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Encyclopedia Britannica

Volume 12, Part 2: Hydrozoa to Epistle of Jeremy

Abraham Jacobi
Jacobi, Abraham Physician, Was Born At Hartum, Westphalia (germany), On May 6, 1830, And Educated At The Gymnasium Of Minden And The Universities Of Griefswald, Gottingen And Bonn (m.d., 1851). Because He Participated In The German Revolutionary Movement He Was Imprisoned, 1851-53, In Berlin And Cologne For "high Treason." Upon ...

Abu Mansur Mauhub Ul Jawaliqi
Jawaliqi, Abu Mansur Mauhub Ul-jawaliqi 1145), Arabian Grammarian, Was Born At Baghdad, Where He Stud Ied Philology Under Tibrizi. Later He Acted As Imam To The Caliph Moqtafi. His Chief Work Is The Kitdb Ul-muearrab, Or "explanation Of Foreign Words Used In Arabic." The Text Was Edited From An Incomplete ...

Adolf Jellinek
Jellinek, Adolf (1821-1893), Jewish Preacher And Scholar, Was Born In Moravia. After Filling Clerical Posts In Leipzig, He Became Prediger (preacher) In Vienna In 1856. He Was Associated With The Promoters Of The New Learning Within Judaism, And Wrote On The History Of The Kabbala. His Bibli Ographies (each Bearing ...

Age Of Invasions
Age Of Invasions The Year 1492 Opened A New Age For Italy. In This Year Lorenzo Died, And Was Succeeded By His Son Piero ; France Passed Beneath The Personal Control Of Charles Viii. ; The Fall Of Granada Freed Spain From Her Embarrassments, Columbus Discovered America, Destroying The Commercial ...

Age Of The Communes
Age Of The Communes Rise Of The Free Cities.—the Final Gainers, However, By The War Of Investitures, Were The Italians. The Antagonism Of The Popes To The Emperors, Which Became Hereditary In The Sacred College, Forced The Former To Assume The Protectorate Of The National Cause. And On The Other ...

Age Of The Despots
Age Of The Despots After The Death Of Frederick Ii. Italian Affairs Were Managed By Manfred And By Charles Of Anjou, The Supreme Captains Of The Parties, Under Whose Orders Acted The Captains Of The People In Each City. The Contest Being Carried On By Warfare, It Followed That The ...

Alexander Petrovich Izvolsky
Izvol Sky, Alexander Petrovich ( 1919), Russian Statesman, Was Born At Moscow On March 17, 1856, Of An Ancient Polish Family Long Settled In Russia. He Graduated At The Imperial Lyceum Of St. Petersburg (leningrad) With The Highest Honours Attainable, And Entered The Diplomatic Service. He Held Appointments At Bucharest, ...

And The Decade Of
Cavour, And "the Decade Of Resistance" The Peace Negotiations Between Piedmont And Austria Dragged On For Several Months, Involving Two Changes Of Ministry, And D'azeglio Became Premier. Through Anglo-french Mediation Piedmont's War Indemnity Was Reduced, And At Last Austria Agreed To Amnesty All Those Compromised In The Lombard Revolution Save ...

Andrew Jackson
Jackson, Andrew (1767-1845), American Soldier And Statesman, 7th President Of The United States, Was Born On March 15, 1767, At The Waxhaw Settlement In Lancaster County, S.c. (some Scholars Hold The Theory That The Place Of His Birth Was Just Across The Border In Union County, N.c.), Whither His Parents ...

Andrew Weir Inverforth
Inverforth, Andrew Weir, 1st Baron (1865 ), British Shipowner And Administrator, Was Born At Kirk Caldy, Scotland, On April 24, 1865. He Was Educated At Kirk Caldy And Afterwards Adopted A Business Career, Founding In 1885 The Firm Of Andrew Weir And Co., Shipowners And Merchants, Of London And Glasgow. ...

Anna Brownell Jameson
Jameson, Anna Brownell English Writer On Art, Was Born In Dublin On May 17, The Daughter Of Denis Brownell Murphy, A Miniature And Enamel Painter. Anna Went To England As A Governess, And Married, In 1825, Robert Jameson. The Marriage Was Unhappy, And When Jameson Was Appointed A Colonial Judge ...

Appearance In Europe
Appearance In Europe Meanwhile Chepe And Sabutai Marched Through Azerbeijan, And In The Spring Of 1222 Advanced Into Georgia. Here They Defeated A Combined Force Of Lcsghians, Circassians And Kip Chaks, And After Taking Astrakhan Followed The Retreating Kip Chaks To The Don. The News Of The Approach Of The ...

