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Encyclopedia Britannica

Volume 9, Part 1: Extraction to Gambrinus

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Fasti
Fasti, The Plural Of The Latin Adjective Fastus, But More Commonly Used As A Substantive (derived From Fas, Meaning What Is Allowable By Divine Law). Fasti Dies Came To Mean The Days On Which Law Business Might Be Transacted Without Impiety, Corre Sponding To Our Own "lawful Days." The Word ...

Fasting
Fasting, In The Strict Sense Of The Word, Denotes Complete Abstention From Food And Drink; But It Is Commonly Applied Also To The Use Of A Diet Somewhat Severely Limited, Either By The Rejection Of Certain Customary Kinds Of Food Or By A Diminution Of The Total Quantity Of Food ...

Fat
Fat, The Name Given To Certain Animal And Vegetable Products Which Are Oily Solids At Ordinary Temperatures, And Are Chemically Distinguished As Being The Glyceryl Esters Of Various Fatty Acids. (see The Article Oils, Fats And Waxes.) Fat Is A Normal Con Stituent Of Animal Tissue, Being Found Even Before ...

Fata Morgana
Fata Morgana. A Mirage Frequently Seen In The Straits Of Messina, Consisting Of An Apparent Vertical Elongation Of An Object Situated On The Opposite Shore. See Mirage. ...

Fatalism
Fatalism, Strictly The Doctrine That All Things Happen According To A Prearranged Fate, Necessity Or Inexorable Decree (lat. Fatum, That Which Is Spoken, Decreed). It Has Frequently Been Confused With Determinism (q.v.), Which, However, Differs From It Categorically In Assigning A Certain Function To The Will. The Essence Of The ...

Fate
Fate. (gr. Moira, Moirai, ?oipa, ?oipac.) In Homer, Fate Or Necessity Is Conceived As An Abstract Power, Moira Or Aisa (gr. Aio A). Both Words Indicate "apportionment." Moira Is Some Times Apparently Identified With Zeus, Sometimes Differentiated From Him, And Is Regarded As Assigning To Everyone His Share Of Good ...

Fatehpur Sikri
Fatehpur Sikri, A Town In The Agra District In The United Provinces Of India, On The Road From Agra To Jaipur. Pop. (193i) 6,998. The Magnificent Ruins Under Which The Mod Em Hamlet Nestles Represent One Of Akbar's Capitals. He Founded It In 1569 As A Thank-offering For The Birth ...

Fatehpur
Fatehpur, A Town And District Of British India, In The Allahabad Division Of The United Provinces. The Town Is 73 M. By Rail N.w. Of Allahabad. Pop. (1931) 18,947. The District Has An Area Of 1,642 Sq.m. It Is Situated In The Extreme South-eastern Corner Of The Doab Or Tract ...

Father
Father, The Begetter Of A Child, The Male Parent. The Word Is Used Of Male Ancestors More Remote Than The Actual Male Parent, And Of Ancestors In General, And Is The Orthodox Term For The First Person Of The Trinity. One Who Stands As A Spiritual Parent To Another Is ...

Fathers Of The Church
Fathers Of The Church. The "fathers Of The Church" Are The Great Bishops And Other Eminent Christian Teachers Of The Earlier Centuries, Who Were Conspicuous For Sound Ness Of Judgment And Sanctity Of Life, And Whose Writings Remained As A Court Of Appeal For Their Successors, Especially In Reference To ...

Fathom
Fathom, A Measure Of Length, Being The Distance From The Tip Of One Middle Finger To The Tip Of The Other, When The Arms Are Stretched Out To Their Widest Extent (a Word Common, In Various Forms, To Scandinavian And Teutonic Languages; Cf. Danish Favn, Dutch Vaam And Ger. Faden, ...

Fathometer
Fathometer, A Device Which Is A Practical Development Of The Sonic Or Echo Depth-finding Principle For Modern Navigation Purposes. This Device Is Manufactured By The Submarine Signal Corporation In The United States, Is A Development Of Prof. Fessenden's Submarine Oscillator, And Produces A Submarine Sound, And Detects The Returning Sound ...

Fatigue In Industry
Fatigue In Industry. Fatigue Is A Complex Phenom Enon That Is Difficult To Define Precisely. In A Broad Sense The Term Implies A Diminished Capacity For Work Which Results Not Only From Prolonged Activity But Also From A Wide Group Of Socio Economic, Psychological, And Environmental Factors Affecting The Mind ...

