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Encyclopedia Britannica Volume 2 Annu - Baltic

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Arbor Vitae
Arbor Vitae (tree Of Life), A Name Given By Clusius To Species Of Thuja. The Name Thuja Was Adopted By Linnaeus From The Thuya Of Tournefort And Seems To Be Derived From The Greek Word 6vos, Signifying Sacrifice, Probably Because The Resin Procured From The Plant Was Used As Incense. ...

Arboretum
Arboretum, A Place Where Trees And Shrubs Are Cultivated For Scientific, Ornamental Or Other Educational Purposes ; That Por Tion Of A Botanical Garden Used For Woody Plants. There Are Many Such Collections Of Hardy Plants In Cities And Private Parks. Rich Men Often Spare Neither Pains Nor Money To ...

Arboriculture
Arboriculture, The Scientific Management Of Trees (lat. Arbor, A Tree). In Its Broadest Sense Arboriculture Includes That Part Of Horticulture Which Deals With Selection And Cultiva Tion Of Ornamental And Fruit Trees And Shrubs And That Part Of Forestry Known As Silviculture. Because Of Its Broad Meaning The Word Arboriculture ...

Arbour
Arbour, Originally "herber" Or "erber" (o.fr. Herbier, From Lat. Herbarium, "a Collection Of Herbs," Herba, "grass") ; The Word Came To Be Spelt "artier" Through Its Pronunciation, As In The Case Of Derby, And By The I6th Century Was Written "ar Bour," Helped By A Confusion Of Derivation From Lat. ...

Arbroath Or Aberbrothock
Arbroath Or Aberbrothock, Royal, Municipal, And Police Burgh And Seaport, Forfarshire (angus), Scotland, At The Mouth Of Brothock Water, 17m. N.e. Of Dundee By The L.n.e.r. Pop. (i 93i) 17,637. The Town Is Under Provost, Bailies, And Council, And, With Brechin, Forfar, Bervie, And Montrose, Returns One Member To Parliament. ...

Arbutus
Arbutus, A Genus Of Evergreen Trees Or Shrubs Of The Heath Family (ericaceae) Characterized By Smooth, Red, Exfoliating Bark, Handsome Foliage, Showy Flowers In Terminal Clusters And Attrac Tive, Berry-like Red Fruit. There Are About 20 Species, Found Chiefly In The Mediterranean Region, Central America And Western North America. In ...

Arca Musarithmica
Arca Musarithmica, An Instrument Or Machine For The Composing Of Music Mechanically, By The Arranging And Com Bining Of Notes According To Rule In Various Ways; Described By Athanasius Kircher In His Musurgia Universalis, Rome, 166o. Samuel Pepys Possessed Such A "composition Box," Which Is Still To Be Seen In ...

Arcachon
Arcachon, Town And Bathing-resort, South-west France, In The Department Of Gironde, 37m. W.s.w. Of Bordeaux On The Southern Railway. Pop. (1931) 12,529. It Is Situated On The South Shore Of A Large Bay, The Bassin D'arcachon, At The Foot Of Pine-clad Dunes. The Summer Town, Extending For 21m. Along The ...

Arcade
Arcade, In Architecture, A Series Of Arches Assembled In A Single Composition, Particularly When The Arches Are Of Approx Imately The Same Size And Placed Upon The Same Level. Arcades Are Used Structurally As In The Arcade Between The Nave And Aisles Of A Church, Which Supports The Clerestorey Wall ...

Arcadia
Arcadia, In Greece, The Central District Of Peloponnesus. Shut Off From The Coast On All Sides By Mountain Barriers (in The North Erymanthus [mod. Olonos] Rises To 7,400ft., And Cyllene [ziria] To 7,9oof T. ; In The South Parthenium And Lycaeum Exceed 5,000ft.) This Inland Plateau Is Again Divided By ...

Arcadius
Arcadius (378-408), Roman Emperor, The Elder Son Of Theodosius The Great, Was Created Augustus In 383, And Succeeded His Father In 395. The Empire Was Divided Between Him And His Brother Honorius, Honorius Governing The Two Western Prefectures (gaul And Italy), And Arcadius The Two Eastern (the Orient And Illyricum). ...

Arcadius_2
Arcadius, Of Antioch, Greek Grammarian, Flourished In The 2nd Century A.d. According To Suidas, He Wrote Treatises On Orthography And Syntax, And An Onomasticon (vocabulary). An Epitome Of Herodian's Work On General Prosody, Wrongly Attributed To Arcadius, Is Probably The Work Of Theodosius Of Alexandria Or A Grammarian Named Aristodemus. ...

