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Encyclopedia Britannica

Volume 6, Part 2: Colebrooke to Damascius

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Country Dance
Country Dance, A Popular English Dance Of Earlier Centuries, Which Gave Its Name In Due Course, Though In A Cor Rupted Form, To The French Contredanse And The German Contre Tanz. In The Matter Of Its Steps And Figures It Seems To Have Varied Greatly, Being Sometimes Of The "round" ...

Country
Country, An Extent Of Land, A Region With Some Peculiar Character, E.g., The "black Country," "fen Country," Etc. (late Lat. Contrata, A Tract Of Land Spread Out To View In The Foreground, From Contra, Opposite, Over Against) ; Hence It Came To Mean The Land Inhabited By A Particular Nation ...

County Clerk
County Clerk, In The United States, The Chief Clerical Official Of The County. He Is Elected By The Qualified Voters Of The County For A Term, Provided By The State Constitution Or Statute, Of Two, Three Or Four Years. He Is Eligible For Re-election. The County Clerk Acts As Custodian ...

County Court
County Court, In England, A Local Court Of Civil Juris Diction. The County Court, It Has Been Said, Is At Once The Most Ancient And The Most Modern Of English Civil Tribunals. The Saxon Curia Comitatus, Maintained After The Norman Conquest, Was A Local Court And A Small Debts Court. ...

County
County, The Norman Equivalent Of The Old English "shire" (q.v.), Which Has Survived As Its Synonym, Though Occasionally Also Applied To Divisions Smaller Than Counties, E.g., Norhamshire, Hexamshire And Hallamshire. In The Period Preceding The Norman Conquest Two Officers Ap Pear At The Head Of The County Organization. These Are ...

Coup Detat
Coup D'etat, A French Phrase Denoting A Sudden And Violent Action By Which Power Is Seized By A Member Or Section Of A Dominant Class Or Party, In Defiance Of The Constitution Of The Country. The Coup D'etat Of Nov. 9, 1799 (18 Brumaire), When Napoleon (q.v.) Overthrew The Directory ...

Coupe
Coupe, A Small Closed Carriage Of The Brougham Type, With Four Wheels And Seats For Two Persons; The Term Is Also Used Of The Front Compartment On A Diligence Or Mail-coach On The Continent Of Europe, And Of A Compartment In A Railway Carriage With Seats On One Side Only. ...

Couple
Couple, A Tie, Ligament, A Pair, In Buildings A Principal Rafter, A Chevron. In Mechanics (q.v.) Two Parallel Forces Equal In In Tensity But Opposite In Direction Acting At Different Points In A Body Constitute A Couple. ...

Coupler
Coupler, In A Radio Circuit, An Apparatus Used To Transfer Radio-frequency Power From One Circuit To Another, By Associating Together Portions Of These Circuits. Couplers Are Of Three Types, In Ductive, Capacitive And Resistance. ...

Couplet
Couplet, A Pair Of Lines Of Verse, Which Are Welded To Gether By An Identity Of Rhyme. In Rhymed Verse Two Lines Which Complete A Meaning In Themselves Are Particularly Known As A Couplet. Thus, In Pope's Eloisa To Abelard : Speed The Soft Intercourse From Soul To Soul, And ...

Coupling
Coupling. When Lengths Of Shafting Have To Be Joined Up, In Factories Or Ships, Couplings Are Employed, As They Are Also To Connect A Prime Mover To A Machine. Usually The Coupling Connection Is Permanent ; If Frequent Disconnections Are Required, A Clutch Has Preference. Flange Couplings Are The Most ...

Coupon
Coupon. A Certificate Entitling Its Owner To Some Payment, Share Or Other Benefit; More Specifically, One Of A Series Of Interest Certificates Or Dividend Warrants Attached To A Bond Running For A Number Of Years. The Word Coupon (a Piece Cut Off) Possesses An Etymological Meaning So Comprehensive That, While ...

Courante
Courante, A Dance In 3-2 Time Much In Vogue In France In The I 7th Century (see Dance). It Is Also A Musical Term For A Movement Or Independent Piece Based On The Dance. In A Suite It Followed The Allemande (q.v.), With Which It Is Contrasted In Rhythm. ...