Fatigue Of Metals
Fatigue Of Metals, A Generic Term Denoting All Phenomena Associated With The Behaviour Of Metals Subjected To Repetitions Of A Range Of Stress. The Term, However, Is More Gener Ally Applied To The Progressive Deterioration, Leading To Ultimate Fracture, Caused By Repetitions Of A Cycle Of Stress, The Maximum Stress ...

Fatigue
Fatigue, In Psychology, A Condition Of Mind Resulting From Prolonged Mental Activity. It Is Characterized By An Increasing Inability To Pay Attention To Things, Failing Memory, And Inability To Think. It Is Also Accompanied By Peculiar Organic Sensations. (see Experimental Psychology ; Industrial Psychology.) The Non-military Work Carried Out By ...

Fatimites
Fatimites, Also Called Fatimides, The Name Of A Dynasty Called Of Ter Fatima, Daughter Of The Prophet Mohammed, From Whom And Her Husband The Caliph Ali, Son Of Abu Talib, They Claimed Descent. The Dynasty Is Also Called `obaidi (ubaidi) After 'obaidallah, The First Sovereign, And 'alawi, A Title Which ...

Fats In Cookery
Fats In Cookery. Besides Being A Highly Concentrated Form Of Heat-supplying Food (hydro-carbons) Fats Have Many Specialized Uses In Cookery : As A Frying Medium, For Shortening Pastry, Or Other Flour Mixtures, Greasing Receptacles In Which Food Is Cooked And Basting Roast Or Baked Meats. Cooking Fats, Obtained From "fixed ...

Fatty Acids
Fatty Acids, A Highly Important Class Of Compounds Of Carbon, Hydrogen And Oxygen, In Which One Group, The Car Boxylic) Group, Co.oh, Has A Hydrogen Atom Replaceable By Metals And Basic Radicles. One Class Of Fatty Acids Can Be Regarded As Derived From The Hydrocarbons (see Hydrocarbon) Of The Paraffin ...

Faubourg
Faubourg, The French Name For A Portion Of A Town Which Lies Outside The Walls, Hence Properly A Suburb. The Name Sur Vives In Certain Parts Of Paris, Such As The Faubourg St. Antoine And The Faubourg St. Germain, Etc., Which Have Long Since Ceased To Be Suburbs. The Earlier ...

Fauces
Fauces, In Anatomy, The Hinder Part Of The Mouth, Which Leads Into The Pharynx. In Architecture A Term Given By Vitru Vius To Narrow Passages On Either Side Of The Tablinum, Through Which Access Could Be Obtained From The Atrium To The Peristylar Court In The Rear, And Therefore The ...

Fault
Fault, A Failing, Mistake Or Defect. (mid. Eng. Faute, Through The French, From The Popular Latin Use Of Fallere, To Fail; The Original 1 Of The Latin Being Replaced In English In The I 5th Century) . In Geology, A Fault Is A Dislocation In Rocks, The Result Of Crustal ...

Fauna
Fauna, The Feminine Part Ner (in Later Times Explained As Sister Or Wife) Of Faunus (q.v.), And Apparently Identical Origi Nally With The Bona Dea. The Term Is Used Collectively For All The Animals In Any Given Geographical Area Or Geological Period, Or For An Enumeration Of The Same. It ...

Faunus
Faunus, An Old Italian Rural Deity (the "kindly," From Lat. F Avere) , The Bestower Of Fruitfulness On Fields And Cattle. As Such He Is Akin To Or Identical With Inuus ("fructifier") And Lupercus (see Lupercalia). He Was Also Called Fatuus, And With Him Was Associated Fatua. He Is Represented ...

Faure
Faure, Francois Felix (1841-1899), President Of The French Republic, Was Born In Paris On Jan. 3o, 1841, The Son Of A Small Furniture Maker. He Made A Fortune As A Tanner And Merchant At Havre, And Was Elected To The National Assembly On Aug. 21, 1881. He Sat On The ...

