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Encyclopedia Britannica

Volume 5, Part 2: Cast-Iron to Cole

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Ferdinand Julius Cohn
Cohn, Ferdinand Julius (1828-1898), German Botanist, Was Born On The 24th Of January 1828 At Breslau. He Was Educated At Breslau And Berlin, And In 18j9 Became Extraordinary, And In 1871 Ordinary, Professor Of Botany At Breslau University. He Was Contemporary With N. Pringsheim, And Worked With H. R. Goeppert, ...

Florent Chrestien
Chrestien, Florent French Satirist And Latin Poet, The Son Of Guillaume Chrestien, A French Writer On Physiology, Was Born At Orleans On Jan. 26, 1541. A Pupil Of Henri Estienne, The Hellenist, At An Early Age He Was Appointed Tutor To Henry Of Navarre, Afterwards Henry Iv., Who Made Him ...

Franc Ois Sebas Tien
Clerfayt Or Clairfayt, Franc Ois Sebas Tien Charles Joseph De Croix, Count Of (1733 1798), Austrian Field Marshal, Entered The Austrian Army In In The Seven Years' War He Greatly Distinguished Himself, And In 1787 Took Part In The Turkish War. In 1792 He Received The Com Mand Of The ...

Frances Power Cobbe
Cobbe, Frances Power British Social Writer And Author, Was Born In Dublin On Dec. 4, 1822, Of A Fam Ily Many Of Whose Members Had Held High Positions In The Church. She Was Educated Privately, And Her First Book, The Theory Of Intuitive Morals, Was Published Anonymously. In 1858 She ...

Francis Edward Clark
Clark, Francis Edward American Clergyman, Was Born Of New England Ancestry At Aylmer, Prov Ince Of Quebec, Canada, Sept. 12, 1851. He Graduated At Dart Mouth College In 1873 And At Andover Theological Seminary In 1876, And Was Pastor Successively Of The Williston Congregational Church In Portland, Me., And Of ...

Francois Clement
Clement, Francois (1714-1793), French Historian, Was Born At Beze, Near Dijon. He Became A Benedictine And Wrote Vols. Xi. And Xii. Of The Histoire Litteraire De La France, And Edited (with Dom Brial) Vols. Xii. And Xiii. Of The Recueil Des His Toriens Des Gauls Et De La France. The ...

Francois Timoleon Choiry
Choiry, Francois Timoleon, De 1724), French Author, Was Born In Paris On Aug. 16, 1644, And Died In Paris On Oct. 2, I 7 24. His Father Was Attached To The House Hold Of The Duke Of Orleans, And The Lad Became Famous In Court Circles For His Extravagance, His ...

Frank Moore Colby
Colby, Frank Moore (1865-1925), American Editor, Was Born In Washington D.c., Feb. Io 1865. He Received From Columbia University The Degrees A.b. (1888) And A.m. (1889). He Was Acting Professor Of History At Amherst College (1890-91), Lecturer And Instructor In History And Economics At Columbia Uni Versity And Barnard College ...

Frederic Chopin
Chopin, Frederic Francois Polish Musical Composer And Pianist, Was Born At Zelazowa-wola, Near Warsaw, On Feb. 22, 1810 (not Mar. 1, 1809). His Father, Of French Origin, Born At Nancy In 1770, Had Married A Polish Lady, Justine Krzyzanowska. Frederic Was Their Third Child. His First Musical Education He Received ...

Frederic Clay
Clay, Frederic (1838-1889), English Musical Com Poser, Was The Son Of James Clay, M.p., The Celebrated Whist Authority. Born In Paris, He Studied Music Under W. B. Molique In That City And Under Moritz Hauptmann At Leipzig. With The Exception Of A Few Songs And Two Cantatas, The Knights Of ...

Frederic Edward Clements
Clements, Frederic Edward (1874— ), American Plant Oecologist, Was Born In Lincoln, Neb., Sept. 16, 1874. He Graduated In 1894 At The University Of Nebraska From Which In 1898 He Received The Degree Of Doctor Of Philosophy. From 1894 To 1906 He Was Instructor And Associate Professor Of Botany And ...

Frederick Edwin Church
Church, Frederick Edwin (18 26—i Ameri Can Landscape Painter, Was Born At Hartford (conn.) On May 4, 1826. He Was A Pupil Of Thomas Cole At Catskill (n.y.), Where His First Pictures Were Painted. Developing Unusual Technical Dexterity, Church From The Beginning Sought For His Themes Such Marvels Of Nature ...