Arcesilaus
Arcesilaus (316-241 B.c.), Athenian Philosopher And Founder Of The New, Or Middle, Academy (see Academy, Greek). His Doctrines, Which Must Be Gathered From The Writings Of Others (cicero, Acad., I. 12,1v. 24; De Orat., Iii. 18; Diogenes Laertius Iv. 28; Sextus Empiricus, Adv. Math., Vii. 15o, Pyrrh. Hyp. I. 233), ...

Arch
Arch, Any Combination Of Blocks Of Building Material, Gen Erally Wedge-shaped And With Radial Joints, Employed To Cap An Opening Wider Than Any Of The Blocks Themselves Capping It. In Form, Arches Are Usually, Though Not Always, Built With The Soffit (q.v.) Following A Curved Line. By Extension, The Word ...

Archaeological Articles
Archaeological Articles. In Addition To The General Article Archaeology, Where The Development Of The Science Is Fully Treated, There Are Numerous Archaeological Sub Sections To Continents And Countries (these Subsections Are Found Under The Names Of The Territories). Special Articles On Individual Civilizations Appear Under Their Distinctive Names, E.g., Aegean ...

Archaeology And Antiquities
Archaeology And Antiquities In Eastern Iran, I.e., Sogdiana, Bactria (including Gandhara, Or The North-west Corner Of The Punjab), In Chorasmia, Mery And Seistan, Lie The Keys To The Problems Of Early Iranian Culture And Its Influence On The Culture Of India And China. Again, Southern Siberia Contains Antiquities, Which Will, ...

Archaeology
Archaeology Is At The Same Time A Science And An Art. It Is Or Should Be A Scientifically Ordered Branch Of Knowledge Professed By Men Of Truly Scientific Training, Of A Certain Subject, Namely The Remains Of Ancient Human Activity. It Is Or Should Be Also The Art That Deals ...

Archaeopteryx
Archaeopteryx. The Discovery Of The Impression Of A Feather In The Lithographic Limestone Of Solenhofen, Bavaria, Has Enabled Us To Trace Back The Descent Of Birds Of Jurassic Times; Though It Afforded No Clue As To The Type Of Bird To Which It Belonged. This Feather Was Named Archaeopteryx Lit/iographica, ...

Archaism
Archaism, An Old-fashioned Usage, Or The Deliberate Em Ployment Of An Out-of-date And Ancient Mode Of Expression. Ex Amples Will Be Found In English In The Forgeries Of Chatterton And In The Prose Romances Of William Morris. ...

Archangel I
Archangel. (i.). A Non-autonomous Province Of The Russian S.f.s.r., Decidedly Smaller Than The Former Archangel Province. Its Boundaries Are, North, The White Sea; East, The Au Tonomous Komi (zyrian) Area; South, The North Dwina And Vologda; And West, Karelian A.s.s.r. Area 450,77osq.km. Pop. (1926) 428,945; Urban 67,015, Rural 361,926. The ...

Archbald
Archbald, A Borough Of Lackawanna County, Pa., U.s.a., In The Anthracite Fields, Iom. N.e. Of Scranton, About 9ooft. Above Sea-level. It Is Served By The Delaware And Hudson And The New York, Ontario And Western Railways. The Population In 1920 Was 8,6o3, In 1930, 9.587 By Federal Census. Coal-mining Is ...

Archbishop
Archbishop (gr. Qpxce7rlqk07r0s) In The Christian Church, The Title Of A Bishop Of Superior Rank, Implying Usually Jurisdiction Over Other Bishops, But No Superiority Of Order Over Them. The Functions Of The Archbishop, As At Present Exercised, Developed Out Of Those Of The Metropolitan (q.v.) ; Though The Title Of ...

Archdeacon
Archdeacon, A High Official Of The Christian Church. The Office Of Archdeacon Is Of Great Antiquity. Originally The Archdeacon Was, As The Name Implies, The Chief Of The Deacons Attached To The Bishop's Cathedral, His Duty Being, Besides Preach Ing, To Supervise The Deacons And Their Work. His Close Relation ...