Faust Or Faustus
Faust Or Faustus, The Name Of A Magician And Charla Tan Of The 16th Century, Famous In Legend And In Literature. The Historical Faust Forms Little More Than The Nucleus Round Which A Great Mass Of Legendary And Imaginative Material Gradually Accumulated. That Such A Person Existed, There Is, However, ...

Faustus Of Riez
Faustus Of Riez (c. 408c. 492), Bishop Of Riez In Provence, Was Born Probably In Britain, And At An Early Age En Tered The Monastery Of Lerins, Where He Became Abbot In 433. He Was Appointed Bishop Of Riez About 46o, But His Opposition To Arianism Led Euric, King Of ...

Favara
Favara, A Town Of Sicily, Province Of Girgenti, 8 M. E. Of The City Of That Name By Rail. Pop. (1931) , An Agricul Tural Centre, With Sulphur And Other Mines, And A Fine Castle (128o) Of The Chiaramonte Family. ...

Faversham
Faversham, A Market Town And River-port, Member Of The Cinque Port Of Dover, And Municipal Borough In The Faver Sham Parliamentary Division Of Kent, England, On A Creek Of The Swale, 9 M. W.n.w. Of Canterbury On The Southern Railway. Pop. (1931) 10,091. The Church Of St. Mary Of Charity ...

Favorinus
Favorinus (2nd Century A.d.), Greek Sophist And Philo Sopher, Was Born At Arles, But At An Early Age Began His Lifelong Travels Through Greece, Italy And The East. His Extensive Know Ledge And Great Oratorical Powers, Raised Him To Eminence Both In Athens And In Rome. With Plutarch, Who Dedicated ...

Favus
Favus, A Disease Of The Scalp, But Occurring Occasionally On Any Part Of The Skin, And Even At Times On Mucous Membranes. The Uncomplicated Appearance Is That Of A Number Of Yellowish, Circular, Cup-shaped Crusts Grouped In Patches Like A Piece Of Honeycomb, Each About The Size Of A Split ...

Fayal
Fayal, A Portuguese Island Forming Part Of The Azores Archipelago. Pop. (1930) 21,432; Area, 63 Sq.m. Fayal, I.e., "the Beech Wood," Was So Called From The Former Abundance Of The Myrica Faya, Which Its Discoverers Mistook For Beech Trees. It Has An Excellent Harbour At Horta (q.v.), A Town Of ...

Fayetteville
Fayetteville, A City Of North-western Arkansas, U.s.a., In The Heart Of The Beautiful Ozark Mountains, At An Altitude Of I,5ooft.; The County Seat Of Washington County And The Seat Of The State University. It Is On Federal Highway 71, And Is Served By The Frisco Lines. The Population Was 5,362 ...

Fayetteville_2
Fayetteville, A City Of North Carolina, U.s.a., At The Head Of Navigation On The Cape Fear River, 8om. From The Ocean; The County Seat Of Cumberland County. It Is Served By The Aber Deen And Rockfish, The Atlantic Coast Line, And The Norfolk Southern Railways, And By Steamers To Wilmington, ...

Fayum
Fayum, A Mudiria (province) Of Upper Egypt, Having An Area Of 669 Sq.m. And A Population (1927) Of 554,040. The Capital, Medinet-el-fayum, Is 81 M. S.s.w. Of Cairo By Rail. The Fayum Proper Is An Oasis In The Libyan Desert, Connected With The Nile By The Bahr Yusuf, Which Reaches ...

Fazogli
Fazogli, A District In The Sennar Division Of The Anglo Egyptian Sudan. It Forms Part Of The Foot-hills Of The Abyssinian Plateau And Is Traversed By The Blue Nile And Its Affluent The Tumat. Immediately South Are The Beni Shangul Gold Washings In Abyssinia. The Inhabitants Of Fazogli Are Berta ...

Feast Of Fools
Fools, Feast Of, The Name For Certain Burlesque, Quasi Religious Festivals Which, During The Middle Ages, Were The Ecclesi Astical Counterpart Of The Secular Revelries Of The Lord Of Misrule. (lat. Festum Stultorum, F Ollorune; Fr. Fte Des Fous.) The Cele Brations Are Directly Traceable To The Pagan Saturnalia Of ...

Feasts And Festivals
Feasts And Festivals. A Festival Or Feast 'is A Day Or Series Of Days Specially And Publicly Set Apart For Religious Ob Servances. Whether Its Occurrence Be Casual Or Periodic, Whether Its Ritual Be Grave Or Gay, Carnal As The Orgies Of Baal And Astarte, Or Spiritual As The Worship ...