Courbevoie
Courbevoie, A Town Of Northern France, In The Arron Dissement Of Saint-denis, Department Of Seine, 5 M. W.n.w. Of Paris On The Railway To Versailles. Pop. (1931) 52,529. It Is A Residential Suburb Of Paris, And Has A Fine Avenue Opening On The Neuilly Bridge, And Forming With It A ...

Courier
Courier. Properly, A Running Messenger, Who Carried Despatches And Letters (o.fr. Courier, A Runner) ; A System Of Couriers, Mounted Or On Foot, Formed The Beginnings Of The Modern Post-office (see Post And Postal Service). The Despatches Which Pass Between The Foreign Office And Its Representatives Abroad, And Which Cannot ...

Courland Or Kurzeme
Courland Or Kurzeme, A Coastal District Of The Re Public Of Latvia, Lying Between 56° And 45' N. And 21 ° And 23° E. It Is Bounded On The East By The District Of Zemgale, North By The Gulf Of Riga, West By The Baltic And South By The Republic ...

Course
Course, In Architecture, A Horizontal Row Of Stones Or Bricks, In A Wall; One Of The Various Layers Of Stone Or Brick Of Which A Wall Is Built. ...

Coursing
Coursing. It Is Known That Coursing Is One Of The Most Ancient Of British Sports, And There Is Evidence To Show That It Must Have Been Practised In Other Countries Before The History Of Great Britain Began; But Its Actual Origin Is Lost In Obscurity. In Its Earliest Stages It ...

Court Baron
Court Baron, An English Manorial Court Dating From The Middle Ages. According To Maitland It Means Curia Baronis, "la Court De Seigneur," And There Is No Evidence For There Being More Than One Court. His Conclusion Is That The "court Baron" Was Not Even Differentiated From The "court-leet" (q.v.) At ...

Court Leet
Court Leet, An English Petty Criminal Court For The Punishment Of Small Offences. It Has Been Usual To Make A Dis Tinction Between Court Baron (q.v.) And Court Leet As Being Separate Courts, But In The Early History Of The Court Leet No Such Distinction Can Be Drawn. At A ...

Court Martial
Court-martial, A Court For The Trial Of Offences Against Military Or Naval Discipline, Or For The Administration Of Martial Law. In England Courts-martial Have Inherited Part Of The Jurisdiction Of The Old Curia Militaris, Or Court Of Chivalry, In Which A Single Marshal And At One Time The High Constable ...

Court Of Criminal Appeal
Criminal Appeal, Court Of. In Discussing The Question Of Appeals In Criminal Cases In England And Wales, It Is Convenient To Consider (1) The Position Before The Criminal Appeal Act 1907, (2) The Terms Of The Act, (3) The Experience Gained By Working The Act. As To (i) The Position ...

Court
Court, A Word Originally Denoting An Enclosed Place, And So Surviving In Its Architectural Sense (courtyard, Etc.). It Is Aptly Used As A Term For Judicial Tribunals, Which Originally Were In Fact Enclosures Within Which Sat The Judges And Their Officials, Whilst Counsel, Attorneys And The General Public Stood Outside. ...

Courtenay
Courtenay, The Name Of A Famous English Family. French Genealogists Head The Pedigree Of This Family With One Athon Or Athos, Who Is Said To Have Fortified Courtenay In Gatinois About Ioio. His Great Grandson, Renaud, Was One Of The Mag Nates Who Followed Louis Le Jeune To The Holy ...

Courtesy
Courtesy, Manners That Suit A Court, Politeness. The Ex Pression "by Courtesy" Is Used Where Something Is Granted Out Of Favour And Not Of Right, Hence "courtesy" Titles, I.e., Those Titles In The British Peerage Given To The Eldest Sons Of Dukes, Marquesses And Earls, And To The Younger Sons ...

Courtrai
Courtrai, An Important And Once Famous Town (flemish, Kortrijk) Of West Flanders, Belgium, Situated On The Lys. Pop. 38,639. It Is Now Best Known For Its Fine Linen, Which Is Retted In The Lys, "the Golden River," Whose Waters Possess Chemi Cal Properties Which Artificial Processes Have Not Yet Satisfactorily ...

