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Encyclopedia Brittanica

Volume 5, Part 1: Cast-Iron to Cole

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Catch
Catch, A Form Of Concerted Vocal Music Virtually Indis Tinguishable From The Round, Save For The Fact That It Is Always Humorous In Character. The Catch Had Its Greatest Vogue In Earlier Centuries, When Also The Words To Which It Was Sung Were Too Often More Jocose Than Refined. Particulars ...

Catchment Areas
Catchment Areas. The Term "catchment Area" Is Used To Describe The Collecting Area From Which Water Would Flow To A Stream Or River, The Boundary Of The Area Being Deter Mined By The Ridge Separating Water Flowing In Opposite Directions. The Amount Of Water Collected Within The Catchment Area Would ...

Catechism
Catechism, A Compendium Of Instruction (particularly Of Religious Instruction) Arranged In The Form Of Questions And An Swers. The Custom Of Catechizing Was Followed In The Schools Of Judaism And In The Early Church, Where It Helped To Preserve The Gospel Narrative. (see Catechumen.) The Catechism As We Know It ...

Catechu Or Cutch
Catechu Or Cutch, An Extract Obtained From Several Plants (the Derivation Is From The Malay Kachu), Its Chief Sources Being The Wood Of Two Species Of Acacia (a. Catechu And A. Soma), Both Natives Of India. This Extract Is Known As Black Catechu. A Similar Extract, Known In Pharmacy As ...

Catechumen
Catechumen, A Technical Term Applied To A Person Re Ceiving Instruction In The Christian Religion With A View To Bap Tism (gr. Icarrxobi.levos, One Receiving Instruction, From Katrixeix, To Teach Orally). The Catechumenate Grew Naturally Out Of Ju Daism, Which As A Missionary Religion Had To Instruct Recruits. These Were ...

Categorical
Categorical Means Generally Unconditional, Not Sub Ject To Any Conditions Or Reservations. I. In Logic—the Term Categorical Is Used To Describe Those Judgments Or Propositions Which Are Neither Hypothetical Nor Disjunctive. These Latter Are The Two Types Of Conditional Propositions (see Condition) ; Cate Gorical Propositions Are Those Which Make ...

Category
Category Means A Predicate. Now The Predicate Of An Assertion Is Usually Some Class-name Or Concept Under Which The Subject Is Brought, In The Case Of Affirmative Assertions, Or From Which The Subject Is Excluded, In The Case Of Negative Assertions. In Popular Usage, Accordingly, The Term Category Is Applied ...

Cateran
Cateran, The Band Of Fighting Men Of A Highland Clan (gaelic Ceathairine, A Collective Word Meaning Peasantry) ; Hence The Term Is Applied To The Highland, And Later To Any, Marauders Or Cattle-lifters. ...

Caterham
Caterham, An Urban District Of Surrey, England, 20 M. S Of London By The S.r. Pop. (1931) With Warlingham 19,503. It Lies In Healthy Downs Country, And Has Grown In Modern Times From A Village Into A Large Residential Town. There Are Large Barracks In The Neighbourhood, And The Metropolitan ...

Caterpillar
Caterpillar, The Popular Name Given To The Larva Of Butterflies, Moths And Saw-flies (see Lepidoptera ; Hymenoptera; Insects; Metamorphosis). ...

Catfish
Catfish, The Name Generally Given To The Fishes Of The Sub Order Siluroidea Of The Order Ostariophysi, In Which The Air-bladder Is Connected With The Internal Ear By A Chain Of Ossicles, Probably Enabling The Fishes To Hear Well. From The Cyprinoids (characins, Carps And Electric Eels) The Siluroids Are ...

Catgut
Catgut, The Name Applied To Cord Of Great Toughness And Tenacity Prepared From The Intestines Of Sheep, Or Occasionally From Those Of The Horse, Mule And Ass. Those Of The Cat Are Not Employed, And Therefore It Is Supposed That The Word Is Properly Kitgut, Kit Meaning "fiddle," And That ...