Feather River
Feather River. A River Of Northern California Which Rises In The Sierra Nevada Range And Flows In A South-west Direc Tion Through Some Of The Most Beautiful Scenery In The State, Till It Becomes Part Of The Sacramento. It Is Only Partly Navigable. ...

Feather Stars
Feather Stars, The Popular Name For The Beautiful Star Fish (q.v.) Of The Class Crinoidea (see Echinoderma), From Their Branched, Feathery Arms. ...

Feather
Feather, A Horny Outgrowth Of The Skin Of Birds, Homo Logous With The Scale Of The Reptile. The Body-covering Of All Birds Is Composed Of Feathers, And By This Character Alone Birds May Be Distinguished From All Other Animals. The Most Perfect Form Of Feather Is Made Up Of A ...

Featherstone
Featherstone, An Urban District In The Normanton Parliamentary Division Of The West Riding Of Yorkshire, England, 6 M. E. Of Wakefield, And 21 M. S.w. Of Pontefract On The L.m.s. Railway. Pop. (1931), 14,952. The Industrial Population Is Em Ployed In Large Collieries. Here, On Sept. 7, 1893, Serious Riots, ...

Febronianism
Febronianism, The Name Given To A Powerful Movement Within The Roman Catholic Church In Germany, In The Latter Part Of The 18th Century, Directed Towards The "nationalizing" Of Catholicism, The Restriction Of The Monarchical Power Usurped By The Papacy At The Expense Of The Episcopate, And The Reunion Of The ...

February
February, The Second Month Of The Modern Calendar. In Ordinary Years It Contains 28 Days; But In Bissextile Or Leap Year, It Consists Of 29 Days. This Month Was Not In The Romulian Calendar. In The Reign Of Numa Two Months Were Added To The Year, Namely, January At The ...

Fecamp
Fecamp, A Seaport And Bathing Resort Of Northern France, In The Department Of Seine-inf Erieure, 28 M. N.n.e. Of Havre On The Ouest-etat Railway. Pop. (1931) 16,270. The Town Stands At The Mouth Of The Small River Fecamp, And Occupies The Bottom And Sides Of A Narrow Valley Opening Out ...

Fechners Law
Fechner's Law, In Psychology, States That The Inten Sity Of A Sensation (1) Varies With The Logarithm Of The Strength Of The Stimulus (s), Or Briefly I=c Log. S, When C Is A Constant Which Is Different For Different Sensations (seeing, Hearing, Etc.), Or Even For The Same Kind Of ...

Federal Council Of Evangelical
Federal Council Of Evangelical Free Churches. This Body Was Formed To Give Expression To The Unity In Matters Of Spiritual Principle Which Had Been Found To Exist Among The Evangelical Free Churches Of England And To Co Ordinate Their Activities And Resources. It Represents The Denomina Tions As Organized Corporate ...

Federal Farm Board
Federal Farm Board. The Farm Relief Legislation Enacted By The United States Congress In 1929, Known As The Agricultural Marketing Act, Provides For A Federal Farm Board Of Eight Members, And A Revolving Fund Of $500,000,00o Available For Lending To Cooperative Associations Or To Stabilization Corpora Tions Owned By Cooperatives, ...

Federal Government
Federal Government, A Form Of Government Of Which The Essential Principle Is That There Is A Union Of Two Or More States Under One Central Body For Certain Permanent Com Mon Objects (lat. Foedus, A League). In The Most Perfect Form Of Federation The States Agree To Delegate To A ...

Federalist Party
Federalist Party, In American Politics, The Party That Organized The National Government Of The United States Under The Constitution Of 1787. It May Be Regarded As, In Various Important Respects, The Lineal Predecessor Of The American Whig And Republican Parties. The Name Federalists (see Anti-feder Alists) Was First Given To ...

Federation Of British Industries
Federation Of British Industries. Founded In 1916, As A National Organization To Voice The Sectional Views Of Industry, This Federation Differs From Other Important Com Mercial Organizations In Restricting Its Membership To Manu Facturers Or Producers, And Such As Serve Their Needs. The Mem Bers Number Nearly 2,800 Manufacturing Firms ...