Gaius Helvius Cinna
Cinna, Gaius Helvius, Roman Poet Of The Later Ciceronian Age, The Friend Of Catullus, Whom He Accompanied To Bithynia In The Suite Of The Praetor Memmius. Suetonius, Valerius Maximus, Appian And Dio Cassius All State That, At Caesar's Funeral, A Certain Helvius Cinna Was Killed By Mistake For Cor Nelius ...

Gas Manufacture Coke
Gas Manufacture; Coke; And Low Temperature Carboni Zation.) Looked At From The Point Of View Of Coal Conservation There Can Be No Doubt That A Large Field Of Fruitful Possibilities Exists. The Wasteful And Harmful Process Of Coking Coal In Beehive Ovens, And Of Burning Coal For Power Purposes And ...

George Clinton
Clinton, George American Soldier And Political Leader, Was Born At Little Britain, Ulster (now Orange) County (n.y.), On July 26, 1739, The Son Of Charles Clinton (169o-1773), Who Had Emigrated To America In 1729, And Com Manded A Regiment Of Provincial Troops In The French And Indian War. The Son ...

George Codinus
Codinus, George (georcros Kodrnos), The Reputed Au Thor Of Three Extant Works In Byzantine Literature, Two Of Which Are Anonymous In The Mss. It Is Supposed That Codinus Lived Towards The End Of The I 5th Century. The Works Referred To Are: (i) Patria ( Hsrpia Rvlc Kcovaravtlvovnroxews). It Is ...

George Earl Church
Church, George Earl (1835-191o), American Geog Rapher, Was Born In New Bedford (mass.), On Dec. 7, 183s. He Was Educated As A Civil Engineer, And Was Early Engaged On The Hoosac Tunnel. In 1858 He Joined An Exploring Expedition To South America. During The American Civil War He Served (1862-65) ...

George Michael Cohan
Cohan, George Michael ), American Actor, Author, And Producer, Was Born In Providence (r.i.), July 4, His Parents Were Of The Theatrical Profession, And At An Early Age He Appeared With Them In Juvenile Parts, Subse Quently Taking Comedy Roles In Vaudeville And On The Legitimate Stage. Also At An ...

George Rogers Clark
Clark, George Rogers American Frontier Military Leader, Was Born In Albemarle County, Virginia, On Nov. When 19 Years Of Age He Left His Home To Be Come A Surveyor Of Frontier Lands Along The Ohio River. This Occupation Was Soon Interrupted By An Indian Outbreak Known As Lord Dunmore's War ...

George William Frederick Villiers
Clarendon, George William Frederick Villiers, 4th Earl Of (in The Villiers Line) (1800-187o), British Diplomatist And Statesman, The Eldest Son Of George Vil Liers, Who Was The Youngest Son Of The 1st Earl Of The New Creation, And Theresa, Only Daughter Of The First Lord Boringdon, Was Born In London ...

George
George, Duke Of Clarence (1449-1478), Younger Son Of Rich Ard, Duke Of York, Was Born In Dublin On Oct. 21, 1449. Soon After His Elder Brother Became King As Edward Iv. In March 1461, He Was Created Duke Of Clarence, And His Youth Was No Bar To His Appointment As ...

Georges Clemenceau
Clemenceau, Georges (1841-1929), French States Man, Was Born At Mouilleron-en-pareds, Vendee, On Sept. 28, 1841. He Adopted Medicine As His Profession. Interested In The Progressive Ideas Of John Stuart Mill, He Decided To Investigate For Himself The Results Of The Application To Affairs Of Demo Cratic Theory. He Therefore Embarked ...

Georgius Choeroboscus
Choeroboscus, Georgius, Also Called Charto Phylax (c. A.d. 6o ) , Deacon And Professor At The Oecumenical School At Constantinople. A Course Of His Lectures On Grammar Has Come Down To Us In The Shape Of Notes Taken By His Pupils. He Drew From The Best Authorities—apollonius Dyscolus, Herodian, Orion, ...

Giacomo Luigi Ciamician
Ciamician, Giacomo Luigi Italian Chemist, Was Born At Trieste On Aug. 22, 1857; His Father Was Of American Origin. He Was Educated At Trieste And Vienna But Took His Doctorate In 188o At The University Of Giessen. He Became Assistant And Later Reader In The Institute Of General Chemistry Of ...

Giambattista Cima De Conegliano
Cima, Giambattista (cima De Conegliano C. 1459 1517), Italian Painter Of The Venetian School, Probably A Pupil Of Bartolomeo Montagna, And Later Influenced By Giovanni Bellini. He Was Born At Conegliano On The Southern Slopes Of The Alps. His Earliest Dated Picture Is The Altarpiece Of 1489 In The Museo ...

