliaceae), Named In Honour Of De Witt Clinton (1769-1828), Governor Of The State Of New York. There Are 6 Species, 4 North American And 2 Asian, All Stemless Perennials, With A Few Broad Leaves Rising From A Slender Rootstock, And ...

Clinton_2
Clinton, A City Of Vermilion County, Indiana, U.s.a., On The Wabash River, 15m. N. Of Terre Haute And 8m. E. Of The Illinois State Line. It Is 1 M. From Federal Highway 41, And Is Served By The Chicago And Eastern Illinois Railway. In 1900 The Population Was 2,918; In ...

Clinton_3
Clinton, A City In The Extreme Eastern Part Of Iowa, U.s.a., On The Mississippi River Where The Lincoln Highway Crosses It ; The County Seat Of Clinton County. It Is On The Burlington, The Chi Cago And North Western, The Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul And Pacific, The Rock Island, The ...

Clinton_4
Clinton, A Town Of Worcester County, Massachusetts, U.s.a., On The Nashua River, 15m. N.n.e. Of Worcester. It Is Served By The Boston And Maine And The New York, New Haven And Hartford Railways. The Population In 1920 Was 12,979 Foreign-born White) ; In 1930 (federal Census) 12,817. The Town Contains ...

Clinton_5
Clinton, A City Of Missouri, U.s.a., On The Grand River, 87m. S.e. Of Kansas City; The County Seat Of Henry County. It Is Served By The Frisco And The Missouri-kansas-texas Railways. The Population In 193o Was 5,744. The City Lies At The Edge Of A Rolling Prairie, 7 7 Oft. ...

Clinton_6
Clinton, A Village Of Oneida County, N.y., U.s.a., 9m. S.w. Of Utica, On Oriskany Creek And The New York, Ontario And Western Railway. The Population In 1930 Federal Census Was 1,475. There Are Mineral Springs And Iron Mines In The Vicinity, And The Village Has Knitting And Paint Mills And ...

Clipper Ships
Clipper Ships, A Class Of Sailing Vessel Developed Princi Pally By American Ship-builders During The First Half Of The 19th Century. The Origin Of The Word Clipper Is Not Definitely Known. Some Authors Think That The Expression "going At A Clip" Might Have Been Responsible For It, While Others Have ...

Clisson
Clisson, A Town Of Western France, In The Department Of Loire-inf Erieure, 17 M. S.e. Of Nantes, At The Confluence Of The Sevre And The Moine, Both Of Which Are Crossed By Old Bridges. Pop. (1931) 2,237. The Town Gave Its Name To The Celebrated Family Of Clisson, Of Which ...

Clitheroe
Clitheroe, Municipal Borough, North-east Lancashire, England, 35 M. N. By W. From Manchester, On The L.m.s.r. Pop. (1931) 12,008. It Is Finely Situated In The Valley Of The Ribble, At The Foot Of Pendle Hill, A Steep Plateau-like Mass Rising To 1,831 Feet. The Honour Of Clitheroe (clyderhow Or Cletherwoode) ...

Clitumnus
Clitumnus, A River In Umbria, Italy, Rising From An Abundant Spring By The Road Between The Ancient Spoletium And Trebia, 8m. From The Former, 4m. From The Latter. After A Short Course Through The Territory Of Trebia It Joins The Tinia, A Tribu Tary Of The Tiber. Pliny Described And ...

Cloaca
Cloaca, The Latin Term For A Drain Or Sewer. The Most Famous Is The Cloaca Maxima At Rome, Built To Drain The Marsh Where The Forum Romanum Was Situated. Constructed Origi Nally In About The 6th Century B.c. As An Open Stone-lined Chan Nel, It Was Vaulted C. 4th Or ...

Cloaca_2
Cloaca Is Also The Name Given To The Joint Opening Of The Urino-genital And Alimentary Systems Characteristic Of All The Vertebrates Except The Mammals, Among Which It Is Only Retained In The Monotremata (q.v.). ...

Clock Industry In America
Clock Industry In America The Clock Industry Showed An Entirely Different Development In America From That In Europe. In Europe, Clocks Were Made By Jewellers, Locksmiths, Blacksmiths, Astronomers And Priests. The New World Recruited Its First Clock-makers From The Ranks Of The Carpenters, And Consequently The Oldest American Clocks Were ...