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Orthopedics
Orthopedics. The Branch Of Medicine Devoted To The Treatment Of Affections Nvhich Lead To Morbid Changes In The Form Of Hones, Joints, Etc., And Which Arc Followed By A Disturbance Of The Symmetry Of The Limbs. Neglected And Little Developed In Former Times, Orthopedics Has Now Become A Greatly Developed ...

Oxalic Acid
Oxalic-acid Poisoning.—this May Arise From Taking The Drug In Mistake For Another Or From Homicidal Mania. For Effect, Etc., See Tile Standard Physician, Pages 746, 1059. Treatment.—give Water Mixtures Of Chalk Or Magnesia, Or Lime-water Alone Or Mixed With Milk, As Antidotes, Followed By Full Dose Of Castor-oil ; Send ...

Pains Chest
Chest, Pains In.—the Lung Has So Little Sensitiveness That Even Exten Sive Destruction Of Its Tissue May Take Place Without Producing The Least Amount Of Pain. The Distressing Symptoms To Which This Name Is Given Come From The Pleura, The Thoracic Muscles, The Ribs, Or From The Intercostal Nerves. Pain ...

Pemphigus
Pemphigus (water-blebs).—a Serious, Often Fatal, Skin-disease, Which Is Characterised By The Eruption Of Watery Vesicles On Various Parts Of The Body. It Attacks Very Suddenly, And May Occur In Adults As Well As In Children. The Disease Begins With The Appearance Of Red Spots And Blotches On The Skin. These ...

Pericarditis And
Pericarditis And Hydropericardium.—the Pericardium Is A Membranous Bag Which Invests The Heart. It Consists Of Two Layers, An Inner, Serous One, Which Is Firmly Attached To The Heart-muscle, And An Outer, Fibrous One, Which Surrounds The Heart As A Wide Pouch. Inflammation Of The Interior Surface Of This Cavity Causes ...

Peroxide Of Hydrogen A
Peroxide Of Hydrogen.--a Nvatery Solution Of Hydrogen Dioxide. It Is A Colourless Liquid, With A Slightly Acid Taste. When Applied To A Mucous Membrane, It Produces A Peculiar Froth, Which Is Due To Coagulation Of Albumin. It Is Used As A Deodorant And As An Antiseptic, Especially In Inflammations Of ...

Personal
Personal Hygiene.—beauty Which, According To Locke, Consists In " A Certain Composition Of Colour And Figure Causing Delight In The Beholder," Is, In Its Human Manifestations, Dependent Upon The Full And Well-balanced Functional Activity Of The Organism. Beauty Is Sometimes A Gift, Sometimes An Acquirement, And It Takes Many Forms ...

Perspiration Feet
Feet, Perspiration Of.—see Skin, Cane Or. ' Fel Bovis (0x-gall).—the Fresh Bile Of The Ox, Bos Taunts. It Has Only Recently Been Introduced Into Medicine As A Stimulant To The Biliary Secretions. Ox-gall, Either In The Form Of Enemas Or Of Pills, Is Of Service In Chronic Constipation And Obstipation ...

Pes Equinus
Pes Equinus Horse-foot).—.\ Common Deformity Of The Foot, In Which Its Anterior Portion Is Depressed To A Lesser Or Greater Degree, So That The Heel Does Not Touch The Ground In Walking. In Severe Cases The Foot May Be Turned Down To Such An Extent That The Back Of The ...

Phosphorus
Phosphorus Poisoning.—phosphorus Paste Is Used As A Rat-poison, And Is Sometimes Taken With Suicidal Intent. The Heads Of Phosphorus Matches Are Highly Poisonous ; The Swallowing Of Two Match-heads Has Been Known To Kill A Child. For Effects, See The Standard Physician, Pages 734, 787, 1059-1060. Treatment.—empty The Stomach By ...

Physician
Physician, Page 1°39. Treatment. --the Injection Of A Cold Infusion Of R Ounce Of Quassia To Pint Of Water, Or Of A Cold Solution Of Drachm Of Sodium Chloride In Pint Of Water, Will Abolish Pinworms (see Also Wonms). Pleurisy.—inflammation Of The Serous Membrane That Invests The Lungs. For Causes, ...

Pianists
Pianists' Cramp.—a Form Of Occupation Neurosis Which Occurs Almost Exclusively In Professional Pianists, And Most Frequently In Young, Weakly Girl Pupils Of The Conservatoires. It Is Characterised By Pains In The Arms, And By A Sensation Of Fatigue, Which Compel The Pianist To Stop Playing Soon After Having Begun. Actual ...