Courtship Of Animals
Courtship Of Animals. When We See A Peacock Spreading His Beautiful Train To The Full, And, Occasionally Vibrat Ing The Quills To Produce A Rustling Sound, Turning From Side To Side Before His Mate, Or A Barn-door Cock With Drooped Wing And Special Call Circling Close Round A Hen, We ...

Cousin Marriage
Cousin Marriage. Though Among Some Primitive Peo Ples The Marriage Of First Cousins Is Strongly Deprecated, Many Consider It The Most Suitable Union And Even Demand That A Man's First Wife Shall Be So Related To Him. This Preference For Cousin Marriage Is Found In Many Parts Of Australia, Oceania, ...

Cousin
Cousin, A Term Of Relationship (late Lat. Cosinus, Perhaps An Abbreviation Of The Classic Latin Consobrinus). Children Of Brothers And Sisters Are To Each Other First Cousins, Or Cousins German; The Children Of First Cousins Are To Each Other Second Cousins; The Child Of A First Cousin Is To The ...

Coutances
Coutances, A Town Of North-western France, Capital Of An Arrondissement Of The Department Of Manche, 7 M. E. Of The English Channel And 58 M. S. Of Cherbourg On The Western Rail Way. Pop. (1931) 5,804. It Is Beautifully Situated On The Right Bank Of The Soulle On A Protruding ...

Couvade
Couvade, A Custom So Called In Beam (literally A "brood Ing," From Fr. Couver, To Hatch), Requiring That The Father, At And Sometimes Before The Birth Of His Child, Shall Retire To Bed And Fast Or Abstain From Certain Kinds Of Food, Receiving The Atten Tions Generally Shown To Women ...

Cove
Cove. A Small Inlet Or Sheltered Bay In A Coast-line. In English Dialect A Cave Or Recess In A Mountain-side. The Use Of The Word Was First Confined To A Small Chamber Or Inner Recess In A Room Or Building. Hence The Particular Application In Archi Tecture (q.v.) To Any ...

Coved
Coved, An Architectural Term Applied To The Concave Curved Juncture Of Two Surfaces: Thus A Coved Ceiling Is One Which Is Flat Or Nearly Flat In The Centre, But Joins The Walls By Means Of A Con Cave Sweep. A Coved Moulding, Or Cove, Is Any Small Moulding With A ...

Covellite
Covellite, A Mineral Species Consisting Of Cupric Sulphide, Cus, Crystallizing In The Hexagonal System. It Is Of Less Frequent Occurrence In Nature Than Chalcocite, The Orthorhombic Cuprous Sulphide. Crystals 'are Rare, The Mineral Being Usually Found As Compact And Earthy Masses Or As A Blue Coating On Other Copper Sulphides. ...

Covenant
Covenant, A Mutual Agreement Of Two Or More Parties, Or An Undertaking Made By One Of The Parties. In Old Testament Theology The Word Connotes A' Strongly-binding Agreement, E.g., The Covenant Between Abimelech And Isaac ; Even More Particularly A Covenant Between God And Man (gen. Xv. 17). The Word ...

Covenanters
Covenanters. Covenants Or Bands Of A Secular Char Acter, Binding The Subscribers To Common Action, Were A Feature Of Scottish History Previous To The Reformation. The First Religious Covenant Dates From Dec. 15s7, When The Leading Adherents Of The Reformation Bound Themselves To Maintain The Evangelical Movement In Scotland. A ...

Covent Garden
Covent Garden, A Site North Of The Strand, London, England, Occupied By The Principal Flower, Fruit And Vegetable Market In The Metropolis. This Was Originally The So-called "con Vent Garden" Belonging To The Abbey Of St. Peter, Westminster. In The First Half Of The I7th Century The Garden Was Laid ...

Coventry
Coventry, A City, County And Parliamentary Borough Of Warwickshire, England; 94 M. N.w. Of London, On L.m.s.r. Pop. (1931) 167,046. Coventry Stands On A Small Hill With Higher Ground To The West, At The Confluence Of The Sherbourne And The Radford Brook, Tributaries Of The Avon. Of Its Ancient Fortifica ...