Archduke
Archduke, A Title Peculiar In Modern Times To The Austrian Royal Family (lat. Archidux, Ger. Erzherzog). The Designation Was Exceedingly Rare During The Middle Ages. The Title Of "arch Duke Palatine" (pfalz-erzherzog) Was Assumed First By Duke Rudolph Iv. (died 1365). Rudolph Iv. Used The Title On His Seals And ...

Archelaus Of Cappadocia
Archelaus Of Cappadocia (1st Century B.c.) ; Gen Eral Of Mithridates The Great In The War Against Rome. In 87 B.c. He Was Sent To Greece With A Large Army And Fleet, And Occupied The Peiraeus After Three Days' Fighting With Bruttius Sura, Prefect Of Macedonia. There He Was Besieged ...

Archelaus Of Miletus
Archelaus Of Miletus, Greek Philosopher, 5th Century B.c., Born Probably At Athens, Though Diogenes Laertius (ii. 16) Says At Miletus. He Was A Pupil Of Anaxagoras And Is Said By Ion Of Chios (ap. Diog. Laert. Ii. 23) To Have Been The Teacher Of Socrates. Some Argue That This Is ...

Archelaus
Archelaus, Received The Kingdom Of Judaea By The Last Will Of His Father, Herod The Great, Though A Previous Will Had Bequeathed It To His Brother Antipas. He Was Proclaimed King By The Army, But Declined To Assume The Title Until He Had Submitted His Claims To Augustus. Before Setting ...

Archelaus_2
Archelaus B.e.), King Of Macedonia, Was The Son Of Perdiccas And A Slave Mother. He Obtained The Throne By Murdering His Uncle, His Cousin And His Half-brother The Legitimate Heir. He Fortified Cities, Constructed Roads And Organized The Army. He Endeavoured To Spread Greek Civilization Among His People And Invited ...

Archelaus_3
Archelaus, King Of Egypt, Was His Son. In 56 B.c. He Mar Ried Berenice, Daughter Of Ptolemy Auletes, Queen Of Egypt, But His Reign Only Lasted Six Months. He Was Defeated By Aulus Gab Inius And Slain (55). See Strabo Xii., P. 558, Xvii. P. 796; Dio Cassius Xxxix. 57-58; ...

Archelaus_4
Archelaus, King Of Cappadocia, Was Grandson Of The Last Named. In 41 B.c. (according To Others, 34), He Was Made King Of Cappadocia By Antony, Whom, However, He Deserted After The Battle Of Actium. Octavian Enlarged His Kingdom By The Addition Of Part Of Cilicia And Lesser Armenia. He Was ...

Archenteron
Archenteron, The Term Used In Embryology (q.v.) To Denote The Primary Body-cavity Of The Embryo Which, In Higher Forms (coelomata, Q.v.), Divides Into Alimentary Canal And Coelom (q.v.), In Lower Is Retained As The Coelenteron. ...

Archer Fish
Archer-fish, The Name Given To Several Small Fish Of The Chaetodontidae On Account Of Their Habit Of Projecting Water From Their Mouths, Thus Wetting Insects And Knocking Them Into The Water. The Best-known Species, Toxotes Jaculator, Inhabits The Fresh Waters Of Java And Other Indo-malayan Islands. It Reaches A Length ...

Archermus
Archermus, A Chian Sculptor Of The Middle Of The 6th Century B.c., Is Said By A Scholiast (on Aristophanes' Birds, V. 573) To Have Been The First To Represent Victory And Love With Wings. This Statement Gives Especial Interest To A Discovery Made At Delos Of A Basis Signed By ...

Archery
Archery, The Art And Practice Of Shooting With The Bow And Arrow. Nearly Every Country Except Australia Has The Bow And Its Origin Is Lost In The Uncertainties Of The Old Stone Age. Excellent Drawings Of Archers Are Found In The Palaeolithic Carv Ings At Castellon (spain), And Elsewhere, Which ...

Archestratus
Archestratus, Of Syracuse Or Gela, A Greek Poet, Who Flourished About 330 B.c. After Travelling In Search Of Foreign Delicacies For The Table, He Embodied The Result In A Humorous Poem Called `hbviraoeia, Afterwards Freely Translated By Ennius Under The Title Heduplcagetica. About 300 Lines Of His Poem, Which Parodies ...

Archiannelida
Archiannelida, The Most Primitive Of The Classes Of The Annelida (q.v.), Or Segmented Worms. ...

