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Radford's Cyclopedia of Construction, Vol 4: Masonry to Electric Wiring

325 At Load Moment
At Load Moment In Pound-inches 17,325 39,527x4x12= 1,660,134 15,750 39,527x8ix12-17,325x5x12 = 2,992,254 20,475 39,527x131x12-(17,325x10x12+15,750x 5x12)= 3,379,374 23,625 39,527x211-x12-(17,325x18x12+15,750x 13x12+20,475x8x12)= 2,033,166 This Shows That The Greatest Moment Occurs Un Der The Load Of 20,475 Pounds. If The Allowable Unit-stress Is 16,000 Pounds Per Square Inch, The Section Modulus Is: By Consulting ...

Bridges 55
Bridges 55. Use Of Bridge Trusses. Since 1854 The Metal Bridge Truss Has Been In General Use For All Spans From 10 Or 15 Feet Up To Several Hun Dred Feet. The Huge Firth Of Forth Bridge In Scotland, And The Quebec Bridge Crossing The St. Lawrence River Near Quebec, ...

Building Superintendence 76
Building Superintendence 76. Shipping Clerk And Yard Master. The Business Of The Shipping Clerk Should Be To Keep Track Of The Shipping Bills, And To See What Ma Terial Comes In. He Should At Once Notify The Yard Master And Storekeeper, In Order That They May Provide For It. The ...

Cast Iron 5
Cast Iron 5. Manufacture. The Amount Of Pig-iron Obtained From A Ton Of Ore Depends On The Rich Ness Of The Ore—that Is, On The Amount Of Pure Iron That It Contains. The Richness Of Ore Varies Considerably, The Percentage Being Low In Some Of The Lean Ores Of New ...

Classes Of Compression Members
Classes Of Compression Members 44. Compression Members Are Those Which Are Stressed By Loads Or Forces At Their Ends, And These Forces Act Towards Each Other. If A Man Pushes On His Cane, Which Has The Other End Resting Upon Something, The Cane Is Said To Be In Compression, And ...

Classes Of Structural Members
Classes Of Structural Members Beams And Structural Girders 30. The Simplest Member Is The Beam Or Girder. The Terms "beam" And "girder" Prac Tically Signify The Same, And Are So Used By Many Persons. It Is Better, However, To Make A Distinction, And To Designate A Member Which Is Not ...

Classes Of Tension Members
Classes Of Tension Members 50. Tension Members May Be Divided Into Two Classes—simple Members And Built-up Mem Bers. The First Class May Be Still Further Di Vided Into Eye-bars And Single Shapes. Eye-bars Are Bars With Circular Ends, In Which Are Holes Whereby They Are Connected To Other Members By ...

Columns 46
Columns 46. Strength Of Columns. The Strength Of A Column Depends Not Only On Its Length And On The Area Of Its Cross-section, But Also On The Shape And Position Of The Material In The Column. The Writer Took A Sheet Of The Paper On Which This Book Is Printed, ...

Cost Of Steel Structures
Cost Of Steel Structures In Bidding On A Structure, The Bid May Be For A Lump Sum To Complete The Work, Or For So Much Per Ton, Or For So Much Per Pound. In Any Case, The Contractor Will Not Directly Estimate It That Way Himself. He Will Take Into ...

Design Of Beams 38
Design Of Beams 38. The Design Of Beams Is A Simple Matter, Once The Character, Amount, And Position Of The Loads That Come Upon Them Are Determined. The Case Of Uniform Loads Will First Be Con Sidered. The •usual Case Is Where A Series Of Beams Run Side By Side ...

Dictionary Of Masonry Terms
Dictionary Of Masonry Terms The Following Definitions Are In Common Use In The Mason's And Stonecutter's Trade: Abutment—a Supporting Wall Carrying The End Of A Bridge Or Span And Sustaining The Pres Sure Of The Abutting Earth. Arris—the External Edge Formed By Two Sur Faces Of Stone, Whether Plane Or ...

Electric Wiring
Electric Wiring There Is No Application Of Electricity In The Arts And Industries That Has Received More At Tention And Made Greater Advancements In The Last Quarter Of A Century, Than That Made In The Field Of Electric Lighting. Twenty To Thirty Years Ago, There Were No Such Things As ...

Elements Of Steel Construction
Elements Of Steel Construction - Raw Materials 1. Introduction. The Iron And Steel Indus Try Is One Of Our Greatest, And Yet It Is Compara Tively Young. While Iron Was Known To The Ancients, It Is Only Within The Last Forty Years That It Has Been Manufactured In Large Quanti ...