Arnail Jaucourt
Jaucourt, Arnail Francois, Marquis De 1852), French Politician, Was Born On Nov. 14, 1757 At Tournon (seine-et-marne). He Adopted Revolutionary Ideas And Became Colonel Of His Regiment (conde's). In The Assembly, In Which He Represented Seine-et-marne, His Views Were Too Moderate For His Colleagues And He Resigned In 1792 And ...

Ascension Of Isaiah
Isaiah, Ascension Of, An Interesting Apocryphal Book Of The Old Testament. Its Various Constituents—the Martyrdom Of Isaiah, The Testament Of Hezekiah And The Vision Of Isaiah— Circulated Independently As Early As The I St Century. The First Of These Was Of Jewish Origin, And Is Of Less Interest Than The ...

Auguste Marie Joseph Jean
,taures, Auguste Marie Joseph Jean 1914), French Socialist Leader, Was Born At Castres (tarn) On Sept. 3, 1859. His Ancestors On His Father's Side Included Two Admirals, Of Whom One Was Ambassador To Spain And To Russia, And Minister Of Marine. Jaures Was Educated At The College Of Castres, At ...

Augustin De Iturbide
Iturbide, Augustin De (1783-1824), Emperor Of Mexico From May, 1822 To March, 1823, Was Born On Sept. 27, 1783, At Valladolid, Now Morelia, In Mexico. He Joined The Provincial Regiment Of His Native City In 1797. In 1810 Hidalgo Offered Him A Flattering Post In His Revolutionary Army, But He ...

Austenite
Austenite Solid Solution.—since The Word Solution Ordinarily Connotes A Liquid, The Term Solid Solution Appears To Be A Contradiction Of Terms. The Solid Solution Of Iron And Carbon Is So Important That It Has Been Given A Special Name, Austenite, In Honour Of The Eng Lish Metallurgist, Sir William Roberts-austen. ...

Battle Of Ipsus
Ipsus, Battle Of, 301 B.c. This, Named "the Battle Of The Kings," Was The Great Clash In The Wars Of Alexander The Great's "successors," Which Shattered Antigonus's Attempt To Reconsoli Date The Macedonian Empire. Hard-pressed In Thessaly By Deme Trius, The Son Of Antigonus, Cassander Turned The Tables By A ...

Battle Of Issus
Issus, Battle Of (october, 333 B•c.)• Topographically, The Region In Which The Battle Of Issus Was Fought Is An Interest Ing One. The Field Itself Lies A Few Miles North Of Myriandrus, At, Or Near Alexandria (alexandretta). It Is Surrounded By Moun Tainous Country, And Is Approached By Three Passes ...

Battle Of Wry
Wry, Battle Of (1590). The Battle Of Ivry (eure, France) Was Fought Between The Huguenots Under Henry Iv. Of France And The Catholics Under The Duke Of Mayenne On March 14, 159o. On Aug. I, 1589 Henry Iii. Was Assassinated, And Henry Iv., Of Navarre, Ascended The French Throne, And ...

Battles Of The Seven
Battles Of The "seven Days" Meanwhile, On May 31 And June 1, Johnston Had Attacked Mc Clellan In The Battle Of Fair Oaks (seven Pines) And Fell Wounded, Lee Succeeding To The Command Of The Confederate Army In Virginia. Lee First Openly Reinforced Jackson With Some 7,000 Men From Richmond ...

Bessemer Steel
Bessemer Steel Early Steel-making Processes.—prior To 1870 The Principal Metallic Materials Of Construction Were Cast Iron And Wrought Iron. The Former Could Be Made Quite Hard, But Then Was Brittle; The Latter Resisted Shock Excellently, But Was Comparatively Soft. There Was A Great And Growing Demand For Metal Which Was ...

Blast Furnace Plant
Blast Furnace Plant Blowing Engines.—fig. I Indicates The Essential Steps Where By The Energy Contained In The Furnace Gases Is Utilized To Generate Hot Blast And Auxiliary Power For Pumping, Hoisting And Lighting. Cleaned Gas Is Used To Drive Gas Engines Direct Connected With Compressor Cylinders. Compressed Air Goes To ...

Blast Furnaces
Blast Furnaces Having Followed Thus Far The Mining, Transport And Preparation Of Ore, Attention Should Next Be Given To The Process Of Smelting It Into Metal. In The Present State Of The Art, This Is Done In A Blast Furnace, And The Metallic Product Is A High Carbon Alloy Of ...