Coventry_2
Coventry, A Town Of Kent County (r.i.), U.s.a., 15m. S.w. Of Providence, On Flat River, And Served By The New York, New Haven And Hartford Railroad. The Population In 193o (federal Census) Was 6,43o. Cotton And Woollen Goods Are Manu Factured. Coventry Was Settled About I 700, And Was Set ...

Cover
Cover. In Speculative Stock And Share Transactions, A Term Employed To Signify A "deposit Made With A Broker To Secure Him From Being Out Of Pocket In The Event Of The Stocks Falling Against His Client And The Client Not Paying The Difference" (in Re Cron Mire, 1898, 2 Q.b. ...

Covering Fire
Covering Fire, A Military Term To Express Small Arm Or Artillery Fire By One Unit Of Troops Or Arm (q.v.) To Distract The Enemy's Attention, And, If Possible, Subdue His Fire, In Order That Another Unit Or Arm May Advance Or Retire With Minimized Loss. ...

Coverture
Coverture, A Term In English Law Applied To The Condi Tion Of A Woman During Marriage, When She Is Supposed To Be Under The Cover, Influence And Protection Of Her Husband. (see Further Husband And Wife.) ...

Covilha
Covilha, A Town Of Portugal On The Eastern Slope Of The Serra Da Estrella, And On The Abrantes-guarda Railway. Pop. (1 Gzo) 14,049. Covilha, Which Has Been Often Compared With A Collection Of Swallows' Nests Clinging To The Rugged Granitic Moun Tain Side, Is Shaped Like An Amphitheatre Of Closely ...

Covilham Covilhao
Covilham (covilhao, Covilha), Pero Or Pedro De, Portuguese Explorer And Diplomatist (f. 148 7-15 A 5) , Was A Native Of Covilha In Beira. In Early Life He Had Gone To Castile And Entered The Service Of Alphonso, Duke Of Seville; Later, When War Broke Out Between Castile And Portugal, ...

Covin
Covin, A Term Used In English Law For A Secret Agreement Between Persons To Cheat And Defraud. The Word Has Been Superseded By "collusion" Or "conspiracy To Cheat And Defraud." ...

Covington
Covington, The Second Largest City Of Kentucky, U.s.a., On The Ohio River At The Mouth Of The Licking, Opposite Cincin Nati; One Of The County Seats Of Kenton County. It Is On Federal Highway 25; Is Served By The Chesapeake And Ohio And The Louis Ville And Nashville Railways, And ...

Covington_2
Covington, A Town In The Western Part Of Virginia, U.s.a., In The Heart Of The Alleghenies; The County Seat Of Alle Gheny County. It Is On Federal Highway 6o And The Chesapeake And Ohio Railway. The Population In 192o Was 5,623, Of Whom 1,136 Were Negroes, And Was 6,538 In ...

Cow Bird
Cow-bird, Applied To The Species Of The Genus Molothrus And Especially To The Migratory N. American M. Ater. They Be Long To The Passerine Family Icteridae And, Like The Old World Cuckoos, Are Parasitic And Lay Their Eggs In The Nests Of Other Birds. In Texas And Arizona There Is ...

Coward
Coward, A Term Of Contempt For One Who Shows Physical Or Moral Fear. The True Derivation Is From The Fr. Coe, An Old Form Of Queue, A Tail, From Lat. Cauda, Hence Couart Or Coward. The Reference To "tail" Is Either To The Expression "turn Tail" In Flight Or To ...

Cowbridge
Cowbridge, A Market Town And Municipal Borough Of Glamorganshire, Wales, With A Station On The G.w.r. Branch From Llantrisant To Aberthaw, 12m. W. Of Cardiff And 7m. S.e. Of Bridgend; Pop. (1931) 1,018. The Town Lies In A Wide Valley At A Bridging Of The Thaw, Probably On The Roman ...

Cowcatcher
Cowcatcher, Also Termed A Cattle-guard Or Pilot, A Steel Framework Which Is V-shaped In Plan And Attached To The Front Beam Of A Locomotive Or Rail-coach. It Is Necessary In Countries Where The Lines Are Unfenced Or Unprotected. The Dia Gram Shows The Construction, With A Central Coupling. Tramcars Are ...