Archibald Armstrong
Armstrong, Archibald (d. 1672), Court Jester, Called "archy," Was A Native Of Scotland Or Of Cumberland, And According To Tradition First Distinguished Himself As A Sheep Stealer; Afterwards He Entered The Service Of James Vi., With Whom He Became A Favourite. When The King Succeeded To The English Throne, Archy ...

Archibald Campbell
Archibald Campbell, 5th Earl Of Argyll (153o-73), Was The Elder Son Of Archibald, 4th Earl Of Argyll (d. 1558), And A Grandson Of Colin, The 3rd Earl (d. 153o). His Great-grandfather Was The 2nd Earl, Archibald, Who Was Killed At Flodden In 1513, And Whose Father Was Colin, Lord Campbell ...

Archibald Campbell_2
Archibald Campbell, 1st Marquis And 8th Earl Of Argyll (1607-61), Eldest Son Of Archibald, 7th Earl, By His First Wife, Lady Anne Douglas, Daughter Of William, 1st Earl Of Morton, Was Born In 1607 (the Date Of 1j98, Previously Accepted, Is Shown By Willcock To Be Incorrect), And Educated At ...

Archibald Campbell_3
Archibald Campbell, 9th Earl Of Argyll (162g-85), Eldest Son Of The 8th Earl, Studied Abroad, And Returned To Scotland With Prince Charles In 1650. The Marquis Of Lorne (by Which Title He Was Known Until His Accession To The Earldom) Fought At Dunbar (sept. 3 165o), And After The Battle ...

Archibald Campbell_4
Archibald Campbell, 1st Duke Of Argyll (?1651-17o3), Was The Eldest Son Of The 9th Earl. He Tried To Obtain The Reversal Of His Father's Attainder By Seeking The King's Favour, But Being Unsuccessful He Went Over To The Hague And Joined William Of Orange. In Spite Of The Attainder, He ...

Archibald Campbell_5
Archibald Campbell, 3rd Duke Of Argyll (i 682–i 761), Brother Of The Preceding, Was Born In June 1682. He Served For A Short Time Under The Duke Of Marlborough. In 1705 He Was Appointed Treasurer Of Scotland, And In The Following Year Was One Of The Commissioners For Treating Of ...

Archidamian War
Archidamian War, The War Between Athens And Sparta, With Their Respective Allies, Which Began In 431 B.c. With The Surprise Attack Of Thebes On Plataea. The Name Is Taken From Archidamus, King Of Sparta, Who On The Outbreak Of The War Led The First Invasion Of Attica. Over The Victims ...

Archidamus
Archidamus, The Name Of Five Kings Of Sparta, Of The Eurypontid House. (i). The Son And Successor Of Anaxidamus. His Reign, Which Began Soon After The Close Of The Second Messenian War, Is Said To Have Been Quiet And Uneventful (pausanias Iii. 7. 6) . (2). The Son Of Zeuxidamus, ...

Archil
Archil, A Purple Dye Obtained From Various Species Of Lichens. Archil Can Be Extracted From Many Species Of The Genera Roccella, Lecanora, Umbilicaria, Parmelia And Others, But In Practice Two Species Of Roccella—r. Tinctoria And R. F Uci F Ormis —are Almost Exclusively Used. These, Under The Name Of "or ...

Archilochus
Archilochus, Greek Lyric Poet And Writer Of Lampoons, Was Born At Paros, One Of The Cyclades Islands. The Date Of His Birth Is Uncertain, But He Probably Flourished About 65o B.c. ; Ac Cording To Some, About Forty Years Earlier But Certainly Not Be Fore The Reign Of Gyges (687-652), ...

Archimandrite
Archimandrite, In The Greek Church A Superior Abbot Who Has The Supervision Of Several Monasteries, Or The Abbot Of Some Specially Important Monastery, The Superior Of An Ordinary Monastery Being Called Hegumenos. The Title Is Also Conferred As An Honorary Distinction. See The Dictionnaire D'archeologie Chretienne Et De Liturgie. ...

Archimedes
Archimedes (c. 287-212 B.c.), Greek Mathematician And Inventor, Was Horn At Syracuse, In Sicily. He Was The Son Of Pheidias, An Astronomer, And Was On Intimate Terms With, If Not Related To, Hieron, King Of Syracuse, And Gelon His Son. He Studied At Alexandria And Doubtless Met There Conon Of ...

Archipelago
Archipelago, A Name Now Applied To (1) Any Island Studded Sea, And (2) By Transference, To A Group Of Islands, But It Was Originally The Distinctive Designation Of What Is Now Gen Erally Known As The Aegean Sea (ai.yalov 7rixayos), Its Ancient Name Having Been Revived. The Word Archipelago Does ...