Pine Needle
Pine-needle Bath.—bath Prepared By Adding An Extract Of Pine Needles (4 To 16 Ounces Of Pine-needles To I Or 2 Quarts Of Hot Water) To A Full Body-bath. Instead Of This, 15 To 20 Drops Of Pine-oil May He Added To The Bath, Or A Decoction Of Fresh Fir And ...

Pleurisy Tuberculosis Ofthe
Pleurisy ; Tuberculosis Of The Lungs. Dropsy Of The Lungs.—a Condition Of The Lungs In Which The Pulmonary Tissue As \ Yell As The Pulmonary Vesicles Are Saturated With Serum Which Comes From The Blood. It Is Known Also As Pulmonary Cedema, Or " Filling Up " Of The Lungs, ...

Poisoning Lead Poisoning
Poisoning ; Lead-poisoning. Dress-goods, Wall-paper, And Other Articles Containing Poisonous Dyes May Cause Chronic Poisoning By Inhalation Of The Dust Or Vapours Arising In Their Manufacture. Such Cases Of Poisoning Usually Manifest Themselves By Nausea, Vomiting, Diarrhoea, And Severe Head Aches ; Or By External Symptoms, Such As Skin-diseases, Or ...

Poisoning Matches
Matches, Poisoning By.—sec Puosmorus-potsomxg. Measles.—an Acute, Eruptive, Infectious Disease, The Cause Of Which Is As Yet Unknown. It Is Very Contagious, And During An Epidemic Of Measles A Child Previously Unaffected Rarely Escapes. One Attack Of Measles Usually Renders The Individual Immune To The Disease, And For This Reason Adults ...

Polypi Nose
Nose, Polypi In.—a Polypus Is A Pedunculate Tumour Which Arises From The Mucous Membrane And Projects Into The Natural Cavity, As In The Nose Or Womb. From The Character Of These Growths, It Will Be Seen That They Can Be Treated Properly Only By A Physician Or Surgeon. Nose-bleeding.—for Causcs, ...

Prickly
Prickly Heat.—a Skin Affection Which Is Very Frequent In Summer And In Tropical Countries. It Is Due To The Greatly Increased And Constant Secretion Of Sweat, And To The Irritation Produced By Clothing. Prickly Heat Usually Develops Very Rapidly. On Superficial Examination The Affected Parts Of The Skin Appear To ...

Prussic
Prussic Acid.—a Poisonous Acid Occurring Naturally In Oil Of Bitter Almonds, In The Bark Of Wild Cherry, In The Leaves Of The Cherry-laurel, And In A Number Of Seeds Of The Rose Family. Artificially It Is Prepared From The Cyanides. Prussic Acid Is Not By Any Means The Most Poisonous ...

Puerperal
Puerperal Fever.—a Traumatic Fever Caused By Poisonous Bacteria Which Enter The Wounds Caused In The Internal And External Sexual Parts During Delivery. The Disease Was Formerly Erroneously Called " Milk-fever.' The Bacteria Find Their Way Into The Vagina During Confinement Through The Medium Of Dirty Fingers Or Other Objects. They ...

Radium Cancer
Cancer, Radium, X-rays.—although The Only Treatment For Fully Developed Cancer That Holds Out Any Prospect Of Cure Is Surgical Operation, Yet For Certain Superficial Kinds Of Cancer, And Possibly For The Earlier Stages Of The More Serious Forms, The Comparatively Recently Discovered Methods Of Treating Them With The X-rays And ...

Relapsing
Relapsing Fever.—an Acute, Infectious Disease Produced By The Spirillum Obermeieri, A Micro-organism Having The Form Of A Corkscrew (see Fig. 65). The Physician, Dr. Obermeyer, Who First Discovered The Bacteria In The Blood Of Patients Suffering From Disease, Later Fell A Victim To That Very Affection. The Disease Always Occurs ...

Rheumatism
Rheumatism, Muscular.—an Affection Characterised By Muscular Pains And By Disturbances Of Motility. Pain Is A Signal That Some Part Of The Body Is Not In Harmonious Relation With Its Inner Or Outer Environment. Simple Pains, Which Are Very Prevalent, Are Usually Designated As Rheumatic, And Ascribed To Slight Colds. In ...

Rheumatism
Rheumatism, Articular.—this Affection, Which Is Known Also As Joint-rheumatism And As Rheumatic Fever, Is Greatly Dreaded Owing To Its Painfulness And Its Tendency To Recur. Distinction Is Made Between Two Forms Of The Disease—the Acute And The Chronic. Acute Articular Rheumatism, According To Its Principal Symptoms, Must Be Designated As ...