Cowdenbeath
Cowdenbeath, Police Burgh, Fifeshire, Scotland, 54 M. N.e. Of Dunfermline By The L.n.e.r. Pop. (1931) 12,731. The Principal Industry Is Coal-mining, And The Town Is Rapidly Growing. Meetings In Connection With The Adoption And Pro Mulgation Of The Covenant Were Held In The Old Parish Church Of Beath. It Is ...

Cowes
Cowes, A Seaport And Watering-place In The Isle Of Wight, England, Urn. S.s.e. Of Southampton. West Cowes Is Separated From East Cowes By The Picturesque Estuary Of The River Medina, The Two Towns (each Of Which Is An Urban District) Lying On Op Posite Sides Of Its Mouth At The ...

Cowl Oe
Cowl (o.e. Cufle, Med. Lat. Cuculla, From Lat. Cucullus, A Hood; Dutch Keuvel), A Mantle With A Hood, Worn By Monks; Hence The Phrase "to Take The Cowl," Signifying Entry Upon The Religious Life. The Word Is Also Used For The Hood Alone, Which In Some Orders Is Detached From ...

Cowley Fathers
Cowley Fathers, The Name Commonly Given To The Members Of The Society Of Mission Priests Of St. John The Evan Gelist, An Anglican Religious Community, The Headquarters Of Which Are In England, At Cowley St. John, Close To Oxford. The Society Was Founded In 1865 By The Rev. R. M. ...

Cowpens
Cowpens, A Town Of Spartanburg County, S.c., U.s.a., In The N. Part Of The State. Pop. (191o) (193o) 1,115. It Is Served By The Southern Railway. In Colonial Days Cattle Were Rounded Up And Branded Here—whence The Name. Seven Miles N. Of The Town Is The Field Of The Battle ...

Cowper Stove
Cowper Stove. In Blast Furnace Practice It Is Eco Nomical To Heat The Air Supplied To The Furnace. This Is Effected By Causing The Furnace To Heat Its Own Supply Of Air, As Is Now Always Done Save In The Case Of Cold Blast Furnaces Employed To Produce Certain Qualities ...

Cowry
Cowry, The Name Given To The Cypraeidae, A Family Of Marine Gastropod Molluscs. More Than I So Living Species Are Known. They Live In Shallow Water, And Are Found Principally In The Indo-pacific Region. A Small Cowry, Trivia Europaea, Is Found In European Waters. They Have A Striking Appearance When ...

Coyote
Coyote, A North American Member Of The Dog Family, Also Known As The Prairie-wolf, Canis Latrans. Ranging From Canada In The North To Guatemala In The South And Frequenting The Open Plains On Both Sides Of The Chain Of The Rocky Mountains, The Coyote Is Smaller Than The Wolf And ...

Coypel
Coypel, The Name Of A French Family Of Painters. Noel Coypel (1628-1707), Also Called, From The Fact That He Was Much Influenced By Poussin, Coypel Le Poussln, Was Employed By Charles Errard To Paint Some Pictures Required For The Louvre. In 1672 He Was Appointed Director Of The French Academy ...

Coypu
Coypu (myocastor Coypu), A Large South American Aquatic Rodent. Its Large Size, Aquatic Habits, Partially Webbed Hind-toes, And The Smooth, Broad, Orange-coloured Incisors, Are Sufficient To Distinguish This Rodent From The Other Members Of The Family Capromyidae. Coypu Are Abundant In The Fresh Waters Of South America. Should The Water ...

Crab
Crab, A Name Applied To The Crustacea Of The Section Brachyura Of The Order Decapoda, And To Other Forms, Especially Of The Section Anomura, Which Resemble Them In Appearance And Habits. Brachyura, Or True Crabs, Are Distinguished From The Long-tailed Lobsters And Shrimps By The Small Abdomen Or Tail, Folded ...

Cracker
Cracker, Something Which "cracks" (ger. Kracken) ; A Firework Which Explodes With Several Reports And Jumps At Each Explosion (see Fireworks) ; A Roll Of Coloured And Orna Mented Paper Containing Sweets, Etc., Together With A Strip Of Card With A Fulminant Which Explodes On Being Pulled. In Amer Ica, ...