Archippus
Archippus, An Athenian Poet Of The Old Comedy, Who Flourished Towards The End Of The 5th Century B.c. His Most Famous Play Was The Fishes, In Which He Satirized The Fondness Of The Athenian Epicures For Fish. The Alexandrian Critics Attributed To Him Four Plays Previously Assigned To Aristophanes. Titles ...

Architect
Architect, One Who, Skilled In The Art Of Architecture (q.v.), Designs Buildings, Determining The Disposition Of Both Their Interior Spaces And Exterior Masses, Together With The Structural Embellishments Of Each, And Generally Supervises Their Erection. Formerly, The Architect Was Often Active In All Phases Of Erecting A Building, From The ...

Architectural Articles
Architectural Articles. Architecture Is Treated In This Work Under Various Headings, An Account Of Which Will Help The Reader To Consult Any Part Of The Subject. For A Definition Of Architecture, A General Survey Of Its Evolution And A Discussion Of Contemporary Practice And Theory, Reference Should Be Made To ...

Architectural Articles_2
Architectural Articles. Architecture Is Treated In This Work Under Various Headings, An Account Of Which Will Help The Reader To Consult Any Part Of The Subject. For A Definition Of Architecture, A General Survey Of Its Evolution And A Discussion Of Contemporary Practice And Theory, Reference Should Be Made To ...

Architectural Education
Architectural Education. The Functions Of The Architect To-day Are Manifold And Of A Highly Technical Nature. He Must First Of All Be Expert In The Actual Planning Of Buildings, That Is, He Must Be Acquainted With The Practical Requirements Of The Accommodation Of Various Kinds Of Structures, Often Of A ...

Architectural Education_2
Architectural Education. The Functions Of The Architect To-day Are Manifold And Of A Highly Technical Nature. He Must First Of All Be Expert In The Actual Planning Of Buildings, That Is, He Must Be Acquainted With The Practical Requirements Of The Accommodation Of Various Kinds Of Structures, Often Of A ...

Architecture Chinese Architecture Japanese
Architecture; Chinese Architecture; Japanese Archi Tecture.) Unlike The Other Arts, Architecture Rose From A Primary Require Ment Of Human Life—the Need For Shelter. In The Earliest Days, The Cave, The Hut And The Tent May Have Sheltered People Devoted To Hunting And Fishing, To Agriculture, To Pastoral And Nomadic Lives. ...

Architecture
Architecture, The Art Of So Building As To Apply Both Beauty And Utility. The End Of Architecture Is To Arrange The Plan, Masses And Enrichments Of A Structure In Such A Way As To Impart To It Interest, Beauty, Grandeur, Unity And Power Without Sacrificing Convenience. Architecture Thus Necessitates The ...

Architrave
Architrave, An Archi Tectural Term For The Chief Beam Which Carries The Superstructure And Rests Immediately On The Columns. In The Classical En Tablature (q.v.) It Is The Lowest Of The Three Divisions, The Other Two Being The Frieze And The Cornice (see Order). The Term Is Also Applied To ...

Archive
Archive, A Term (gener Ally Used In The Plural) Properly Denoting The Building In Which Are Kept The Records, Charters, And Other Papers Belonging To Any State, Community, Or Family (lat. Archivum, A Translitera Tion Of Gr. Apxeiov, An Official Building), But Now Generally Ap Plied To The Documents Them ...

Archivolt
Archivolt, An Archi Tectural Term Applied To The Mouldings Of An Architrave When Carried Round An Arched Opening. (see Next Column.) ...

Archon
Archon, The Title Of The Highest Magistrate In Many Ancient Greek States (apxwv, Ruler). The Archons Represented The Ancient Kings, Whose Absolutism Yielded In Process Of Time To The Power Of The Noble Families, Supported No Doubt By The Fighting Force Of The State. Aristotle's Constitution Of Athens (q.v.) Mentions ...

Archpriest
Archpriest, In The Christian Church, Originally The Priest Who Presided Over The Presbyters Of A Diocese And Assisted The Bishop In Matters Of Public Worship. Where, As In Germany, The Dioceses Were Of Vast Extent, These Were Divided Into Several Archpresbyterates Or Rural Deaneries, The Office Of Archpriest Ulti Mately ...