Catha
Catha, A Shrub (cat/ia Edulis, Family Celastraceae) Native To Arabia And To Africa From Abyssinia To The Cape. It Is Also Cultivated, Especially In Arabia, Where It Is Called Kliat, Kat, Or Kasta. The Arabians Make A Kind Of Tea From The Dried Leaves And Young Shoots. These Are Also ...

Catharsis
Catharsis Means Purification. Since The Time Of Aristotle The Term Has Been Definitely Associated With The Question Of The Effects Of Tragedy On The Spectators Or On The Actors. Aristotle Maintained That Tragedy And Also Certain Kinds Of Music Tend To Purify The Spectators And Listeners By Artistically Exciting Certain ...

Cathay
Cathay, The Name By Which China Became Known To Mediaeval Europe. It Is Derived From Khitai, The Name Of The Kingdom Of Khitan Tartars (loth And I 1 Th Centuries A.d.) Which, Based On Manchuria (the North-east Gateway Into China), In Cluded At Times Part Of North China As Well, ...

Cathcart
Cathcart, A Parish Situated Partly In Renfrewshire And Partly In Lanarkshire, Scotland. Part Of The Parish Was Added To Glasgow In 1911. The Renfrewshire Portion Has The Larger Area (2,387 Acres), But The Smaller Population (4,649), The Area Of The Lanarkshire Portion Being 745 Acres And The Population (1931) 58,669, ...

Cathedral
Cathedral, More Correctly "cathedral Church" (ecclesia Cathedralis), The Church Which Contains The Official "seat" Or Throne Of A Bishop—cathedra, One Of The Latin Names For This, Giving Us The Adjective "cathedral." The Adjective Has Gradually, For Briefness Of Speech, Assumed The Character Of A Substantive. ...

Cathedral_2
Cathedral) . ...

Catherine De Medici
Catherine De Medici (1519—i589), Queen Of France, Was Born In Florence In 1519. She Was A Daughter Of Lorenzo Ii. De Medici And A French Princess, Madeleine De La Tour D'au Vergne. Having Lost Both Her Parents At An Early Age, Catherine Was Sent To A Convent To Be Educated; ...

Catherine I
Catherine I. (1683-1727), Empress Of Russia, Was The Daughter Of A Lithuanian Peasant Named Skavronsky, Who Died When She Was A Child. Martha Skavronskaya Became A Servant In The Home Of Pastor Gluck, The Protestant Superintendent Of The Marienburg District, And Married A Swedish Dragoon Called Johan. When The Swedes ...

Catherine Ii
Catherine Ii. (1729-1796), Empress Of Russia, Known As Catherine The Great, Was The Daughter Of Christian Augus Tus, Prince Of Anhalt-zerbst, And His Wife, Johanna Elizabeth Of Holstein-gottorp. She Was Born At Stettin On May 2, 1729. Her Baptismal Name Was Sophia Augusta Frederica. In 1744 She Was Taken To ...

Catherine Of Aragon
Catherine Of Aragon (1485-1536), Queen Of Henry Viii. Of England, Daughter Of Ferdinand And Isabella Of Spain, Was Born On Dec. 15, 1485. She Left Spain In 15o1 To Marry Arthur, Prince Of Wales, Eldest Son Of King Henry Vii., And Landed At Plymouth On Oct. 2. The Wedding Took ...

Catherine Of Braganza
Catherine Of Braganza (1638-1705), Queen Con Sort Of Charles Ii. Of England, Daughter Of John Iv. Of Portugal By Louisa De Gusman, Daughter Of The Duke Of Medina Sidonia, Was Born At Villa Vicosa On Nov. 25, 1638. She Was A Useful Medium For Contracting An Alliance With England, And ...

Catherine Of Valois
Catherine Of Valois Queen Of Henry V. Of England, Daughter Of Charles Vi. Of France By Isabel Of Bavaria, Was Born In Paris On Oct. 27, 1401, And Was Educated In A Convent At Poissy. Af Ter Negotiations For A Marriage Between Henry, Prince Of Wales, Afterwards Henry V., And ...

Cathetus
Cathetus, In Architecture, The Central Circular Form Round Which The Volute Or Spiral Of The Ionic Or Composite Order Twists. ...