Fee
Fee, An Estate In Land Held Of A Superior Lord On Condition Of The Performance Of Homage Or Service (see Feudalism). In English Law "fee" Signifies An Estate Of Inheritance (i.e., An Estate Descendable To The Heirs Of The Grantee So Long As There Are Any In Existence) As Opposed ...

Feeble Mindedness
Feeble-mindedness, A Term Descriptive Of A Condi Tion Of Low Intelligence. In England The Term Has Been Reserved For The Highest Group Of Mental Defectives, Those Now Called Morons In The United States. In America The Term Covers The Entire Group Of Mental Defectives. The Following Definition Of Feeble-mindedness Was ...

Feeding Stuffs
Feeding Stuffs, The Materials On Which Animals Feed, May Be (i.) Grass Or Other Growing Crops Eaten In The Fresh Con Dition; (ii.) The Same Preserved For Winter Use By Drying Or Ensiling; (iii.) Seeds, Or Products Made From Seeds; (iv.) Miscel Laneous Products Of Various Industries Dealing With Plant ...

Fehmarn
Fehmarn, An Island Of The Prussian Province Of Schleswig Holstein, In The Baltic, Separated From The North-east Corner Of Holstein By The Fehmarn-sund, Less Than A Quarter Of A Mile Broad. It Is About 120 Sq.m. In Area, Bare Of Forest But Con Taining Excellent Pasture-land, And Rears Cattle. Burg, ...

Fehmic Courts
Fehmic Courts, Certain Tribunals Which, During The Mid Dle Ages, Exercised A Powerful Jurisdiction In Germany, And More Especially In Westphalia. They Are Best Regarded As Survivals Of Ancient Teutonic Local Courts. Their Alternative Name Of "free Courts" Is Due To The Fact That All Free-born Men Were Eligible For ...

Fehrbellin
Fehrbellin, A Town Of Germany, In The Land Of Prussia, On The Rhine, 40 M. N.w. From Berlin On The Railway To Neu-ruppin. Pop. (1933) 2,122. It Has Some Small Industries, Among Them That Of Wooden Shoes. Fehrbellin Is Memorable In History As The Scene Of The Victory (june 18, ...

Feijoa
Feijoa, A Small Tree (feijoa Sellowiana) Of The Myrt'e Family (myrtaceae), Closely Related To The Guava (q.v.) And Often Called Pineapple Guava. It Is A Native Of Southern Brazil, Para Guay, Uruguay And Parts Of Argentina, And Is Cultivated In Various Mild Climates For Its Highly Esteemed Fruit. The Tree ...

Feis Ceoil
Feis Ceoil (f Ash Kyol'), Irish Musical Festival, Founded In 1897 And One Of The Best-established And Most Useful Institu Tions In Irish Musical Life. The Study And Cultivation Of Irish Music Are Especially Aimed At, But Not Now, As At First, Exclu Sively, The Ultra-particularist Policy Originally Adopted In ...

Feisul Al Husain
Feisul Al Husain (f I-zool'ahl-hoo-sin) (1885-1933), King Of `iraq, Was Born At Taif, Third Son Of Sharif Husain. Feisul Descends From Fatimah, Only Surviving Child Of The Prophet, Through Hasan, Her Eldest Son By Marriage With `ali Ibn Abi Talib, Fourth Amir Al Muninin. After The Custom Of His House, ...

Felanitx Or Felaniche
Felanitx Or Felaniche, A Town In The Island Of Majorca, Balearic Islands; 7 M. Inland From Its Harbour, Puerto Colon, And Terminus Of A Railway From Palma, The Capital. Pop. (1930), 11,666. Felanitx Is Separated From The Mediterranean By Low Hills, On One Of Which Stands The Monastery Of San ...

Feldkirch
Feldkirch, A Small Town In The Province Of Vorarlberg, Austria. Situated On The River Ill, A Few Miles Above Its Confluence With The Rhine, It Is A Frontier And Customs Station Of Great Im Portance As It Commands The Route To The East Over The Arlberg Pass (5,912 Ft.), And ...

Felix I
Felix I., Pope From Jan. 269 Until His Death In Jan. 274. His Name Is Given As A Martyr In The Roman Calendar And Elsewhere, But His Title To This Honour Is By No Means Proved. He Appears In Connection With The Dispute In The Church Of Antioch Between Paul ...