Archytas
Archytas (c. B.c.), Of Tarentum, Greek Philoso Pher And Scientist Of The Pythagorean School, Famous As The Inti Mate Friend Of Plato. He Was Seven Times Elected Commander Of The Army. Under His Leadership, Tarentum Fought With Un Varying Success Against The Messapii, Lucania And Even Syracuse. According To A ...

Arcis Sur Aube
Arcis-sur-aube, A Town Of Eastern France, In The Department Of Aube, About 20m. N. Of Troyes. Pop. (1931), 2,692. The Ancient Settlement Was Destroyed By Successive Fires From 1719 To 1814; And The Little Town Now Has An 18th-century Appearance. A Church, However (st. 1?tienne), With A Good Portal, Survives. ...

Arco
Arco (ital., Bow), A Word Used In Music When, After A Piz Zicato' Passage (i.e., A Passage Played By Plucking The Strings With The Fingers) The Player Of A Bowed Instrument, Such As The Violin, Is Required To Resume Playing Col Arco Or "with The Bow." ...

Arcole
Arcole, A Village Of N. Italy, 16m. E.s.e. Of Verona, On The Alpone Stream Near The Confluence With The Adige Below Verona. The Village Names The Three Days' Battle Of Arcole (nov. 15, 16, 17, 1796), In Which Napoleon Defeated The Austrians Com Manded By Allvintzy. This Battle, Perhaps The ...

Arcos De La Frontera
Arcos De La Frontera, A Town In Spain, Province Of Cadiz; On The Right Bank Of The River Guadalete. Pop. (1930) It Occupies A Ridge Of Sandstone, Washed On Three Sides By The River, And Commanding Fine Views Of The Lofty Peak Of San Cristobal On The East And The ...

Arcot
Arcot, The Name Of A City And Two Districts Of British India In The Presidency Of Madras. Arcot City Is The Principal Town In The District Of North Arcot. Prominent In The History Of The Brit Ish Conquest, It Has Now Lost Its Manufactures And Trade And Pre Serves Only ...

Arctic Lands
Arctic Lands Geology.--the Northern Parts Of Europe, Asia And America Almost Encircle The Arctic Sea. Beyond These Arctic Mainlands Lie Various Islands And Island Groups On The Continental Shelf. All These Are Relics Of More Extensive Land Areas And Most Of Them Show Geological Continuity With The Nearest Continental Land. ...

Arctic Regions
Arctic Regions, The Term Applied To The Regions Round The North Pole, Covering The Area (both Ocean And Lands) Where The Characteristic Polar Conditions Of Climate, Etc., Obtain. The Arctic Circle Is Drawn At 66° 30' N., But This Has No Geographical Value As A Boundary. A More Satisfactory Delimitation ...

Arctics
Arctics, The Term Commonly Applied To Overshoes Of Rubber Or Rubberized Fabric, Worn Over The Ordinary Shoes In Stormy Weather. They Fasten Up The Leg With Buttons, Latches Or By An Interlocking Mechanism Known In The United States As The Zipper. The Original Arctic Was Of Black Waterproofed Material, Fleece ...

Arctinus
Arctinus, Of Miletus, Author, According To Proclus In The Chrestomatlty, Of Two Poems Of The Epic Cycle, The Aithiopis, Which Took Up The Narrative From The Close Of The Iliad, Beginning With The Famous Deeds And Death Of The Amazon Penthesileia, And End Ing With The Death And Burial Of ...

Arcturus
Arcturus, One Of The Three Brightest Stars In The Northern Hemisphere, Situated In The Constellation Bootes (q.v.) In An Almost Direct Line With The Tail Q' And N) Of The Constellation Ursa Major (great Bear) ; Hence Its Derivation From The Gr. Etprcroe, "bear," Ovpos, "guard." In The Hebrew Bible, ...

Arcueil
Arcueil, A Town In France, Department Of Seine, On The Bievre, 23-m. N.e. Of Sceaux. Pop. 1931) 16,124. The Town Takes Its Name From A Roman Aqueduct, The Areas Iuliani (ar Culi), Traces Of Which Still Remain. In 1613-24 A Bridge-aqueduct Over 1,3ooft. Long Was Constructed To Convey Water From ...

Ardabil
Ardabil, Chief Town Of One Of The Administrative Districts Of The Province Of Azerbaijan, In North-western Persia, 21' E. And 38° 14' N., 38m. From The Caspian Sea And 25m. From The Araxes. The Town Stands On An Almost Circular Plateau 4,94of T. Above The Sea-level Surrounded On All Sides ...