Cracow
Cracow, A Province Of Poland, Bounded North By The Province Of Kieke, East By The Province Of Lemberg, West By Polish Silesia And South By Czechoslovakia. It Covers 6,736 Square Miles. It Is Drained By The Vistula And Its Tributaries, The Dunajec And Wisloka. The North Region Is A Fertile ...

Cracow_2
Cracow (krah-kow', Polish Krah' Kuf), The Fourth City Of Poland, Capital Of The Province Of The Same Name, An Industrial Centre, And The Seat Of A Roman Catholic Archbishop, 212m. W. By N. Of Lemberg (lwow) By Rail. Polish Name Krakow. Pop. (1931) 221,260, Of Whom 172,866 Were Poles, The ...

Cradle
Cradle, A Child's Bed Of Wood, Wicker Or Iron, With Enclosed Sides, Slung Upon Pivots Or Mounted On Rockers (of Uncertain Etymology, Possibly Connected With "crate" And "creel," I.e., Basket). It Is A Very An Cient Piece Of Furniture, But The Date When It First Assumed Its Characteristic Swinging Or ...

Cradock
Cradock, A Town In 32° 10' S., 25° 3 7' E. Altitude 2,856 Ft. Pop. (1931) White 3,609; Native 3,519 (1921); Situated In Upper Valley Of The Great Fish River, 183 M. From Port Elizabeth. A Large Trade Is Done In Wool And Mohair. In The Surrounding District 30,00o Ac. ...

Craft
Craft, A Word Confined In English To Intellectual Power, And Used As A Synonym Of "art" (ger. Kraft, Strength, Power). It Also Means Skill Or Ingenuity, Especially In The Manual Arts, Hence Its Use In The Expression "arts And Crafts" (q.v.) ; It Is Thus Applied To An Association Of ...

Crafton
Crafton, A Borough Of Allegheny County (pa.), U.s.a. 6m. W. Of Pittsburgh, On The Pennsylvania Railroad. The Popu Lation In 193o Was 7,004. ...

Crag
Crag, A Steep Rock. The Word (of Celtic Origin, Cf. Gael. Creag, Manx Greg, And Welsh And Modern Scots Craig) Appears In Many Place-names In North Britain, And Is Probably Connected With "carrick," Of Similar Meaning, Which Also Occurs In Place-names. In Geology, The Term Is Applied To Strata In ...

Crail
Crail (formerly Karel), Royal Burgh And Parish, Fifeshire, Scotland, 2 M. From Fifeness, The Most Easterly Point Of The County, And Ii M. S.e. Of St. Andrews By The L.n.e.r. Pop. (1931), 1,058. It Is Said To Have Been A Town Of Some Note As Early As The 9th Century; ...

Crailsheim
Crailsheim, A Town Of Germany, In The Land Of Wiirt Temberg, On A Tributary Of The Neckar. Pop. (1933) 6,391. It Was Incorporated As A Town In 1338, Passed Later Into The Possession Of The Burgraves Of Nurnberg, And Came In 1791 To Prussia, In 1806 To Bavaria And In ...

Craiova
Craiova, The Capital Of The Department Of Dolj, In Ru Mania, Situated Near The Left Bank Of The River Jiu, And On The Main Railway From Verciorova To Bucharest. Pop. (1930) 63,063. A Branch Railway Runs To Calafat. Craiova Is The Chief Commer Cial Town West Of Bucharest ; The ...

Crambo
Crambo, An Old Rhyming Game Which, According To Strutt (sports And Pastimes), Was Played As Early As The 14th Century Under The Name Of The Abc Of Aristotle. Crambo, Or Capping The Rhyme, Is Played By One Player Thinking Of A Word And Telling The Others What It Rhymes With, ...

Cramp
Cramp, A Painful Spasmodic Contraction Of Muscles, Com Monest In The Limbs, But Also Affecting Certain Internal Organs. This Disorder Is Probably Of Reflex Nervous Origin. Cramp In The Limbs Comes On Suddenly, Often During Sleep, The Patient Being Roused By Agonizing Pain In The Calf Of The Leg Or ...