Cathode Rays
Cathode Rays Are The Streams Of Negatively Charged Particles Leaving The Cathode In A Discharge Tube Containing A Gas At A Low Pressure (see Electricity, Conduction Of : Gases) . The Cathode Rays Consist Of Electrons (see Electron) . Cathode Rays Have Many Applications, One Of The Chief Being The ...

Cathode
Cathode, The Conductor By Which An Electric Current Leaves An Electrolyte (q.v.) Or A Discharge Tube. It Is Also Called The "negative" Electrode. (see Also Anode; Electricity, Con Duction Of: Liquids And Gases; And Electrolysis.) ...

Catholic Emancipation
Catholic Emancipation, The Movement For The Abolition Of The Penal Laws Against Catholics. (see English His ...

Catholic
Catholic, Derived From A Greek Word Meaning "universal" And Used By Ecclesiastical Writers Since The 2nd Century To Dis Tinguish The Church At Large From Local Communities Or Heretical And Schismatic Sects. A Notable Exposition Of The Meaning Of The Term, As It Had Developed During The First Three Centuries, ...

Catiline Lucius Sergius Catilina
Catiline (lucius Sergius Catilina) (c. I08-62 B.c.), A Member Of An Ancient But Impoverished Patrician Family Of Rome. He Was A Supporter Of Sulla, And During The Proscription He Was Conspicuous For His Greed And Cruelty. He Was Guilty Of At Least One Murder. In 77 He Was A Quaestor, ...

Cation
Cation, The Constituent Of An Electrolyte (q.v.) Which Travels To The Cathode (q.v.) In An Electrolytic Cell. (see Also Anion ; Electricity : Historical Introduction; Electricity, Conduction Of : Liquids; And Electrolysis.) ...

Catkin Or Amentum
Catkin Or Amentum, A Pendulous Spike Of Simple Flow Ers Separated By Bracts, Found In Many Trees, As, For Example, Wil Low And Poplar. (see Flower.) ...

Catlettsburg
Catlettsburg, A Residential City Of North-eastern Ken Tucky, U.s.a., On The Ohio River, At The Mouth Of The Big Sandy, Where Ohio, West Virginia And Kentucky Meet ; The County Seat Of Boyd County. It Is On Federal Highway 6o And The Chesapeake And Ohio Railway. The Population In 1920 ...

Cats And Dogs
Cats And Dogs, A Term Used In The U.s.a. To Apply To Securities Of A Highly Speculative Character, Having Uncertain Value Or No Value At All. They Are Often Securities Of Undeveloped Schemes And Offer Fields For Speculation Of The Wildest Type. They Are Constantly "unloaded" In Large Quantities By ...

Cats Eye
Cat's-eye, A Name Given To Several Distinct Minerals, Their Common Characteristic Being That When Cut With A Convex Sur Face They Display A Luminous Band, Like That Seen By Reflection In The Eye Of A Cat. (i) Precious, Oriental Or Chrysoberyl Cat's-eye. This, The Rarest Of All, Is A Chatoyant ...

Catskill Mountains
Catskill Mountains, A Group Of Moderate Elevation Pertaining To The Allegheny Plateau And Not Included In The Ap Palachian System Because They Lack The Internal Structure And General Parallelism Of Topographic Features Which Characterize The Appalachian Ranges. They Are Situated Mainly In Greene And Ulster Counties In The State Of ...

Catskill
Catskill, A Village Of New York, U.s.a., On The West Bank Of The Hudson River, 35m. S. Of Albany; The County Seat Of Greene County. It Is On Federal Highway 9w, And Is Served By The West Shore Railroad And By River Steamers. A Ferry Con Nects It With The ...

Cattaro
Cattaro (serbo-croatian Kotor), A Seaport Of Monte Negro, Yugoslavia. Pop. (i 5,011. The Town, Which Is Venetian In Appearance, Occupies A Ledge Between The Montenegrin Mountains And The Bocche Di Cattaro, A Beautiful Inlet Of The Adriatic, Which Expands Into Five Broad Gulfs United By Narrower Channels, And Forms One ...