Giovanni Battista Cipriani
Cipriani, Giovanni Battista , Ital Ian Painter And Engraver, Pistoiese By Descent, Was Born In Flor Ence In 1727. He Studied First Under Ignatius Heckford Or Hug F Ord, And Afterwards Under Antonio Domenico Gabbiani. He Was In Rome From 175o To 1753, Where He Became Acquainted With Sir William ...

Giovanni Carlo Maria Clari
Clari, Giovanni Carlo Maria Italian Musical Composer, Born At Pisa, Was The Most Celebrated Pupil Of Colonna, Chapel-master Of S. Petronio, At Bologna. He Became Maestro Di Cappella At Pistoia About 1712, At Bologna In 172o, And At Pisa In 1736. The Works By Which Clari Distinguished Himself Preeminently Are ...

Greek Chronology
Greek - Chronology The Difficulty Besetting Greek Chronology, For Ancient And Mod Ern Investigators Alike, Is The Absence, For The Earlier Periods Especially, Of A Universally Understood Era, Corresponding To Our Reckoning, B.c. Or A.d., Or The Muslim, Dating From The Hejira. Generally Speaking, Each State Had Its Own Fashion ...

Greek Law Lonian Law
Lonian Law, Greek Law, Archon, Ecclesia, Borough, Mayor, Etc. Though Keeping To The Full The Characteristic Features Of Life, English City Government Is Perhaps The Least Changed Of Any In Strument Of Government In The World. Apart From Measures Of Standardization, Such As The Municipal Corporations Act, 1882, The City ...

Gregorz Jozef Chlopicki
Chlopicki, Gregorz Jozef Polish General, Was Born In Podolia. In 1787 He Enlisted In The Polish Army And F Ought In The Campaigns Of 1792-94. He Served With The New Italian Legion At The Storming Of Peschiera, At Modena, Busano, Casabianca And Ponto, And In 1807 Commanded The First Vistula ...

Gustav Cohn
Cohn, Gustav (184o-1918), German Economist, Born On Dec. 12, 1840, At Marienwerder, West Prussia, Was Educated At Berlin And Jena And Became Professor Of Political Science First At Zurich (1875), And Then At Gottingen (1884). He Died At Gottingen On Sept. 20, 1918. His Principal Works Are: Untersuchungen Fiber Die ...

Gustave Paul Cluseret
Cluseret, Gustave Paul (1823-190o), Delegate For War Of The Paris Commune, Was Born In Paris, On June 13, 1823. He Was An Officer Of The Garde Mobile During The Second Republic (1848), Joined Garibaldi's Volunteers In 186o And In 1861 Went To The United States To Take Part In The ...

Henry Christophe
Christophe, Henry (1767-182o), Negro King Of Haiti. After Purchasing His Freedom From Slavery He Played A Promi Nent Part In The Insurrection Against The French And In The Rising Of 1803. He Was General-in-chief Of The Army During The Short Lived Government Of Dessalines. Appointed President Of Haiti In 1807, ...

Henry Christy
Christy, Henry (1810-1865), English Ethnologist, Was Born At Kingston-on-thames On July 26, 181o. From 1850-58 He Travelled In Europe And America, Studying Ethnology. In 1858 The Discoveries By Boucher De Perthes Of Flint Implements In France And England Were First Held To Have Proved The Great Antiquity Of Man. Christy ...

Henry Clay
Clay, Henry American Statesman And Orator, Was Born In Hanover County, Va., On April 12, And Died In Washington On June 29, 1852. His Public Life Covered Nearly Half A Century, And His Name And Fame Rest Entirely Upon His Own Merits. He Achieved His Success Despite Serious Obstacles. He ...

Henry Cockton
Cockton, Henry English Humorous Novel Ist, Was Born In London Dec. 7 1807, And Died At Bury St. ...

Henry Colburn
Colburn, Henry (d. 1855), British Publisher. In 1814 He Originated The New Monthly Magazine, Of Which At Various Times Thomas Campbell, Bulwer Lytton, Theodore Hook And Harrison Ainsworth Were Editors. Colburn Published In 1818 Evelyn's Diary, And In 1825 The Diary Of Pepys, Edited By Lord Braybrooke, Paying I2, Zoo ...

Henry Fynes Clinton
Clinton, Henry Fynes (1781-1852), British Classi Cal Scholar And Chronologist, Was Born At Gamston In Notting Hamshire. He Was Educated At Westminster And Oxford, And From 1806 To 1826 Was M.p. For Aldborough. The Value Of His Fasti, Which Set Classical Chronology On A Scientific Basis, Can Scarcely Be Over-estimated, ...