Felix Ii
Felix Ii., Antipope, Was In 356 Raised From The Archdeaconate Of Rome To The Papal Chair, When Liberius Was Banished By The Emperor Constantius For Refusing To Condemn Athanasius. In 357 Constantius Agreed To The Release Of Liberius On Condition That He Signed The Semi-arian Creed. Constantius Also Issued An ...

Felix Iii
Felix Iii. Became Pope In March 483. His First Act Was To Re Pudiate The Henoticon, A Deed Of Union, Originating, It Is Supposed, With Acacius, Patriarch Of Constantinople, And Published By The Emperor Zeno With The View Of Reconciling The Monophysites And Their Opponents In The Eastern Church. He ...

Felix Iv
Felix Iv. Was Raised To The Papal Chair In 526 By The Emperor Theodoric. The Serious Riots Over His Election Led Him, On His Deathbed, To Nominate As His Successor, The Archdeacon Boniface (pope Boniface Ii.). But This Proceeding Was Contrary To All Tradition And Roused Much Opposition. Felix Built ...

Felix V
Felix V., The Name Taken By Amadeus (1383-1451), Duke Of Savoy, When Elected Pope In 1439. Amadeus Was Born At Cham Bery On Dec. 4, 1383, And Succeeded His Father As Count Of Savoy In 1391. In 1416 The German King Sigismund Erected Savoy Into A Duchy; After This Elevation ...

Felix
Felix, A Missionary Bishop From Burgundy, Sent Into East Anglia By Honorius Of Canterbury (63o-31). Under King Sige Bert His Mission Was Successful, And He Became First Bishop Of East Anglia, With A See At Dunwich, Where He Died And Was Buried, 647-8. Bibliography.-see Bede, Hist. Eccl., Edit. C. Plummer, ...

Felixstowe
Felixstowe, A Seaside Resort In The Woodbridge Parlia Mentary Division Of East Suffolk, England, 841- M. N.e. By E. From London On A Branch Of The L.n.e.r. From Ipswich. Pop. Of Urban District (1931) 12,03 7 (which Figure Is Augmented By Summer Visitors). Felixstowe Has A Frontage Both To The ...

Felix_2
Felix, Of Urgella (fl. 8th Century), Spanish Bishop, The Friend Of Elipandus And The Propagator Of His Views In The Great Adop Tian Controversy (see Adoptianism). ...

Fell
Fell, A Term With Three Meanings: (1) Adj., Savage, Ruthless, Terrible; (2) N., A Hill, Appearing In Place-names And Names Of Hills, E.g., Scawf Ell ; Also A Lofty Moorland Down; (3) Verb, To Cause To Fall, As To Fell A Tree. Fell Is Also Used As A Synonym For ...

Fellah
Fellah (pl. Fellahin), Arabic For "ploughman" Or "tiller," The Word Used In Arabic-speaking Countries To Designate Peasantry. It Is Employed Especially Of The Peasantry Of Egypt, As Opposed To The Arabs Of The Desert (and Even Those Who Have Settled On The Land), The Turks And The Townsfolk. Fellah Is ...

Felling
Felling, An Urban District In The Jarrow Parliamentary Division Of Durham, England, Forming A South-eastern Suburb Of Gateshead With Railway Station On The L.n.e. Railway. Pop. (1931) 27,041. Christ Church Was Built In 1866. The Large Industrial Population Is Employed In The Neighbouring Collieries And The Various Attendant Manufactures. The ...

Felloe
Felloe, The Outer Rim Of A Wheel, To Which The Spokes Are Attached. The Word Is Sometimes Spelled And Usually Pronounced "felly." It Is A Teutonic Word, In O.e. Felg, Cognate With Dutch Velge, Ger. Felge; The Original Teutonic Root From Which These Are Derived Probably Meant "to Fit Together." ...

Fellow
Fellow, By Origin A Partner Or Associate, Hence A Compan Ion, Comrade Or Mate. The Word From The 15th Century Has Also Been Applied To Any Male Person, Often In A Contemptuous Or Pity Ing Sense. The O.e. F Eolage Meant A Partner In A Business. The Word Was, Therefore, ...