Cattegat Or Kattegat
Cattegat Or Kattegat (scand. "cat's-throat"), A Strait Forming Part Of The Connection Between The Baltic And The North Seas. It Lies North And South Between Sweden And Den Mark, And Connects North With The Skagerrack And South Through The Sound. Great Belt And Little Belt With The Baltic Sea. Length ...

Cattiars Cathari Or Catharists
Cattiars (cathari Or Catharists), A Widespread Heretical Sect Of The Middle Ages. This Article Relates To The Western Cathars, As They Appear (i) In The Cathar Ritual Written In Provencal And Preserved In A 13th-century Ms. In Lyons, Pub Lished By Cledat, Paris, 1888; (2) In Bernard Gui's Practica Inquisitionis ...

Cattle
Cattle. The Word Cattle Was Formerly Used To Embrace All Farm Live Stock, But Is Now Commonly Restricted To Oxen Or Meat Cattle. The Several Animals That May Be Included Under The Term, In This Narrower Sense, Are Usually Divided Into The Following Six Groups :—(1) Buffaloes (india, Africa, Etc.) ...

Catulus
Catulus, The Name Of A Distinguished Family Of Ancient Rome Of The Gens Lutatia. The Following Are Its Most Important Members: I. Gaius Lutatius Catulus, Roman Commander During The First Punic War, Consul 242 B.c. With A Fleet Of 200 Ships, He Occupied The Harbours Of Lilybaeum And Drepanum. The ...

Cauca
Cauca, A Department Of Colombia, South America, Lying On The Pacific Coast. Pop. (1928) 317,782; Area 20,403 Sq.m. The Western Cordillera, Traversing Nearly Its Whole Length From South To North, And The Central Cordillera, Forming A Part Of Its Eastern Frontier, Give A Very Mountainous Character To The Region. It ...

Caucasian Languages
Caucasian Languages. This Term Is Applied To The Languages Used On The Caucasian Isthmus Which Do Not Belong To The Indo-german, Or To The Semitic, Or To The Turco-mongolian Family. They Are Divided Into Three Groups—the East Caucasian, The Best Caucasian And The South Caucasian. The East Cau Casian Group ...

Caucasus
Caucasus, A Mountain Range, Stretching North-west To South-east From The Strait Of Kerch (between The Black Sea And Sea Of Azov) To The Caspian Sea, Over 9oom. Long And Varying From 3o To 14om. In Width. In Its General Uniformity Of Direction, Its Comparatively Narrow Width, And Its Well-defined Limits ...

Caucus
Caucus, A Political Term Used In The U.s.a. Of A Special Form Of Party Meeting, And In Great Britain Of A System Of Party Or Ganization. The Word Originated In Boston (mass.), In The Early Part Of The 18th Century, When It Was Used As The Name Of A Political ...

Caudebec En Caux
Caudebec-en-caux, A Town Of France, In The Depart Ment Of Seine-inferieure, 27 M. W.n.w Of Rouen By Rail. Pop. 2,113. It Is Situated On The Right Bank Of The Seine, The Tidal Wave Of Which (mascaret) Can Be Well Seen. The Chief Inter Est Of The Town Lies In Its ...

Caudine Forks
Caudine Forks, The Furculae Caudinae (casale Di For Chia?), Narrow Passes In The Mountains Near Caudium In Sam Nium, And The Scene Of A Famous Roman Defeat In The Samnite Wars. (see Rome, History.) ...

Caul
Caul, A Close-fitting Woman's Cap, Especially One Made Of Network Worn In The 16th And 17th Centuries ; Hence The Mem Branous Covering To The Heart, Brain, Or The Intestines, And Par Ticularly, A Portion Of The Amnion, Which Is Sometimes Found Remaining Round The Head Of A Child After ...

Cauliculus
Cauliculus, In Architecture, A Form Like A Stalk, Crowned With Leaves, Out Of Which Grow Scrolls, Leaves Or Other Stalks; Es Pecially In The Corinthian Capital, And In The Branching Scroll Or Rinceau. ...