Henry Hyde Clarendon
Clarendon, Henry Hyde, 2nd Earl Of (1638 1709), English Statesman, Eldest Son Of The Historian, Was Born On June 2, 1638, And Succeeded To The Title On His Father's Death In 1674. James Ii. Made Him Lord-lieutenant Of Ireland (sept. 1685) With A Commission To Carry Out His Design Of ...

Henry Thomas Cockburn
Cockburn, Henry Thomas Scottish Judge, With The Style Of Lord Cockburn, Was Born In Edinburgh On Oct. 26, 1779. His Father Was A Baron Of The Scottish Court Of Exchequer. He Was Educated At The High School And The Uni Versity Of Edinburgh, And He Was A Member Of The ...

Hindu Chronology
Hindu - Chronology The Early Hindu Astronomers Selected A Period In The Course Of Which A Given Order Of Things Is Completed By The Sun, Moon And Planets Returning To The State Of Conjunction From Which They Started. This Is Known As The Great Age Of 4,3 20,000 Sidereal Solar ...

History Of
History Of Pre-alexandrine.—the History Of Classical Scholarship Back To A Date So Early That It Is Hardly Possible To Fix A Limit. As Soon As A Philosopher Began To Criticize A Literary (e.g., Xenophanes On Homer And Hesiod), So Soon Scholarship The Widest Sense May Be Said To Have Begun. ...

Howell Cobb
Cobb, Howell American Political Leader, Was Born At Cherry Hill, Ga., On Sept. 7, 1815. He Graduated From Franklin College (university Of Georgia) In 1834, And In 1836 Was Admitted To The Bar. From 1837 To 184o He Was Solici Tor-general For The Western Circuit Of His State. In 1843-51 ...

Hugh Chisholm
Chisholm, Hugh (1866-1924), Editor Of The Encyclo Pedia Britannica, Was Born In London On Feb. 22, 1866. He Was Of Scottish Descent, The Son Of Henry Chisholm, Who Became Warden Of The Standards In The Board Of Trade. Educated At Felsted School And Corpus Christi College, Oxford, Of Which He ...

Hugh Clapperton
Clapperton, Hugh (1788-1827), Scottish Traveller In Central Africa, Was Born At Annan, Dumfriesshire, And After Some Years In The Merchant Service Was Impressed Into The Navy. In 1817 He Returned Home With The Grade Of Lieutenant, And In 182o Accompanied Oudney And Denham In The Government Expedition To Bornu. From ...

Industry And Trade Cocoa
Cocoa, Industry And Trade. Cocoa Is Manufac Tured From The Seed Of The Cacao Tree (generally Theobrosna Cacao, Rarely T. Pentagona Or T. Sphaerocarpa, Small Trees Of The Family Sterculiaceae), A Native Of Tropical America But Extensively Cultivated Elsewhere In The Tropics. The Raw Product Is Known Commercially As Cocoa ...

J P Coats
Coats, J. & P., Limited. The Founder Of This Business, James Coats (1774–'857), Was The Son Of A Weaver In Paisley, Scotland, Who In 1826 Built A Small Factory—which Still Forms A Diminutive Part Of The Present Ferguslie Works—for The Manu Facture Of Sewing Cotton. James Coats Retired In 183o ...

Jacques Clement
Clement, Jacques (1567-1589), Murderer Of The French King Henry Iii., Was Born At Sorbon In The Ardennes, And Became A Dominican Friar. His Mind Appears To Have Become Unhinged By Religious Fanaticism, And He Formed A Plan To Kill Henry Iii. Having Obtained Letters For The King, He Left Paris ...

Jacques Coeur
Coeur, Jacques (c. 1395-1456), Founder Of The Trade Between France And The Levant, Was Born At Bourges, The Son Of A Rich Merchant. About 1429 He Formed A Commercial Partnership With Two Brothers Named Godard ; And In 1432 He Was At Damascus, Buying And Transporting To France The Wares ...

James Freeman Clarke
Clarke, James Freeman American Preacher And Author, Was Born In Hanover (n.h.) On April 4, 181o. He Graduated At Harvard College In 5829, And At The Harvard Divinity School In 1833. He Was Then Ordained As Minister Of A Unitarian Congregation At Louisville (ky.), And Soon Threw Himself Heart And ...