Rickets
Rickets (rachitis).—a Disease Of Early Childhood, Characterised By Softening Of The Bones And Consequent Deformity. Although Its Manifestations Are Mainly Evident On The Skeleton, The Bones Becoming Soft From Insufficient Deposits Of Lime-salts, The Disease Must Be Regarded As A Constitutional One. It Usually Begins Between The Third And The ...

Ringing Ear
Ear, Ringing Of.—a Frequent Symptom Which May Be Due To Various Causes. When Due To Ear-wax Plugs (which See) It Is Readily Curable. Often It Is A Symptom Of Deep-seated Affections Of The Ear, Such As Chronic Catarrh Of The Middle Ear ; In Other Instances It Is Of Nervous ...

Salicylic Acid And Its
Salicylic Acid And Its Salts.—the Salicylates Occur In Various Plants, But The Principal Source Of The Acid For Medicinal Purposes Is Carbolic Acid, From Which It Is Manufactured. Salicylic Acid Occurs In Fine White Crystals, Readily Soluble In Alcohol, Much Less Soluble In Water. It Is Strongly Antiseptic, And Is ...

Salt Water Bath
Salt-water Bath, Artificial.—a Substitute For A Sea-bath May Be Prepared By Adding From Three To Six Pounds Of Sea-salt To A Warm Body-bath Of A Temperature Of About 65° F. For Children A Smaller Quantity Of Salt Is Used. The Bath May Last For From Six Minutes To Half An ...

Salts Potassium
Potassium, Salts Of.—potassium Is An Important Element In The Human Body, And Is Usually Obtained From Various Salts Occurring In Plants. The Uses To Which Potassium Is Put In The Human Body Are Various. It Is Important In Determining The Alkalinity Of The Blood ; It Plays A Very Important ...

Salts Of Sodium
Sodium, Salts Of. Sodium Is A Soft, Silvery White Metal, The Salts Of Which Are Employed In Medicine To Some Extent. Most Of These Salts Act In A Manner Similar To Those Of Porassium (which See), Although To A Somewhat Milder Degree. Sodium Carbonate Is The Common Washing-soda Of Commerce. ...

Sanitation A
Sanitation.--a Sanitary House Should Be Dry, Sunny, Well Ventilated, And Properly Drained. City Houses Built In Rows Are Usually Restricted In Plan And Location By Official Regulations As To Material, Height, Etc., While They Are Generally Supplied With Water, Sewerage, Street-lamps, Side-walks, And Facilities For Removing Ashes And Garbage Which ...

Scabies The
Scabies (the Itch).—a Skin Disease Caused By The Itch-mite, A Small Insect Which May Enter The• Skin And Cause Extensive Irritation And Scratching. The Mite Principally Burrows Into The Skin At The Wrist, The Folds Between The Fingers, The Inner Surface Of The Elbow, The Armpit, The Navel, The Buttocks, ...

Scabies The_2
Scabies (the Itch).—a Skin-disease. For Causes, Diagnosis, Con Stitutional Treatment, Etc., See The Standard Physician, Pages 853-854. Treatment.—dr. Huntington, Of The United States Navy, Gives The Follow Ing Treatment : The Patient Is Directed To Take A Warm Bath Lasting About Half An Hour, During Which Time The Infected Areas ...

Scaling Skin
Skin, Scaling Of.—the Skin Is Constantly Being Renewed, The Outer Layer Being Gradually Cast Off In The Form Of Scales. Under Normal Condi Tions This Scaling Process May Be Observed Only On The Arms And Legs, And Then, As A Rule, Only When The Skin Has Been Insufficiently Cleansed. After ...

Scarlatina Scarlet
Scarlatina (scarlet Fever).—an Acute, Infectious, Febrile Disease, By A Diffused Scarlet Rash On The Skin, Followed By Scaling Off Of The Cuticle. It Is A Very Contagious And Dangerous Disease, Usually Occurring In Epidemics, And Often Being Communicated From Child To Child In Schools And Kindergartens. Direct Contact With A ...

Scarlet Fever
Scarlet Fever. -an Acute Infectious Febrile Disease ; Called Also Scarlatina. For Causes, Diagnosis, Constitutional Treatment, Etc., See Tiie Standard Physician, Pages 855-857. Treatment.—scarlet Fever Has An Incubation Period Of One To Eight, Usually Three To Five, Days. The Disease Is One So Hazardous In Itself, And So Apt To ...