Ardan
Ardan, A Small Independent Linguistic Stock Of South American Indians, So Called From The Ardas, The Most Important Of Its Tribes. The Ardan Tribes Lived West Of Iquitos In North Eastern Peru, On The Upper Mazan And Nanay Rivers, Tributaries Of The Lower Napo. They Were Of Simple Culture, And ...

Ardashir
Ardashir, The Modern Form Of The Persian Royal Name Artaxerxes (q.v.), "he Whose Empire Is Excellent." After The Three Achaemenian Kings Of This Name, It Occurs In Armenia, In The Shortened Form Artaxias (armenian, Artashes Or Artaxes), And Among The Dynasts Of Persia Who Maintained Their Indepen Dence During The ...

Ardea
Ardea, A Town Of The Rutuli, Latium, 3m. From The South West Coast, Where Its Harbour (castrum Inui) Lay, At The Mouth Of The Fosso Dell' Incastro, And 23m. S. Of Rome By The Via Ardea Tina. Its Legendary Founder Was A Son Of Odysseus And Circe, Or Danae, Mother ...

Ardeche
Ardeche, A Department Of France At The Cevenol Edge Of The Plateau Central Bounded, East, By The River Rhone, South By Gard, South-west By Lozere, North-west, By Haute Loire And Loire. Area 2,145sq. Miles. Pop. (1931), 282,911, Marking A Con Siderable Decline During The 2oth Century. It Was Formed In ...

Ardee
Ardee, Town, Co. Louth, Ireland, On The River Dee, 48m. N.w. From Dublin, On A Branch Of The Great Northern Railway. Pop. (1926) 1,73o. The Town Is Of High Antiquity, And Its Name (ather-dee) Is Taken To Signify The Ford Of The Dee, A Point Of Strategic Importance. A Large ...

Arden Of Feversham Faversham
Arden Of Feversham (faversham), The Title Of An Anonymous Play, The First Quarto Of Which Was Printed, In Black Letter, In 1592; There Is A Copy Of This Edition In The Bodleian Library, Oxford. The Plot Is Founded On The Story Of Thomas Arden, Mayor Of Faversham (1548), Who Was ...

Ardennes
Ardennes, A District Covering Some Portion Of The Ancient Forest Of Ardenne, And Extending Over The Greater Part Of The Bel Gian Province Of Luxembourg, Part Of The Grand Duchy, And The French Department Of Ardennes. One Derivation Is From A Word Meaning "the Forest," Turned Into Latin As Arduenna ...

Ardennes_2
Ardennes, Department, Northern Frontier, France, Com Posed Of The South-west Side Of The Ardennes Towards The Paris Basin, And Of Parts Of The Meuse Valley. Area 2,o28sq.m. ; Pop. After A Long Course Nearly South To North Between Edges Of Secondary Rocks, The Meuse Turns West As It Approaches The ...

Ardglass
Ardglass ("green Height"), County Down, Ireland, 32m. S. By E. Of Belfast On A Branch Of The Belfast And County Down Railway. Pop. (1926) 634. Soon After The Norman Invasion It Became A Busy Port, A Fact Attested By The Remains Of No Fewer Than Five Castles In Close Proximity. ...

Ardmore
Ardmore, A City In The Southern Part Of Oklahoma, U.s.a., 9om. S. By E. Of Oklahoma City, 89oft. Above Sea-level; The County Seat Of Carter County. It Is On Federal Highways 7o And 77, And Is Served By The Rock Island, The Frisco And The Santa Fe Railways. The Area ...

Ardres
Ardres, Ancient Small Town Of Northern France, In The De Partment Of Pas-de-calais, Iom. South-south-east Of Calais. Pop. (1931) 1,211. It Was Occupied By Francis I. At The Time Of His Historic Meeting With Henry Viii. In 1.52o, At The "field Of The Cloth Of Gold" At Balinghem, 21m. To ...

Ardrossan
Ardrossan, Seaport, Municipal And Police Burgh, Ayr Shire, Scotland, 291m. S.w. From Glasgow By The L.m.s.r. Pop. (1931) 6,888. Hugh, 12th Earl Of Eglinton, Began The Harbour And Town In 18o6, Intending To Connect It With Glasgow By Canal ; His Successor Completed The Scheme On A Reduced Scale. The ...