Jan Karol Chodkiewicz
Chodkiewicz, Jan Karol (1560-1621), Polish Gen Eral. In 1599 He Was Appointed Starosta Of Samogitia, And In 1600 Acting Commander-in-chief Of Lithuania. In The War Against Swe Den For The Possession Of Livonia He Repulsed The Duke Of Suder Mania, Afterwards Charles Ix., From Riga, And In 1604 Captured Dorpat. ...

Jan Pieterszoon Coen
Coen, Jan Pieterszoon (1587-163o), Fourth Gov Ernor-general Of The Dutch East Indies, Was Born At Hoorn, And Spent His Youth At Rome In The House Of The Famous Merchants The Piscatori. In 1607 He Sailed From Amsterdam To The Indies As Second Commercial Agent, And Remained Away Four Years. In ...

Jean Baptiste Colbert
Colbert, Jean Baptiste French Statesman, Was Born At Reims, Where His Father And Grandfather Tellier, Secretary Of State For War, Colbert Obtained A Place In The War Office Before He Was 20 And Presently Became Private Secre Tary To The Minister. Twelve Years Later He Became Agent To Mazarin, Driven ...

Jean Baptiste Du Val
Cloots, Jean Baptiste Du Val De Grace, Baron Von 794) , Better Known As Anacharsis Cloots, Revolutionary Fanatic, Was Born Near Cleves, At The Castle Of Gnadenthal, Of A Noble Prussian Family Of Dutch Origin. His Father Placed Him In The Military Academy At Berlin, But He Left It At ...

Jean Claude
Claude, Jean (1619-1687), French Protestant Divine, Was Born At La Sauvetat-du-dropt Near Agen. He Was Professor Of Theology At The Protestant Colleges Of Nimes And Of Montau Ban, But Lost Both Posts On Account Of His Intransigence. In 1666 He Became Pastor At Charenton Near Paris, Where He Engaged In ...

Jean Clouet
Clouet, Jean (d. C. 1541), French Miniature Painter, Generally Known As Janet. The Authentic Presence Of This Artist At The French Court Is First To Be Noted In 1516, The Second Year Of The Reign Of Francis I. By A Deed Of Gift Made By The King To The Artist's ...

Jean Louis Rene Antoine
Claparede, Jean Louis Rene Antoine Ed Ouard Swiss Naturalist, Was Born At Geneva On April 24, 183 2. He Belonged To A French Family, Some Members Of Which Had Taken Refuge In That City Of Ter The Revocation Of The Edict Of Nantes. In 1852 He Began To Study Medicine ...

Jens Christian Christensen
Christensen, Jens Christian Danish Politician, Was Born In North Jutland. The Son Of A Peas Ant Farmer, He Was An Elementary School Teacher From 1877 To 1901. In 1890 He Entered Parliament And Eventually Became Leader Of The Liberal Party. In 1901 He Was Minister Of Educa Tion In The ...

Jewish Chronology
Jewish - Chronology The Era Which Is In Present Vogue Among Jews (anna Mundi, Li-yitzirah Or Libriath Olam, From The Creation Of The World) Appears Not To Have Come Into Popular Use Before The 9th Century, Though Possibly It May Have Been Known To Learned Writers Earlier. The Era Is ...

Johann Clauberg
Clauberg, Johann (1622-1665), German Philoso Pher, Was Born At Solingen, In Westphalia, And Studied The Car Tesian Philosophy Under John Raey At Leyden. He Became Professor Of Philosophy And Theology At Herborn And Subse Quently At Duisburg, Where He Died. Clauberg Was One Of The Earliest Teachers Of The New ...

John Bates Clark
Clark, John Bates (1847-1938), American Economist, Was Born At Providence, R. I., Jan. 26, 1847. He Was Educated At Brown University, Amherst College, Heidelberg And Zurich And Appointed Professor Of Political Economy At Carleton College, Minn. In 1877. Thereafter He Served As Professor At Smith College, Amherst College And Columbia ...

John Chrysoloras
John Chrysoloras, A Relative Of The Above, Who, Like Him, Had Studied And Taught At Constantinople, And Had Then Gone To Italy, Shared Manuel's Reputation As One Of Those Who Spread The Influence Of Greek Letters In The West. His Daughter Married Filelfo (q.v.). ...

John Cinnamus Kinnamos
Cinnamus (kinnamos), John, Byzantine Historian. He Was Imperial Secretary To Manuel I. Comnenus (1143-1180), Whom He Accompanied On His Campaigns In Europe And Asia Minor. He Appears To Have Outlived Andronicus I., Who Died In 1185. Cinnamus Was The Author Of A History Of The Period 1118 76, Which Thus ...