Sea Bath
Sea-bath. The Effect Of A Sea-bath Is More Pronounced Than That Of A Bath In A Lake Or River, Because The Motion Of The Water Is More Violent, The Water Contains Salt, Which Acts As A Stimulant To The Skin, And The Sea-air Is More Invigorating Than The Air Of ...

Sea Sickness
Sea-sickness. For Description, Symptoms, Etc., See The S Taxnard Puvsician, Pages 863-84 Treatment. -many Remedies Have Been Proposed, And Sonic Which Benefit Certain Persons Have Little Or No Effect In Checking Sea-sickness In Others. One Effective Manner Of Checking Sea-sickness Is To Take An Aperient Before Going On Board, And ...

Seasickness
Seasickness. --name Given To A Number Of Distressing Symptoms Experienced On Board Ship, And Caused By The Peculiar Movements Of The Vessel. There Are Different Degrees Of Seasickness. The Simplest Form Is Characterised By Lack Of Appetite, A Loathing For All Food, And A Sensitiveness To The Odours Of Dining-room ...

Seminal Losses
Seminal Losses (spermatorrhcea).—involuntary Discharges Of Semen, Unaccompanied By Sexual Excitement. Such Emissions Should By No Means Be Looked Upon As Signs Of Disease. On The Contrary, Involuntary Discharges Of Seminal Fluid, Occurring At Intervals Of One Or Two Weeks, Must Be Considered A Normal Process In Healthy Young Men. During ...

Sexual
Sexual Desire.—under Normal Conditions The Sexual Impulse Appears At The Time Of Puberty. Climate, Education, And Physical Constitution Exert A Great Influence Upon Its Earlier Or Later Appearance. As A Natural Impulse It Is Bound To Occur In Every Healthy Individual. Among Aboriginal Peoples The Desire For Sexual Intercourse Is ...

Shaking Palsy Paralysis
Shaking Palsy (paralysis Agitans).—a Chronic Disease Of The Nervous System, Which Usually Attacks Only Persons Of An Advanced Age, Particularly Men, And Without Any Demonstrable Cause. The Persons Affected Seem To Have Been Very Healthy Previously, But It Appears That Mental And Psychic Over-exertions, Vexations, And Injuries May Favour The ...

Shingles Herpes
Shingles (herpes Zoster).—a Disease Of The Skin, Accompanied With Symptoms Of Nervous Disorders. Following An Attack Of Neuralgic-like Pains, Smaller Or Larger Blisters, Varying In Size From That Of A Millet-seed To That Of A Bean, Appear On One Side Of The Body, Usually Extending Half Way Around The Body ...

Shortness Breath
Breath, Shortness Of.—under Normal Conditions The Adult Male Draws 16 To Is Breaths Per Minute ; The Adult Woman, Is To 20. New-born Children Breathe 40 Times And More Per Minute ; Young Children, 25 Times Per Minute. Disturbances Of The Frequency Of Breathing And Of The Depth Of The ...

Sleeplessness
Sleeplessness (insomnia).—pains Of Various Kinds, Anxiety, Short Ness Of Breath—in Fact, All Physical And Mental Affections—may Disturb Sleep. Sleeplessness Is A Consequence Of The Prevalent Ailment Of Civilised Mankind, Namely Over-irritation And Exhaustion Of The Nerves (neurasthenia). To Ascertain The Cause Of The Condition Is The First Step Toward Cure. ...

Smallpdx
Smallpdx (variola).—an Active, Eruptive, Contagious, Febrile Disease Followed By Pitting, With An Incubation Period Of Twelve To Fourteen Days. For Causes, Description, Symptoms, Diagnosis, And Constitutional Treatment, See The. Standard Physician, Pages Tout)-tooti. Treatment.—in A Case Cif Smallpox The Attending Physician Should Immediately Notifv The Authorities, As Failure To (i() ...

Snow Blindness And Effects Of
Snow-blindness And Effects Of Cold.—evervone Is Familiar With The Primary Stimulating And Invigorating Effect Of Cold, And How, Under The Influence Of The Stimulus, The Eves Become Brighter, The Cheeks Reddened, The Pulse-rate Increased, And A General Sense Of Mental Exhilaration And Well-being Is Created. Let, However, The Cold Be ...

Softening Bone
Bone, Softening Of.—:\ Condition Which Occurs Almost Only In Adults, And Which Is Due To A Loss Of The Lime-salts Of The Bone. The Disease, Which Is Comparatively Rare, Affects Women Principally. It Appears That It Is More Frequent In Southern Germany And In The Rhine Valley Than In The ...