Area
Area, A Latin Word, Originally Meaning A Threshing-floor, Namely A Raised Space In A Field Exposed On All Sides To The Wind; Now Applied In English (i) To A Plot Of Ground On Which A Struc Ture Is To Be Erected, (2) To The Court Or Sunk Space In The ...

Arecibo
Arecibo, An Important Town Situated On The North Coast Of Porto Rico. The Population Of The Town Itself Was Census 1920; 1930, 12,863; And That Of The Municipal District In 193o Was 56,525. The Port Has Not Been Improved, But A Survey Has Been Made And The Development Of The ...

Aremberg Or Arenberg
Aremberg Or Arenberg, Formerly A German Duchy Of The Holy Roman Empire In The Circle Of The Rhine Palatinate, Between Jiilich And Cologne. The Hamlet Of Aremberg Is At The Foot Of A Basalt Hill 2,067f T. High, On The Summit Of Which Are The Ruins Of The Original Castle ...

Arena
Arena, The Central Area Of An Amphitheatre On Which The Gladiatorial Displays Took Place, Its Name Being Derived From The Sand (lat. Harena) With Which It Was Covered. The Word Is Applied Sometimes To Any Level Open Space On Which Spectacles Take Place. ...

Arenaria Or Sandwort
Arenaria Or Sandwort, A Genus Of Plants Of The Family Caryophyllaceae, Usually With Small Flowers. Almost All Are Herbaceous, Either Annuals Or Perennials And The Majority In Habit Sandy Soil In Temperate, Arctic Or Alpine Regions. There Are About 150 Species. ...

Arendal
Arendal, A Seaport Of Southern Norway, In Aust-agder Hike (county), At The Mouth Of The River Nid, 46m. N.e. Of Christiansand. Estimated Pop. (1930) 10,403. It Has A Good Harbour Protected From The Open Waters Of The Skagerrak By A Series Of Islands, On Some Of Which The Town Itself, ...

Areoi Areoiti
Areoi (areoiti), A Secret Society Which Originated In Tahiti And Later Extended Its Influence To Other South Pacific Islands. To Its Ranks Both Sexes Were Admitted. The Society Was Primarily Of A Religious Character. Members Styled Themselves Descendants Of Oro-tetifa, The Polynesian God, And Were Divided Into Seven Or More ...

Areopagus
Areopagus, A Bare, Rocky Hill, 3 7of T. High, North-west Of The Acropolis Of Athens. The Ancients Interpreted The Name As "hill Of Ares," But Ares Was Not Worshipped On The Areopagus. Another Explanation Connects The Name With Arai, "curses," Known As Semnai, "awful Goddesses," Whose Shrine Was A Cave ...

Arequipa
Arequipa, A Coast Department Of Southern Peru, Sur Rounded By The Departments Of Ica, Ayacucho, Apurimac, Cusco, Puno And Moquehua (area 21,952 Sq.m. ; Estimated Pop. 360,000). The Department Includes An Arid Coastal Zone Traversed By Deeply Entrenched Rivers, And A Barren, Mountainous Region Including A Series Of Great Volcanoes ...

Arequipa_2
Arequipa, The Third City Of Peru, Capital Of The Depart Ment Of The Same Name, Is Located At An Altitude Of 7,600ft. About Zoom. North Of Its Seaport, Mollendo. It Lies In A Valley On Both Banks Of The Rio Chili At The Foot Of The Extinct Volcano El Misti ...

Ares
Ares, In Ancient Greek Mythology, The God Of War, Or Rather Of Battle, Son Of Zeus And Hera. (for The Roman God, Identified With Ares, See Mars.) As Contrasted With Athena, Who Added To Her Other Attributes That Of Being The Goddess Of Skilfully Conducted Military Operations, He Personifies Brute ...

Aretaeus
Aretaeus, Of Cappadocia, A Greek Physician, Who Lived At Rome In The Second Half Of The 2nd Century A.d. We Possess Two Treatises By Him, Each In Four Books, In The Ionic Dialect : On The Causes And Indications Of Acute And Chronic Diseases, And On Their Treatment. His Work ...

Aretas
Aretas, The Greek Form Of A Name Borne By Kings Of The Nabataeans Resident At Petra In Arabia (arab, Haritha). (1) A King In The Time Of Antiochus Iv. Epiphanes (ii. Macc. V. 8). (2) The Father-in-law Of Herod Antipas (jos. Ant. Xviii. 5. I, 3). In Ii. Cor. Xi. ...