Erection Of Structures 69
Erection Of Structures 69. The Marking Diagram. Before The Drawing Of Each Piece Of The Structure Leaves The Drafting Room, It Is Given A Mark; And This Mark Is Put On An Outline Drawing Of The Structure. In Most Cases, The Letter Which Begins The Name Of The Piece Is ...

Girders 40
Girders 40. Description And Classification. A Girder May Be Designated As A Girder Or A Plate-girder, And Each Of These Classes Are Again Divided Into Simple And Box Girders. These And All Girders May Be Divided Into Deck And Through Girders. A Girder Is A Beam Which Consists Of A ...

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' 14_8.,- ' ;ii I I 1 1 ---, 1 1, 1 , I 1 I A Il I 1 Ifr I I? I ' I R : K I 1 276 '' [1=1. - 14 /25 __—,./ . 2240 .---...1 4 /56 - I , 24 I, Sw -___04 ...

Illumination Calculations
Illumination Calculations Incandescent Lamps Are Usually Designated As Being Of So Many Candle-power, Meaning They Give A Certain Number Of Times The Light Given By A Standard Candle Of Definite Dimensions And Burning At A Certain Rate. The Efficiency Of A Lamp Is Based Upon The Relation Of The Candle ...

Installing Electric Bells
Installing Electric Bells The Modern Building Is Not Considered Com Plete Unless It Is Equipped Throughout With Electric Bells To Be Used For Signaling From One Position To Another. Electric Bell Wiring, On Account Of Being Operated At A Low Voltage From Batteries—which Reduces The Likelihood Of Fires Caused By ...

Installing The Wires
Installing The Wires There Are A Number Of Different Methods That May Be Employed In Installing The Wires, The Selection Of The Method Used Depending Upon The Requirements Of The Inspection Department, The Initial Cost, And The General Appearance. The Simplest And Least Expensive Method Of Wiring Is To Place ...

Joint
Joint Erection Of A 375-foot Span Over Osage River Between St. Louis And Kan Sas City, On Line Of St. Louis, Kansas City & Colorado Railroad, Now Part Of The Chicago, Rcck Island Pacific Railroad System. - - . Table (c 150). In The Column On The 12 Inch Line, ...

Manufacture Of Brick
Manufacture Of Brick Methods. Most Of The Brick In Common Use Are Made Of Soft Paste, Of Clay And Water. When Water Is Used Very Freely, The Manufacture Is Said To Be By The Wet Or Soft-mud Process. When The Clay Is Not So Wet, The Stiff-mud Process Is Used; ...

Measurement Of Masonry
Measurement Of Masonry There Are No Universally Adopted Rules For Measuring Stone Masonry, And The Custom In The Openings For Windows And Doors As Solid, Thus Adding To The Actual Number Of Cubic Feet In The Wall. Another Rule Sometimes Adopted Is To Take Out The Openings, And Add A ...

Mill Buildings 58
Mill Buildings 58. Buildings Which Are Used For Manufac Turing Purposes Are Usually Classed As Mill Buildings. They May Be Entirely Of Steel, Or They May Have Brick Walls And Steel Roofs. The Steel Roofs May Be Covered With A Steel Roof Covering Or With Slate, Shingles, Tile, Concrete, Or ...

Newark Northwest Building
Northwest Building, Newark, N. J., Under Construction. Nine Stories High; Dimensions, 90 Ft. By 106 Ft. Weight Of Steel Used, 2,000,000 Lbs. - - . Surface Coated With An Insulating Compound; Or, Second, To Use What Is Known As Flexible Armored Cable, As Shown In Fig. 16. These Pipes Are ...

Office Buildings 60
Office Buildings 60. An Office Building May Be Defined As Any Building Which Is Of Such Height As To Necessitate A Steel Frame. Steel Frames Become A Necessity When The Height Of The Building Becomes Such As To Require A Masonry Wall To Be So Thick As To Take Up ...

Outlets Fixtures
Fixtures, Outlets, Switches, Etc. In Residence Wiring, We Are As A Rule Con Fined To Chandeliers, Wall Brackets, And Ceiling Lights. The Wall Brackets Are Usually Employed To Increase The General Illumination At Certain Points. Often Outlets Are Provided In Base Boards, Where Portable Lamps May Be Connected. In Locating ...