Cranberry
Cranberry, The Fruit Of Several Small Plants Allied To The Bilberry (q.v.). The Northern Cranberry (vaccinium Oxy- 1 Coccus) Is Found In Marshy Land In Northern And Central Europe And Northern North America. Its Stems Are Wiry, Creeping And Of Varying Length ; The Leaves Are Evergreen, Dark And Shining ...

Cranbrook
Cranbrook, A Market-town, South Kent, England, 4o M. S.e. Of London On A Branch Of The S.r. Pop. Of Rural District 12,925. It Lies On The Crane Brook, A Feeder Of The River Beult, In A Hilly And Wooded District. The Church (mainly Per Pendicular) Is Dedicated To St. Dunstan, ...

Cranbrook_2
Cranbrook, A Town Of British Columbia, Canada. Pop. 3,067. It Stands In The Kootenay Valley, At A Height Of 3,029 Ft., Between The Selkirk And Rocky Mountains, In The Beau Tiful District Of South-eastern Kootenay For Which It Is A Centre Of Trade. Lumbering, Mixed Farming, Fruit-growing And Mining (silver-lead, ...

Crane
Crane, A Large Wading Bird. Formerly Inhabiting England, The Crane (megalornis Grus) Breeds In The Marshes Of Spain, Tur Key, Russia, N. Germany And Scandinavia, Migrating In Large Flocks In Autumn To Africa And India. The Nest Is Formed On The Ground And The Same Spot Is Utilized Year After ...

Cranes
Cranes, Machines By Means Of Which Heavy Bodies May Be Lifted, And Also Displaced Horizontally, Within Certain Defined Limits (so Called From The Resemblance To The Long Neck Of The Bird, Cf. Gr. 7epavos, Fr. Grue). Strictly Speaking, The Name Alludes To The Arm Or Jib From Which The Load ...

Craniometry
Craniometry. The Application Of Precise Methods Of Measurement In Craniometry, A Comprehensive Expression For All Methods Of Measuring The Skull (cranium) Is Of Great Importance In Anthropological Studies. The Measurements Were First Made With A View To Elucidating The Comparison Of The Skulls Of Men With Those Of Other Animals. ...

Crank
Crank. In Mechanics, A Crank Is A Device By Which Recip Rocating Motion Is Converted Into Circular Motion Or Vice Versa, Consisting Of A Crank-arm, One End Of Which Is Fastened Rigidly At Right Angles To The Rotating Shaft Or Axis, While The Other End Bears A Crank-pin Projecting From ...

Crannog
Crannog, The Term Applied In Scotland And Ireland To The Stockaded Islands So Numerous In Ancient Times In The Lochs Of Both Countries. They Have Little In Common, Structurally, With The Swiss Lake Dwellings, Except That They Are Placed In Lakes. Few Examples Are Known In England Or Wales, Although ...

Cranston
Cranston, A City Of Providence County, Rhode Island, U.s.a., Adjoining The City Of Providence On The South; Served By The New York, New Haven And Hartford Railroad. The Popu Lation In 1920 Was 29,407, Of Whom 7,516 Were Foreign-born White (2,645 From Italy) ; And In 193o Federal Census 42,911. ...

Crantor
Crantor, A Greek Philosopher Of The Old Academy, Was Born, Probably About The Middle Of The 4th Century B.c., At Soli In Cilicia. He Was The First Commentator On Plato. He Is Said To Have Written Some Poems Which He Sealed Up And Deposited In The Temple Of Athens At ...

Crape
Crape, A Silk Fabric Of A Gauzy Texture, Having A Peculiar Crisp Or Crimpy Appearance. It Is Woven Of Hard Spun Silk Yarn "in The Gum" Or Natural Condition. There Are Two Distinct Varieties Of The Textile—soft, Canton Or Oriental, Crape, And Hard Or Crisped Crape. The Wavy Appearance Of ...

Crash
Crash. A Technical Textile Term Applied To A Species Of Nar Row Towels, From 14 To Loin. Wide. The Name Is Probably Of Rus Sian Origin, The Simplest And Coarsest Type Of The Cloth Being Known As "russian Crash." The Latter Is Made From Grey Flax Or Tow Yarns, And ...