Caulonia
Caulonia, A Town Of The District Of The Bruttii, Italy, On The East Coast, On The Promontory Capo Stilo, Near Monasterace (gr. Kavxcwvia) . It Was The Southernmost Achaean Colony Founded As An Outpost Of Croton Or Direct From Greece Itself. In The 7th Century It Was Allied With Croton ...

Causality Or Causation
Causality Or Causation Signifies The Relation Of Cause And Effect. Common Sense Assumes That Things And Events Are The Products Or Results Of Certain Other Things Or Events—the Result Is Called The Effect, And That Which Produces It Is Called The Cause. The Attempt To Understand Things Usually Takes The ...

Causeway
Causeway. A Path On A Raised Dam Or Mound Across Marshes Or Low-lying Ground ; The Word Is Also Used Of Old Paved Highways, Such As The Roman Military Roads. "causey" Is Still Used Dialectically In England For A Paved Or Cobbled Footpath. The Word Is Properly "causey-way," From Causey, ...

Caustic Soda
Caustic Soda (sodium Hydroxide, Naoh) Is A Solid, White, Deliquescent Chemical Compound Much Used As An Inter Mediate Material In The Production Of Many Chemicals. It Is Gen Erally Made By One Of Two Methods, Either Through Exchange Of Base By The Causticizing Of Soda-ash With Hydrated Lime Or Directly, ...

Caustic
Caustic. That Which Burns (gr. Kav Rrtcos, Burning). In Surgery, The Term Given To Substances Which Destroy Living Tissues And So Inhibit The Action Of Organic Poisons, As In Bites, Malignant Disease And Gangrenous Processes. Such Caustic Substances Include Silver Nitrate (lunar Caustic), Potassium And Sodium Hydrates (the Caustic Alkalis) ...

Cauterets
Cauterets, A Watering-place Of South-western France In The Department Of Hautes-pyrenees, 2om. S. By W. Of Lourdes By Rail. Pop. (1931) 1,307. It Lies In The Beautiful Valley Of The Gave De Cauterets, And Is Well Known For Its Thermal Springs, And As A Station For Winter Sports. Some 50,00o ...

Cautin
Cautin, A Province Of Southern Chile, Bounded N. By Concepcion And Bio-bio, E. By Argentina, S. By Valdivia, And W. By The Pacific. Its Area, Before The Addition Of Considerable Terri Tory In 1928, Was Estimated At 5,832 Sq. Miles. Cautin Lies Within The Temperate Agricultural And Forest Region Of ...

Cauvery
Cauvery, A River Of Southern India. Rising In Coorg, High Up Amid The Western Ghats, In 12° 25' N. Lat. And 34' E. Long., It Flows Generally South-east Across The Plateau Of Mysore, And Finally Enters The Bay Of Bengal Through Two Principal Mouths In Tanjore District. Its Length Is ...

Cava Dei Tirreni
Cava Dei Tirreni, A Town And Episcopal See Of Cam Pania, Italy, In The Province Of Salerno, 6 M. N.w. By Rail From The Town Of Salerno. Pop. (1931), Town, 10,727; Commune, 30,508. It Lies Fairly High In A Richly Cultivated Valley, Surrounded By Wooded Hills, And Is A Favourite ...

Cavaedium
Cavaedium, In Architecture, A Synonym For Atrium The Central Hall Or Court Of A Roman House. Vitruvius Lists Five Types: I. The Tuscanicum. This, The Most Common Type, Was Without Columns, The Hole In The Roof Being Supported By The Framing Of The Roof Timbers. 2. The Tetrastylon, In Which ...

Cavaillon
Cavaillon, A Town Of South-eastern France In The Depart Ment Of Vaucluse, 2om. S.e. Of Avignon. Pop. 7,521. It Lies At The Southern Foot Of Mount St. Jacques On The Right Bank Of The Durance Above Its Confluence With The Coulon. To The South Of The Present Town Lay The ...

Cavalier
Cavalier, A Horseman, Particularly A Horse-soldier Or One Of Gentle Birth, Trained In Knightly Exercises. The Word Is Taken Through The French From The Late Lat. Caballarius, A Horseman. Chevalier, The French Word Of Parallel Descent, Means "knight," And Is Chiefly Used In English For A Member Of Certain Foreign ...