John Clare
Clare, John English Poet, Known As "the Northamptonshire Peasant Poet," Was Born At Helpstone, Near Peterborough. He Was The Son Of A Farm-labourer, And When He Was 12 Or 13 Began To Work On A Farm Himself, Attending A School In The Evenings. At 16 He Fell Deeply In Love ...

John Clifford
Clifford, John (1836-1923), British Nonconformist Minister And Politician, Son Of A Warp-machinist At Sawley, Derby Shire, Was Born On Oct. 16, 1836. He Worked In A Lace Factory Where He Attracted The Notice Of Baptists, Who Sent Him To The Academy At Leicester And The Baptist College At Nottingham To ...

John Climax
Climax, John (c. A.d.), Ascetic And Mystic, Also Called Scholasticus And Sinaltes. After 4o Years In A Cave At The Foot Of Mount Sinai, He Became Abbot Of The Monastery. His Life Has Been Written By Daniel, A Monk Of The Monastery Of Raithu, On The Red Sea. He Derives ...

John Fitzgibbon Clare
Clare, John Fitzgibbon, 1st Earl Of (1749 Lord Chancellor Of Ireland, The Second Son Of John Fitz Gibbon, Was Educated At Trinity College, Dublin, Where He Was Highly Distinguished As A Classical Scholar, And At Christ Church, Oxford, Where He Graduated In 1770. In 1772 He Was Called To The ...

John Middleton Clayton
Clayton, John Middleton Amer Ican Politician, Was Born In Dagsborough, Del., On July 24, 1796. He Came Of An Old Quaker Family Long Prominent In The Political History Of Delaware. He Graduated At Yale In 1815, And. In 1819 Began To Practise Law At Dover, Delaware. Engaging In Poli Tics, ...

John Robert Clynes
Clynes, John Robert (1869– ), English States Man, Was Born At Oldham, Lancs., On March 27, 1869, Of Working Class Parents, And Worked Himself As An Artisan For Many Years. He Was Active In The Trade-union Movement, And Eventually Be Came President Of The National Union Of General And Municipal ...

John
John, The 9th Baron (c. Earned The Name Of The "butcher," In The Wars Of The Roses, In Which He Fought For Henry Vi. ; After The Battle Of Wakefield In 146o He Murdered Edmund, Earl Of Rutland, Son Of Richard Duke Of York. Shake Speare Refers To This Incident ...

Jose Clavijo Y Fajardo
Clavijo Y Fajardo, Jose Spanish Publicist, Was Born At Lanzarote (canary Islands). He Settled In Madrid, Became Editor Of El Pensador, And By His Campaign Against The Public Performance Of Autos Sacramentales Secured Their Prohibition In 1765. His Work Would Long Since Have Been Forgotten Were It Not That It ...

Joseph Gordon Coates
Coates, Joseph Gordon (1878– ), New Zealand Statesman, Was Born At Matakohe, The Son Of A Farmer. He Was Elected M.p. For Kaipara In 1911, And Impressed His Leader, Mr. W. F. Massey, With His Solid Ability. From 1917 To 1919 He Served In France With The New Zealand Forces, ...

Joseph Hodges Choate
Choate, Joseph Hodges 2-1917), American Lawyer And Diplomat, Was Born At Salem, Mass., On Jan. 24, 183 2. He Was The Son Of Dr. George Choate, A Physician Of Con Siderable Note, And Was A Nephew Of Rufus Choate. After Grad Uating At Harvard College In 1852, And At The ...

Josiah Latimer Clark
Clark, Josiah Latimer (1822-1898), English Engi Neer And Electrician, Was Born On March 1o, 1822, At Great Mar Low, Bucks. In 1848 He Became Assistant Engineer At The Menai Straits Bridge Under His Elder Brother Edwin (1814-94), The In Ventor Of The Clark Hydraulic Lift Graving Dock. Two Years Later, ...

Josse Van Clichtove
Clichtove, Josse Van (d. , Belgian Theologian, Educated At Louvain And Paris, Became Librarian Of The Sorbonne. In 1519 He Was Elected Bishop Of Tournai, And In 1521 Was Trans Lated To The See Of Chartres. He Is Known As An Antagonist Of Luther. When Cardinal Duprat Convened His Synod ...

Jules Arsene Arnaud Claretie
Claretie, Jules Arsene Arnaud French Writer, Director Of The Theatre Francais, Was Born At Limoges Dec. 3, 5840. He Was Dramatic Critic To The Figaro And To The Opinion Nationale, A Newspaper Correspondent During The Franco-german War, And During The Commune A Staff-officer In The National Guard. In 1885 He ...