Retaining Walls
Retaining Walls A Wall Such As That Shown In Fig. 31 Is Called A Retaining Wall Because Its Office Is To Keep A Bank Of Earth In Position. The Earth To Be Retained May Be That Already In Place Before The Wall Was Built, As Where A Cut Is Made ...

Rivets And Riveting 22
Rivets And Riveting 22. Rivets Are Made In Different Sizes And Lengths. The Head And Diameter Are The Same For Any Given Size, But The Length Will Vary As The Case Requires. When The Size Of A Rivet Is Spoken Of, The Diameter Is Usually Meant. (c 191) Gives A ...

Steel 13
Steel 13. Crucible Steel. This Is The Finest Quality Of Steel. It Is Made In Three Ways— Namely, By Packing Pure Soft Wrought Iron In Fine Charcoal, And Raising To A Yellow Heat; By Putting Charcoal And Crude Bar Iron In A Sealed Crucible And Heating To A Melting Heat; ...

Steel Shapes 18
Steel Shapes 18. Manufacture Of Steel Shapes. When The Ingot Is Taken From The Soaking Pit And "cropped," It Is Placed On The Table Of The Rolls, Or Blooming Table. This Table Consists Of A Num Ber Of Cylinders Placed Close Together And Made Tc Revolve Either Forward Or Backward ...

Stone Masonry
Stone Masonry Rocks In Their Natural State. Rocks Are Divided Into Three General Classes, Determined By The Manner Of Their Formation In Nature's Great Laboratory. These Classes Are: (1) Igneous, (2) Sedimentary Or Aqueous, And (3) Meta Morphic. Formed From Ordinary Limestone; Deposits Of Peat May Become Anthracite; And Deposits ...

Stonecutting
Stonecutting Masonry Is Classified (1) According To The Kind Of Material Of Which It Is Composed—as Brick Masonry, Stone Masonry, And Concrete Masonry; (2) According To The Manner Of Dress Ing The Faces And Edges—as First-class Or Sesond-class Masonry, Ashlar, Rubble, Square Stone Masonry, Pitch-faced Or Quarry-faced Masonry; And (3) ...

Strength Of Brick Masonry
Strength Of Brick Masonry The Strength Of Brick Is Some Indication Of The Strength Of The Masonry Made From It, But The Mortar And The Svorkmanship Must Also Be Taken Into Account In Making Comparisons. Table Xttt Gives Results Of Some Recent Tests Of Brick Columns Made Of Brick Similar ...

Testing Of Structural Steel
Testing Of Structural Steel 23. Chemical Tests. These Are Made In Order To Determine The Percentage Of The Metal Loids Present In The Steel—the Chief Of Which Are Carbon, Silicon, Manganese, Sulphur, And Phosphorus. In Making A Melt Of Steel In The Bessemer Or Open-hearth Furnaces, Chemical Tests Are First ...

Tests Of Stone
Tests Of Stone Many Of The Characteristics Of Stone Are Ap Parent To The Practiced Eye Of The Workman. Others Are Easily Seen With The Aid Of A Magnify Ing Glass; While Some Are Determined Only After Thorough Tests By Approved Methods Of Physical, Microscopical, And Chemical Examination. Able If ...

The Electrical Circuit
The Electrical Circuit The Electrical Circuit Can Best Be Studied By Making A Comparison Between It And A Hydraulic Problem Where The Various Quantities Bear Prac Tically The Same Relation To One Another. When There Is A Flow Of Water Through A Pipe From A Pump Or Some Source Of ...

The Making Of Structures
The Making Of Structures 63. Designing And Drafting. When Bids Have Been Asked For By Parties, The Firms Desir Ing To Secure The Work Obtain A Set Of Specifica Tions From The Parties Desiring The Work Done, And Also All Data Regarding The Location, Dimen Sions, And Layout. In Some ...

The Masonry Arch
The Masonry Arch The Arch Is A Structure Used Primarily As A Device For Covering Openings Too Long To Be Spanned By Beams Of Reasonable Dimensions. Masonry Of All Kinds Is Much Stronger In Com Pression Than In Tension; And By The Use Of The Arch, Stresses Of The Latter ...

Wrought Iron 9
Wrought Iron 9. Manufacture. About 500 Pounds Of Cast Iron Is Put Into The Hearth Of A Puddling Or Reverberatory Furnace (fig. 4), And A Fire Built In The Furnace. The Heat Melts The Iron, The Impurities Form A Slag With The Iron Oxide Lining Of The Hearth, And The ...