Cavalry
Cavalry. Throughout The History Of War, Cavalry Have Been Surrounded By A Glamour Possessed By No Other Arm, And Though To-day Their Tactical Value Is Small Their Prestige Endures, And Rightly ; For Without A Mobile Arm Tactics As An Art Must Cease To Be. In The World War Of ...

Cavan
Cavan, A County In The Province Of Ulster, Ireland, Bounded North By Fermanagh And Monaghan, East By Monaghan And Meath, South By Meath, Westmeath And Longford, And West By Longford And Leitrim. Area 477,399 Acres; Pop. (1926), In The North-west Is A Mountainous District Of Millstone Grit Rising In Cuilcagh ...

Cavan_2
Cavan, Urban District And County Town Of Co. Cavan, Ireland, 851 M. N.w. Of Dublin By The Great Southern Railway And The Terminus Of A Branch Of The Great Northern Of Ireland From Clones. Pop. (1926) 3,056. A Dominican Monastery Founded By O'reilly, Chieftain Of The Brenny, Formerly Existed Here ...

Cavatina
Cavatina, Originally A Short Song Of Simple Character, Without A Second Strain Or Any Repetition Of The Air. It Is Now Frequently Applied To A Simple Melodious Air, As Distinguished From A Brilliant Aria, Recitative, Etc. ...

Cave
Cave, A Hollow Extending Beneath The Surface Of The Earth (lat. Cavea, From Cavils, Hollow). The Word "cavern" (lat. Caverna) Is A Synonym. Caves Have Been The Centres Round Which Have Clustered Many Legends And Superstitions, The Abode Of The Sibyls And The Nymphs In Roman Mythology, In Greek Temples, ...

Cavea
Cavea, A Term Applied Both To The Ranges Of Spectators' Seats Considered As A Whole In A Roman Amphitheatre (q.v.) And Also, Less Commonly, To The Cells For Wild Beasts Underneath The Arena. ...

Caveat Emptor
Caveat Emptor, A Latin Phrase Meaning Literally "let The Buyer Beware." It Represents A Legal Rule In The Purchase And Sale Of Personal Property That The Buyer Purchases At His Own Risk In The Absence Of An Express Warranty, Or Unless The Law Implies A Seller's Warranty, Or There Is ...

Caveat
Caveat, In Law, A Notice Given By The Party Interested (caveator) To The Proper Officer Of A Court Of Justice To Prevent The Taking Of A Certain Step Without Warning. It Is Entered In Con Nection With Dealings In Land Registered In The Land Registry, With The Grant Of Marriage ...

Cavetto
Cavetto, In Architecture, Any Projecting Moulding (q.v.) With A Concave Profile Of Single Curvature. ...

Caviare Or Caviar
Caviare Or Caviar, The Roe Of Various Species Of Acipenser Or Sturgeon Prepared, In Several Qualities, As An Article Of Food. The Word Is Common To Most European Languages And Supposed To Be Of Turk Or Tatar Origin, But The Turk Word Kliavyali Is Probably Derived From The Ital. Caviala; ...

Cavite
Cavite, A Municipality (with Administration Centre And 11 Barrios Or Districts), And Capital Of The Province Of Cavite, Luzon, Philippine Islands, On A Forked Tongue Of Land In Manila Bay, 8 M. S. Of Manila. Pop. (1918) 22,169, Of Whom 12,108 Were Males And 34o Whites. The Harbour Is One ...

Cavour
Cavour (anc. Caburrum Or Forum Vibii), A Village Of Piedmont, Italy, In The Province Of Turin, 32m. S.w. By Rail And Steam Tram (via Pinerolo) From The Town Of Turin. Pop. 1,508 (town) ; 6,259 (commune). It Lies On The North Side Of A Huge Iso Lated Mass Of Granite ...

Cavy
Cavy, The Name Of Several South American Rodents Of The Family Caviidae (see Rodentia) ; Originally It Was Confined To The Domesticated Guinea-pig And Its Allies Of The Genus Cavia. (the Word "guinea" Here May Be A Corruption Of "guiana" But More Probably It Means "foreign") The True Cavies Are ...