Softening Of Brain
Brain, Softening Of. --this Designation. As It Is Used By The Laity, Does Not Correspond With The Scientific Name Of A Distinct Affection, Techni Cally Known As General Paresis Or Dementia Paralytics. It Is True There Is A Genuine Softening Of The Brain-substance (for Instance, After A Haemorrhage Of The ...

Sore Throat
Sore Throat. -see A Iso Bronchitis ; Cold ; Laryngitis ; Ton Sili Is. Treatment. Before Retiring Take A Hot Mustard Foot-bath, A Handful Of Mustard In Half A Pail Of Hot Water. Apply Around The Throat A Handkerchief Or Piece Of Linen Wrung Out Of Cold Water, Over It ...

Spasm Glottis
Glottis, Spasm Of.—a Spasmodic Condition Of The Diaphragm And Of Those Muscles Which Move The Vocal Cords. It Occurs Chiefly In Patients Suffering From A Pronounced Or Hidden Attack Of Rickets, And Principally During The Months Of January, February, And March. It Is A Very Dangerous Disease, As It Attacks ...

Speech
Speech Disturbances.—existing Disturbances Of Speech May Be More Readily Understood By A Short Survey Of Speech Development In The Child. This May Be Divided Into Four Periods. (1) The Screaming Period. Screaming Is Closely Related To Speech, Since It Is The Child's Only Utterance During The First Period Of Life ...

Springs
Springs, Mineral.—mineral Springs Or Baths May Be Divided Into The Following Groups : (r) Bitter Waters, The Active Ingredients Of Which Are Sulphate Of Soda And Sulphate Of Magnesia. These Have A Laxative Effect, And Are Useful Only In Constipation, Liver Troubles, Etc. The Best-known Springs Supplying These Waters Are ...

Squinting
Squinting (strabismus).—a Faulty Position Of One Or Both Eyes, Rendering It Impossible For The Patient To Focus The Visual Axes Of Both Eyes Simultaneously Upon One Object. While One Eye Looks At The Object, The Other Looks Past It In Another Direction (see Plate Xii. 6). Squinting May Be Due ...

St Vituss
St. Vitus's Dance.—in The Middle Ages The Term " St. Vitus's Dance " Denoted The Peculiar Epidemics Of Dancing Which, As A Rule, Were Caused By States Of Religious Exaltation ; As, For Instance, At The Time Of The Great Pestilence In Germany, When Whole Communities Were Affected, On Account ...

Stricture Of The
Stricture Of The Urethra.—a Contracted Condition Of The Urethra. This May He Due To Various Causes, But The Most Common Are Injuries Of The Mucous Membrane Of The Urethra And Of The Tissues Sur Rounding It, Chronic Gonorrhea, And, Too Often, The Inappropriate And Corrosive Injections Used In The Faulty ...

Sugar Of
Sugar Of Milk.—a Saccharine Substance Prepared From Cows' Milk. It Is A White Powder, Much Less Sweet Than Ordinary Cane-sugar, And Is Largely Used In Making Milk Mixtures For Bottle-fed Babies, As It Is Less Apt To Ferment And Cause Trouble Than Cane-sugar. Given In Large Doses, Sugar Of Milk ...

Sweet Spirit Of Nitre
Sweet Spirit Of Nitre (spiritus 'ether's Nitrosi).—, Solution Of Ethyl Nitrite In Alcohol. It Is A Volatile, Inflammable Liquid, Of A Yellowish Colour, And With The Odour And Burning Taste Of Ether. It Is Used As An Antispasmodic, And For The Purposes Of Increasing The Excretions Of Sweat And Urine. ...

Tabes
Tabes Dorsalis.•a Disease Of The Spinal Cord, Giving Rise To Loco Motor Ataxic!. It Usually Occurs In Middle-aged Individuals, And More Frequently In Men Than In Women. The Name " Tabes " (wasting Away) Refers To The Protracted Course Of The Disease, Which Leads To Marked Emacia Tion, And Confines ...

Tannic
Tannic Acid.—a Substance Obtained From Oak-gall. It Is A Yellowish Or White Powder, Having A Bitter Taste, And Producing A Sensation Of Constriction, Dryness, And Roughness In The Mouth. Practically All The Vegetable Astringents Depend For Their Action Upon The Presence Of This Acid Or Some Of It Derivatives. When ...

Tartaric
Tartaric Acid.—a Colourless, Crystalline, Readily Soluble Compound. It Is A Local Irritant, And May Cause Fatal Irritation Of The Stomach And Intestines If Taken In Too Large Doses. The Antidote Is Lime-water, Magnesia, Or Any Alkali. In Medicine, Tartaric Acid Is Used With Alkalies To Form Effervescent Draughts, Such As ...