Julius Cohnheim
Cohnheim, Julius (1839-1884), German Physiologist, Was Born At Demmin On July 2o, 1839, And Died On Aug. 15, 1884 At Leipzig. After Serving As An Army Surgeon In 1864-65 He Became An Assistant In The Pathological Institute In Berlin And Was The Most Distinguished Of Virchow's Pupils. He Was Subse ...

Justin Clinchant
Clinchant, Justin (182o-1881), French Soldier, Was Born At Thiaucourt (meurthe) On Dec. 24, 182o, And Died In Paris On March 20, 1 88 I . He Entered The Army From St. Cyr In 1841. He Served In Algeria (1847-5 2) , In The Crimea (18 5) , And In Mexico. ...

Karl Von Clausewitz
Clausewitz, Karl Von (178o-1831), Prussian Gen Eral And Military Writer, Was Born At Burg, Near Magdeburg, On June 1, 1780. His Family, Originally Polish, Had Settled In Ger Many At The End Of The Previous Century. Entering The Army In 1792, He First Saw Service In The Rhine Campaigns Of ...

Ladies Clubs
Ladies' Clubs Although Not Exactly A New Departure, One That Has In Recent Years Developed With Surprising Energy And Completeness Is The Ladies' Club. The Earliest Of These (putting Aside The Ladies' Club Of The 18th Century, "the Female Almacks" Referred To By Wal Pole) Was The Alexandria (1883), Into ...

Land Of Cockaigne Cockayne
Cockaigne (cockayne), Land Of, An Imaginary Country, A Mediaeval Utopia Where Life Was A Continual Round Of Luxurious Idleness. The Origin Of The Italian Word Cocagna Has Been Much Disputed. It Seems Safest To Connect It, As Do Grimm And Lithe, Ultimately With Lat. Coquere, Through A Word Mean Ing ...

Leon Cladel
Cladel, Leon (1835-1892), French Novelist, Was Born At Montauban (tarn-et-garonne) On March 13, 1835. He Made A Reputation By His First Book, Les Martyrs Ridicules (1862), A Novel For Which Charles Baudelaire, Whose Literary Disciple Cladel Was, Wrote A Preface. His Best Novels Are Realistic Pictures Of Peasant Life In ...

Leopoldo Cicognara
Cicognara, Leopoldo, Count (1767-1834), Italian Archaeologist And Writer On Art, Was Born At Ferrara. A Residence Of Some Years At Rome, Devoted To The Study Of The Antiquities And Galleries, Was Followed By Visits To Naples And Sicily. He Then Visited Florence, Milan, Bologna And Venice, Acquiring A Complete Archaeological ...

Lines Of Circumvallation
Circumvallation, Lines Of, In Fortification, A Continuous Circle Of Entrenchments Surrounding A Besieged Place, Facing Outwards, By Which The Besieger Protected Himself Against The Attack Of A Relieving Army From Any Quarter (from Lat. Circum, Round, And Vallum, A Rampart). "lines Of Contravalla Tion" Were Similar Works But Naturally Of ...

Lionel Of Antwerp
Lionel Of Antwerp, Duke Of Clarence (1338-1368), Third Son Of Edward Iii., Was Born At Antwerp On Nov. 29, 1338. Be Trothed When A Child To Elizabeth (d. 1363), Daughter And Heiress Of William De Burgh, 3rd Earl Of Ulster (d. 1332), He Was Married To Her In 1352; But ...

Literary And Artistic Clubs
Literary And Artistic Clubs To Turn To Another Form Of Specialization In This Direction, There Are A Large Number Of Literary And Artistic Clubs In London, Of Which The Athenaeum Is The Most Important. This Famous Centre Was Founded By John Wilson Croker, At Mr. Murray's House In Albemarle Street, ...

Lodovico Cardi Da Cigoli
Cigoli Or Civoli, Lodovico Cardi Da 1613 ), Italian Painter, Architect And Poet, Was Born At Cigoli In Tuscany. Educated Under Alessandro Allori And Santi Di Tito, He Formed A Peculiar Style By The Study At Florence Of Michel Angelo, Correggio, Andrea Del Sarto And Pontormo. While In Florence He ...

Lord Randolph Henry Spen
Churchill, Lord Randolph Henry Spen Cer (1849-1895), English Statesman, Third Son Of John, 7th Duke Of Marlborough, By Frances, Daughter Of The Third Mar Quess Of Londonderry, Was Born At Blenheim Palace, On Feb. 13, 1849. He Was Educated At Eton And At Merton College, Ox Ford. In 1874 He ...