Cawdor
Cawdor, Village And Parish, Nairnshire, Scotland. Pop. Of Parish (1931) 767. The Village Is Situated 5 M. S.s.w. Of Nairn And 3 M. From Gollanfield Junction On The L.m.s.r. The Castle Was The Scene, According To The Tradition Which Shakes Peare Has Perpetuated, Of The Murder Of King Duncan By ...

Cawnpore
Cawnpore, A City And District Of British India In The Allahabad Division Of The United Provinces. The City Is Situated On The South Bank Of The Ganges, 4o M. South-west Of Lucknow, And Formed From Early Times A Frontier Outpost Of The People Of Oudh And Bengal Against Their Northern ...

Cayapas
Cayapas, A Tribe Of South American Indians, Belonging To The Barbacoan (q.v.) Linguistic Stock Or Sub-stock. Their Habitat Is The Lower Cayapa River And Adjacent Coasts In Northern Ecua Dor. Traditionally They Formerly Lived In The Upland Region About Quito, Moving To The Coast A Short Time Before The First ...

Cayenne Pepper
Cayenne Pepper (guinea Pepper, Spanish Pepper, Chilly), A Preparation From The Dried Fruit Of Various Species Of Capsicum, A Genus Of The Family Solanaceae. The True Peppers Are Members Of A Totally Distinct Family Piperaceae. The Fruits Of Capsicum Have All A Strong, Pungent Flavour. The Capsicums Bear A Greenish-white ...

Cayenne
Cayenne, A Seaport And The Capital Of French Guiana, On The North-west Extremity Of The Island Of Cayenne, And Near The Mouth Of The River Of That Name. Pop. The Town Forms An Almost Perfect Square, And Has Clean And Well-macadamized Streets. In The Old Town, The Streets Are Not ...

Cayey
Cayey, An Interior Town Of Porto Rico. Pop. , 5,953. The Population Of The Municipal District In 193o Was 28,797. The Altitude Is I,400ft. And The Average Temperature About 71° F. Cayey, One Of The Healthiest And Most Beautifully Located Towns Of The Island, Is On The Famous Military Highway ...

Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands, Three Low-lying Islands In The West Indies, Grand Cayman. Little Cayman And Cayman Brac, Are Situated Between 44' And 8o° 26' W. And 19° 44' And 19° 46' N., Forming A Dependency Of Jamaica, Which Lies 178m. E.s.e. Grand Cayman, A Flat Rock-bound Island Protected By Coral Reefs, ...

Cayman
Cayman, The Name Applied Loosely To Various Alligators (q.v.), Especially In South America. The Word Is Also Used Generi Cally, Some Systematists Separating Two Species Of Alligator As Caymans. ...

Cayuvavan
Cayuvavan, A Linguistic Stock Of South American Indians Comprising But A Single Tribe. The Validity Of This Stock Is Doubt Ful. The Cayuvavas Formerly Lived In Northern Bolivia On And West Of The Mamore River For Some 6om. Above Its Confluence With The Guapore. The Surviving Remnants Are Now Mainly ...

Cazembe
Cazembe, The Hereditary Name Of An African Chief, Whose Territory Was Situated South Of Lake Mweru And North Of Bang Weulu, Between 9° And 11 ° S. In The End Of The 18th Century The Authority Of The Cazembe Was Widely Recognized. The Kingdom, Known Also As The Cazembe, Diminished ...

Cazungo
Cazungo: See Angola. ...

Ceanothus
Ceanothus, In Botany, A Genus Of North American Shrubs Or Trees Of The Buckthorn Family (rhamnaceae), Comprising More Than 5o Species Found Chiefly In The Pacific Coast Region, 3o Of Which Are Native To California. The Small But Showy White Or Blue Flowers Are Usually Borne In Dense Panicles Or ...

Ceara
Ceara, A Northern Maritime State Of Brazil, Bounded North By The Atlantic, East By The Atlantic And The States Of Rio Grande Do Norte And Parahyba, South By Pernambuco, And West By Piauhy, And Having An Area Of 57,356 Sq. Miles. It Lies Partly Upon The North-east Slope Of The ...