Felo De Se
Felo De Se, One Who Murders Himself, I.e., A Suicide. The Technical Conditions Of Murder With One Exception Apply To This Crime. Thus, Although An Attempt To Commit Suicide Is A Misde Meanor At English Common Law, Aiding Or Inciting To Suicide Is The Felony Of Murder. So Also Is ...

Felony
Felony. Acts Involving Forfeiture Were Styled Felonies In Feudal Law, Although They Had Nothing Of A Criminal Character About Them. A Breach Of Duty On The Part Of The Vassal, Neglect Of Service, Delay In Seeking Investiture, And The Like Were Felonies; So Were Injuries By The Lord Against The ...

Felsite
Felsite, In Petrology, A Term Which Has Long Been Generally Used By Geologists, Especially In England, To Designate Fine Grained Igneous Rocks Of Acid (or Subacid) Composition. As A Rule Their Ingredients Are Not Determinable By The Unaided Eye, But They Are Principally Felspar And Quartz As Very Minute Par ...

Felspar Or Feldspar
Felspar Or Feldspar, A Name Applied To A Group Of Minerals Of Great Importance As Rock Constituents. The Name "feldspar" Was Used By Wallerius In His Mineralogy (1747) In The Swedish Form Feltspat, Meaning Fieldspar, But It Was Subsequently Written "felspar" By R. Kirwan, Who Erroneously Assumed The Derivation Of ...

Felsted Or Felstead
Felsted Or Felstead, A Village In The Saffron Walden Parliamentary Division Of Essex, England, Io M. N. From Chelms Ford; With A Station On The Dunmow And Braintree Branch Of The L.n.e. Railway. Pop. (1931), 1,845. Holy Cross Church Contains A Chapel Of The Rich Family, Including An Imposing Monument ...

Felt
Felt, A Fabric Produced By The "matting" Or "felting" To Gether Of Fibrous Materials Such As Wools, Hairs, Furs, Etc. Most Textile Fibres (see Fibres) Possess The Quality Of Matting To Some Extent, But Wools, Furs And Some Hairs Are The Only Fibres Which Can Be Felted Satisfactorily. It Is ...

Feltre
Feltre (anc. Feltria), A Town And Episcopal See Of Venetia, Italy, Province Of Belluno, 20 M. W.s.w. Of Belluno By Rail, Situated On An Isolated Hill, 885 Ft. Above Sea-level. Pop. (1931) 8,252 (town), 18,021 (commune). The Palazzo Del Consiglio, Now A Theatre, Is Attributed To Palladio. At One End ...

Felucca
Felucca, A Type Of Vessel Used In The Mediterranean As Coasters Or Fishing-boats. It Is A Long, Low, And Narrow Undecked Vessel, Built For Speed, And Propelled By Oars Or Sails. The Sails Are Lateen-shaped And Carried On One Or Two Masts Placed Far Forward (see Boat). ...

Female
Female, The Correlative Of Male, The Sex Which Performs The Function Of Conceiving And Bearing As Opposed To The Beget Ting Of Young. The Word In Middle English Is Femelle, Adopted From The French From The Lat. Fernella, Diminutive Of Femina, A Woman. The Present Termination Is Due To A ...

Femerell Or Fumerell
Femerell Or Fumerell, The Old English Term Given To The Lantern In The Ridge Of A Hall Roof For The Purpose Of Letting Out The Smoke From The Central Hearth. ...

Feminism
Feminism, A Term Of Recent Origin To Designate The Motives And Ideas That Underlie The Modern Movement In Favour Of Rights For Women. It Includes The Personal And Social As Well As The Political And Economic Aspects Of The Movement And Has For Its Object The Placing Of Woman On ...

Fencibles
Fencibles. In The I8th Century In Great Britain, Fencibles Were Regular Troops, Consisting Of Cavalry And Infantry, Raised For Home Service Only, And For The Duration Of The War. They Differed From The Local Militia Which Were Raised By Counties And Were Only Liable To Serve In Their Own County ...

Fencing
Fencing. From Its General Meaning Of The Art Of Defence Or Offence With The Sword, The Word "fencing" Has Become Re Stricted To The Art And Science Of Those Regulated And Artificial Con Ditions Which Govern Single Combat, In Countries Where The Duel Is Still In Favour, Or Competition Between ...