Book Of Jashar
Jashar, Book Of, A Hebrew Composition Mentioned As Though Well Known In Josh. X. 13 And 2 Sam. I. 18. From These Two Passages It Seems To Have Been A Book Of Songs Relating To Important Events, But No Early Collection Of The Kind Is Now Extant, Nor Is Anything ...

Catalytic Action Of Ions
Ions, Catalytic Action Of. The Fact That Many Reactions Are Accelerated By Acids And Bases Has Been Gener Ally Associated With The Idea That The Hydrogen And Hydroxyl Ions Are Unique In The Possession Of Catalytic Qualities. The Term Hydrogen Ion Is Here Understood To Refer To The Hydrated Form ...

Charles Thomas Jackson
Jackson, Charles Thomas Ameri Can Geologist, Was Born In Plymouth, Mass., June 21, 1805. He Graduated From Harvard In 1829 And Studied For Two Years In Paris. He Was Appointed State Geologist Of Maine In 1836, Of Rhode Island In 1839, And Of New Hampshire In 184o. He Sur Veyed ...

Chinese Conquests
Chinese Conquests Jenghiz Khan Now Meditated An Invasion Of The Empire Of The Kin Tatars, Who Had Wrested Northern China From The Sung Dynasty. As A First Step He Invaded Western Hia, And, Having Cap Tured Several Strongholds, Retired In The Summer Of 1208 To Lung Ting To Escape The ...

Christian Friedrich Wilhelm Jacobs
Jacobs, Christian Friedrich Wilhelm German Classical Scholar, Was Born At Gotha On Oct. 6, 1764, And Died There On March 3o, 1847. He Was A Notable Teacher And Publicist, But His Great Work Was An Edition Of The Greek Anthology, With Copious Notes, In 13 Volumes (1798 1814), Supplemented By ...

Christian Remains
Christian Remains We May Safely Date The Beginning Of Christianity As A Power In Ireland To Somewhere About A.d. 350-400. There Probably Were Individual Christians Even Before This Date, But They Cannot Have Made Much Impression On The Life Of The Community. But After About Three Centuries We Begin To ...

Church Of Ireland
Ireland, Church Of. The Beginnings Of Christianity In Ireland Are Difficult To Trace, But There Is No Doubt That The First Christian Missionary Whose Labours Were Crowned With Any Considerable Success Was Patrick (fl. C. 450, Who Has Always Been Reckoned The Patron Saint Of The Country. For Six Centuries ...

Classification And Uses Of
Classification And Uses Of Plain Carbon Steels Production And Consumption.-any Classification Which Accounts For The Destination Of Steel Made By Any Combination Of The Above Described Processes Must Evidently Be Impossible On Account Of Its Complexity. As To Process, It May Be Said That Any Of Them Can Be Made ...

Climate
Climate The Large Extension Of The Japanese Islands In A Northerly And Southerly Direction Causes Great Varieties Of Climate. General Characteristics Are Hot And Humid Though Short Summers, And Long, Cold And Clear Winters. The Equatorial Currents Produce Con Ditions Differing From Those Existing At Corresponding Latitudes On The Neighbouring ...

Collapse Of Napoleons Rule
Collapse Of Napoleon's Rule In Civil Administration, Law, Judicial Procedure, Education And Public Works, Italy Under Napoleon Experienced Great Benefits, The Results Of Which Never Wholly Disappeared. On The Other Hand, She Suffered From The Rigorous Measures Of The Continental System, Which Seriously Crippled Trade, While The Drain Of Men ...

Compounds Of Iron
Compounds Of Iron Oxides And Hydroxides.—iron Forms Three Oxides : Ferrous Oxide, Feo; Ferric Oxide, And Ferroso-ferric Oxide, The First Two Give Rise To Well-defined Series Of Salts, The Ferrous Salts, Wherein The Metal Is Bivalent, And The Ferric Salts Wherein The Metal Is Trivalent ; The Former Readily Pass ...

Consolidation Of Italy
Consolidation Of Italy In The Very Earliest Times The Name Of Italy Was Correctly Applied Only To The Southern Part Of The Peninsula, And Was Only Gradually Extended To The Central Regions, Such As Latium And Campania, Which Were Designated By Writers As Late As Thucydides And Aristotle As In ...

Contemporary Literature
Contemporary Literature The Works Produced During The Present Century Are Charac Terized By A Spirit Of Daring, Restlessness And Youth; By Intellec Tual Curiosity, Love Of Novel Experiments And Experiences, And Above All By Self-analysis. Writers Aimed At The Discovery Of New Forms Of Expression To Supersede The Old ; ...