Ceawlin
Ceawlin (d. S93), King Of The West Saxons, Included, In The Anglo-saxon Chronicle, Among The "bretwaldas" Or Specially Powerful Kings, Succeeded His Father Cynric In 56o. He Took Sil Chester, And Moving Eastwards Ceawlin And His Brother Cutha Defeated The Forces Of Aethelberht, King Of Kent, At The Battle Of ...

Cebes
Cebes, The Name Of Two Greek Philosophers. (i) Cebes Of Cvzicus, Mentioned In Athenaeus (iv. 156 D), Seems To Have Been A Stoic, Who Lived During The Reign Of Marcus Aurelius. Some Would Attribute To Him The Tabula Cebetis (see Below), But As That Work Was Well Known In The ...

Cebu
Cebu, A Municipality (with Administration Centre And 79 Barrios Or Districts), A Port Of Entry And The Capital Of The Province And Island Of Cebu (the Most Densely Populated Province Of The Archipelago), Philippine Islands, On The East Coast, And The Metrop Olis Of The Bisayan Group. Pop. (1918) 65,502, ...

Cecco Dascoli
Cecco D'ascoli The Popular Name Of Francesco Degli Stabili, A Famous Italian Encyclopaedist And Poet—cecco Being The Diminutive Of Francesco, And Ascoli, In The Marshes Of Ancona, The Place Of His Birth. In 1322 He Was Made Professor Of Astrology At Bologna University, But, Having Written A Commentary On The ...

Cecil
Cecil, The Name Of A Famous English Family. This House, Whose Two Branches Hold Each A Marquessate, Had A Great States Man And Administrator To Establish And Enrich It. The First Lord Burghley's Many Inquiries Concerning The Origin Of His Family Created For It More Than One Splendid And Improbable ...

Cecile Chaminade
Chaminade, Cecile, French Composer, Was Born In Paris On Aug. 8, 1861. She Studied In Paris, Her Musical Talent Being Shown At The Age Of Eight By The Writing Of Some Church Music Which Attracted Bizet's Attention; And At Eighteen She Came Out In Public As A Pianist. Her Own ...

Cecropia
Cecropia, In Botany, A Genus Of Trees (family Moraceae), Native Of Tropical America. They Are Of Rapid Growth, Affording A Light Wood Used For Making Floats. C. Peltata Is The Trumpet Tree, So-called From The Use Of Its Hollow Stems By The Uaupe In Dians As A Musical Instrument. It ...

Cecrops
Cecrops, Traditionally The First King Of Attica (pausanias Ix. 33). He Was Said To Have Divided The Inhabitants Into 12 Communities, To Have Instituted The Laws Of Marriage And Property And A New Form Of Worship. The Introduction Of Bloodless Sacri Fice, The Burial Of The Dead And The Invention ...

Cedar City
Cedar City, A City Of Iron County, Utah, In The South Western Part Of The State, At An Elevation Of Over 5,000f T. ; On Fed Eral Highway 91, And The Terminus Of A Branch Line Of The Union Pacific Railway, Constructed In 1923. The Population Was 3,615 In 1930 ...

Cedar Creek
Cedar Creek, A Small Branch Of The North Fork Of The Shenandoah River, Virginia (u.s.a.). It Is Known In American History As The Scene Of A Memorable Battle, Which Took Place On Oct. 19, 1864, Between The Union Army Under Gen. Sheridan And The Confederates Under Gen. Early. (see Shenandoah ...

Cedar Falls
Cedar Falls, A City Of Black Hawk County, Iowa, U.s.a., On The Cedar River, Loom. W. Of Dubuque. It Is On Federal High Ways 20 And 218, And Is Served By The Rock Island, The Illinois Central, The Chicago Great Western And The Waterloo, Cedar Falls And Northern Railways. The ...

Cedar Rapids
Cedar Rapids, A City Of Linn County, Iowa, U.s.a., On The Cedar River, In The East-central Part Of The State. It Is On Fed Eral Highways 3o And 161; And Is Served By The Chicago, Milwau Kee, St. Paul And Pacific, The Chicago And North Western, The Rock Island, The ...