Lucius Quintius Cincinnatus
Cincinnatus, Lucius Quintius (b. C: 519 B.c.), One Of The Heroes Of Early Rome. He Worked His Own Small Farm. A Persistent Opponent Of The Plebeians, He Resisted The Proposal Of Terentilius Arsa To Draw Up A Code Of Written Laws Applicable Equally To Patricians And Plebeians. Twice He Was ...

Luigi Cibrario
Cibrario, Luigi, Count Italian Statesman And Historian, Was Born In Usseglia. His Verses To King Charles Albert, Then Prince Of Carignano, On The Birth Of His Son Victor Emmanuel, Led To A Long Friendship. He Entered The Sardinian Civil Service, And In 1824 Was Appointed Lecturer On Canon And Civil ...

Making The Ware
Making The Ware The "slip."—the "slip," It Should Be Explained, Is The China Clay And Other Ingredients Mixed With Water To A Thin Consistency. Metallic Impurities, Which Would Spoil The Finished Ware, Are Re Moved By A Series Of Magnets, Which, In One Method, Are Arranged In What Is Known ...

Manuel Chrysoloras
Chrysoloras, Manuel [or Emmanuel] (c. 1415), One Of The Pioneers In Spreading Greek Literature In The West, Was Born At Constantinople. He Was A Pupil Of Gemistus (q.v.). In 1393 He Was Sent To Italy By The Emperor Manuel Palaeologus To Implore The Aid Of The Christian Princes Against The ...

Marcus Andrew Hislop Clarke
Clarke, Marcus Andrew Hislop Australian Author, Was Born In London On April 24, 1846, And Died At Melbourne On Aug. 2, 1881. He Emigrated About 5863 To Australia, Where His Uncle, James Langton Clarke, Was A County Court Judge. He Was At First A Clerk In The Bank Of Australasia, ...

Marcus Aurelius Claudius
Claudius, Marcus Aurelius, Surnamed Goth Icus, Roman Emperor A.d. 268-270, Belonged To An Obscure Illyrian Family. On Account Of His Military Ability He Was Placed In Command Of An Army By Decius; And Valerian Appointed Him General On The Illyrian Frontier, And Ruler Of The Provinces Of The Lower Danube. ...

Marcus Tullius Cicero
Marcus Tullius Cicero, Only Son Of The Orator And His Wife Terentia, Was Born In 65 B.c. At The Age Of 17 He Served With Pompey In Greece And Commanded A Squadron Of Cavalry At The Battle Of Pharsalus. In 45 He Was Sent To Athens To Study Rhetoric And ...

Marquess Of Burke
Burke), Marquess Of (1604-1657 Or 1658), Son Of Richard, 4th Earl Of Clanricarde, Created In 1628 Earl Of St. Albans, And Of Frances, Daughter And Heir Of Sir Francis Walsingham, And Widow Of Sir Philip Sidney And Of Robert Devereux, Earl Of Essex, Was Born In 1604. He Was Summoned ...

Marquis De
Marquis De (1620-1642), French Courtier, Was The Second Son Of Antoine Coiffier Ruze, Marquis D'effiat, Marshal Of France (1581-1632), And Was Introduced To The Court Of Louis Xiii. By Richelieu, Who Had Been A Friend Of His Father And Who Hoped He Would Counteract The Influence Of The Queen's Favourite, ...

Mary Anne Clarke
Clarke, Mary Anne (c. 5776-1852), Mistress Of Frederick, Duke Of York, Second Son Of George Iii., Married Before She Was 18 A Mr. Clarke, A Stonemason, Whom She Soon Left. She Became In 1803 The Mistress Of The Duke Of York, Then Commander-in-chief. The Duke's Promised Allowance Was Not Regularly ...

Matthias Claudius
Claudius, Matthias (174o-1815), German Poet, Otherwise Known By The Nom De Plume Of Asmus, Was Born On Aug. 15, 1740, At Rheinfeld, Near Lubeck, And Studied At Jena. From 1771 To 1775 He Edited A Newspaper Called The Wandsbecker Bote (wandsbeck Messenger), In Which He Published A Large Number Of ...

Maxwell Henry Close
Close, Maxwell Henry Irish Geolo Gist, Was Born In Dublin In 1822. He Was Educated At Weymouth And At Trinity College, Dublin, Took Holy Orders, And Held Various Charges In England. In 1861 He Returned To Dublin And Devoted Himself Especially To The Glacial Geology Of Ireland. His Paper, Read ...