Fender
Fender, A Metal Guard Or Defence As For A Motor Car Or Fire Place. In The Latter Instance When The Open Hearth With Its Logs Burning Upon Fire-dogs Or Andirons (qq.v.) Was Replaced By The Closed Grate, The Fender Was Devised As A Finish To The Smaller Fire-places, And As ...

Fenestella
Fenestella, Roman Historian And Encyclopaedic Writer, Flourished In The Reign Of Tiberius. If The Notice In Jerome Be Correct, He Lived From 52 B.c. To A.d. 1 G (according To Pliny, N.h. Xxxiii, 35 B.c.a.d. 36). Taking Varro For His Model, Fenestella Represented The New Style Of Historical Writing Which ...

Fenestral
Fenestral, A Frame On Which Oiled Paper Or Thin Cloth Was Strained To Keep Out Wind And Rain When Windows Were Not Glazed. ...

Fenestration
Fenestration, An Architectural Term Applied To The Arrangement Of Windows On The Outside Walls Of A Building, More Especially When They Constitute Its Chief Architectural Embellish Ment. ...

Feng Huang
Feng Huang, One Of The Four Symbolical Creatures Which In Chinese Mythology Are Believed To Keep Watch And Ward Over The Celestial Empire. It Was Begotten By Fire, Was Born In The Hill Of The Sun's Halo, And Its Body Bears Inscribed On It The Five Cardinal Virtues. It Has ...

Feng Yu Hsiang
Feng Yu-hsiang (188o ), Chinese Military Leader, Was Born In Chaohsien In The Province Of Anhwei, And Is Generally Known As "the Christian General" From His Early Adoption Of Christianity Of A Baptist And Evangelical Type. His Education And Training Were Purely Military, And He Saw Active Service Under Chao ...

Fenians Or Fenian Brotherhood
Fenians Or Fenian Brotherhood, The Name Of A Modern Irish-american Revolutionary Secret Society, Founded In America By John O'mahony (1816-1877) In 1858. The Name Was Derived From Fiann, F Einne, The Legendary Band Of Warriors In Ireland Led By Find Mac Cumhaill (see Finn Mac Cumhail). After The Col Lapse ...

Fennel
Fennel, The Name Applied To Several Desert-dwelling Species Of Fox, Characterized By The Great Length Of The Ears And Small Size. The True Fennec ( Vulpes Zerda) Inhabits North Africa And Is Pale In Colour With A Short, Black-tipped Tail. South Of The Zambezi The Group Reappears, Being Represented By ...

Fennel_2
Fennel, Foeniculum Officinale, A Perennial Plant Of The Family Umbelliferae, From 2 To 3 Or (when Cultivated) 4f T. In Height, Having Leaves Three Or Four Times Pinnate, With Numerous Linear Or Awl-shaped Segments, And Glaucous Compound Umbels Of About 15 Or Ao Rays, With No Involucres, And Small Yellow ...

Fenny Stratford
Fenny Stratford, A Market Town In The Buckingham Parliamentary Division Of Buckinghamshire, England, 47a M. N.w. By N. Of London On The Bedford Branch Of The L.m.s. Rail Way. Pop. Of Civil Parish It Lies In An Open Valley On The West (left) Bank Of The Ouzel, Where The Great ...

Fenrir Or Fenris
Fenrir Or Fenris, In Scandinavian Mythology, A Water Demon In The Shape Of A Huge Wolf, Was The Offspring Of Loki And The Giantess Angurboda. He Grew So Large That The Gods, In Fear, Had Him Chained Up. He Broke The First Two Chains. The Third, A Magic Bond Made ...

Fens
Fens, A District In The East Of England, Possessing A Distinc Tive History And Peculiar Characteristics. It Lies West And South Of The Wash, In Lincolnshire, Huntingdonshire, Cambridgeshire And Norfolk, And Extends Over More Than 7o M. In Length (lincoln To Cambridge) And Some 35 M. In Maximum Breadth (stamford ...

Fenton
Fenton, Parish; Stoke-on-trent County, Municipal And Par Liamentary Borough, Staffordshire, England. Pop. (1921) 26,714. In 1910 It Amalgamated With Neighbouring Towns To Form The Municipal Borough Of Stoke-on-trent (q.v.) Which In 1925 Became A City. ...