Crassulaceae
Crassulaceae, In Botany, A Family Of Dicotyledons, Con Taining 25 Genera And 45o Species; Of Cosmopolitan Distribution, But Most Developed In South Africa. The Plants Are Herbs Or Small Shrubs, Generally With Thick Fleshy Stems And Leaves, Adapted For Life In Dry, Especially Rocky Places. The Fleshy Leaves Are Often ...

Crassus
Crassus (literally "dense," "thick," "fat"), A Family Name In The Roman Gens Licinia (plebeian). The Most Important Of The Name Are The Following: I. Publius Licinius Crassus,' Surnamed Dives Mucianus, Roman Statesman, Orator And Jurist, Consul, 131 B.c. A Friend Of Tiberius Gracchus, He Was Chosen After His Death To ...

Crater Mound
Crater Mound (long Known As Coon Butte), Perhaps The Most Mysterious Geological Feature In Western United States, Is Located About I Om. S. Of Sunshine, Arizona. Viewed From A Distance, The Mound Appears As A Low Ridge, But On Near Approach This Ridge Is Found To Be Circular And To ...

Crater
Crater, The Cavity At The Mouth Of A Volcanic Duct, Usually Funnel-shaped Or Presenting The Form Of A Bowl, Whence The Name, From The Gr. K Par; A Bowl. (see Volcano.) Also The Cavity In The Carbon (or Electrode) Of An Arc Light. When An Alternating Current Is Employed, A ...

Craters Of The Moon
Craters Of The Moon National Monu Ment, A Tract Of About 39 Sq.m. In South-central Idaho, U.s.a., Set Apart In 1924 As A Government Reservation. It Is A Region Of Cones And Craters Formed By Volcanoes Which Have Probably Been Extinct For Only A Few Centuries, And The Name Of ...

Crates
Crates, Athenian Actor And Author Of Comedies, Flourished About 470 B.c. He Was Regarded As The Founder Of Greek Comedy Proper, Since He Abandoned Political Lampoons On Individuals And Introduced More General Subjects And A Well-developed Plot (aristotle, Poetica, 5). He Is Stated To Have Been The First To Represent ...

Crates_2
Crates, The Name Of Two Greek Philosophers. ...

Crates_3
Crates, Of Mallus In Cilicia, A Greek Grammarian And Stoic Philosopher Of The 2nd Century B.c., Leader Of The Literary School And Head Of The Library Of Pergamum. He Was The Chief Repre Sentative Of The Allegorical Theory Of Exegesis, And Maintained That Homer Intended To Express Scientific Or Philosophical ...

Cratinus
Cratinus (gr. Krc -te-nos) (c. 520-423 B.c.), Athenian Dramatist, Chief Representative Of The Old Comedy. Hardly Any Thing Is Known Of His Life, And Only Fragments Of His Works Have Been Preserved. But A Good Idea Of Their Character Can Be Gained From The Opinions Of His Contemporaries, Especially Aris ...

Cratippus
Cratippus (fl. C. 375 B.c.), Greek Historian. There Are Only Three Or Four References To Him In Ancient Literature, But He Has Been Identified By Several Scholars (e.g. Blass) With The Author Of The Historical Fragment Discovered By Grenfell And Hunt, And Published By Them In Oxyrhynchus Papyri, Vol. V. ...

Cratippus_2
Cratippus, Of Mitylene (1st Century B.c.), Peripatetic Philosopher, Contemporary With Cicero, Whose Son He Taught At Athens, And By Whom He Is Praised In The De Officiis As The Great Est Of His School. He Shared Pompey's Flight After Pharsalia. Bru Tus, While At Athens, After The Assassination Of Caesar, ...

Crau
Crau, A Region Of Southern France, In The Department Of Bouches-du-rhone, Lying East Of The Eastern Arm Of The Rhone Between The Chain Of The Alpines And The Mediterranean, West And North-west Of The Etang De Berre. It Is A Low-lying Plain, About 8o Sq.m. In Area, Practically Desert. Its ...

Cravat
Cravat, The Name Given By The French In The Reign Of Louis Xiv. To The Scarf Worn By The Croatian Soldiers Enlisted In The Royal Croatian Regiment (fr. Cravate, A Corruption Of "croat") . Made Of Linen Or Muslin With Broad Edges Of Lace, It Became Fashionable, And The Name ...