Cornelius Jansen
Jansen, Cornelius (1585-1638), Bishop Of Ypres, And Father Of The Religious Revival Known As Jansenism (q.v.), Was Born Of Humble Catholic Parentage At Accoy In The Province Of Utrecht On Oct. 28, 1585. In 1602 He Entered The University Of Louvain, Then In The Throes Of A Violent Conflict Between ...

Countries Where Irrigation Is
Countries Where Irrigation Is Developed Egypt And The Sudan.—in Describing The Areas Where Irri Gation Has Been Developed In Various Countries It Is Only Necessary To Give A More Detailed Statement Regarding One Of Them, And Egypt Has Been Selected, As Its Very Life Depends On Its Irrigation, Whereas In ...

Criminal Investigation
Investigation, Criminal. Criminal Investigation Is That Branch Of Criminal Jurisprudence Which Applies The Prin Ciples And Practices Of Philosophical Analyses, Science, Art And Technical Skill In Judicial Proceedings, Subject To Legal Rules And Forms In Which There Must Be Elucidation Of Questions Relating To Crime. This Covers The Questions : ...

Crises And Stabilization
Crises And Stabilization The Matteotti Murder.—parliament Was Opened By The King On May 24, 1924. After His Overwhelming Victory At The Polls Mussolini Held Out The Olive Branch To The Opposition Parties, And Everything Seemed To Point To A Return To Normal Political Conditions; But On June 10 The Socialist ...

Crispy
Crispy With The Entry Of Crispi Into The Depretis Cabinet As Minister Of The Interior (april 4, 1887) An Element Of Vigour Which Had Long Been Lacking Was Introduced Into The Government. Within Four Months The Death Of Depretis (july 29, 1887) Opened For Crispi The Way To The Premiership. ...

Cyril Jackson
Jackson, Cyril (1746-1819), Dean Of Christ Church, Oxford, Was Born In Yorkshire, And Educated At Westminster And Oxford. From '771 To 1776 He Was Sub-preceptor To The Two Eldest Sons Of George Iii. He Then Took Holy Orders, And After Holding (1779-83) The Preachership At Lincoln's Inn, Became Dean Of ...

Daniel Ernst Jablonski
Jablonski, Daniel Ernst German Theologian, Was Born At Nassenhuben, Near Danzig, On Nov. 20, 166o, The Son Of A Moravian Pastor. He Studied At Frankfort-on Oder And Oxford, Became A Preacher At Magdeburg In 1683, And Then From I686 To 1691 He Was Head Of The Moravian College At Lissa. ...

David James
James, David (1839-1893), English Actor, Was Born In London, His Real Name Being Belasco. He Began His Stage Career At An Early Age, And After 1863 Gradually Made His Way In Humorous Parts. His Creation, In 1875, Of The Part Of Perkyn Middlewick In Our Boys Made Him Famous As ...

Direct Interpolation Equal Intervals
Direct Interpolation (equal Intervals) I. Notation And Arrangement.—we Have A Table Showing The Values Of A Quantity U Corresponding To Values Of A Quantity X. The Values Of X Proceed By A Constant Increment H. We Denote The Values Of X By . . . Xo, Xi, X2, . . ...

Direct Interpolation Unequal Intervals
Direct Interpolation (unequal Intervals) 9. When The Differences Of Consecutive X's Are Not All Equal, We Use Formulae Analogous To Ordinary Interpolation-formulae, But With The Differences Prepared In A Special Way. The Best Known Formulae Are Newton's (original) Formula And Lagrange's Formula; The Former Uses "divided" Differences. Let The Tabulated ...

Distribution And Volume Of
Distribution And Volume Of Water Required Distribution.—where Irrigation Is Carried On Throughout The Whole Year Its Proper Distribution Becomes A Most Important Operation. It Is Generally Considered Sufficient If During Any One Season One-third Of The Area Commanded Is Actually Supplied With Water. This Encourages That Rotation Of Crops Which ...

Edvard Armas Jarnefelt
Jarnefelt, Edvard Armas ), Finnish Composer And Conductor, Was Born At Viborg On Aug. 18, 1869. He Studied In Helsingf Ors And Afterwards In Berlin And Paris. From 1898 To 1903 He Conducted Concerts At Viborg. In 1904 He Went To Helsingf Ors As Conductor Of Opera And From 1906 ...

Edward Cecil Guinness Iveagh
Iveagh, Edward Cecil Guinness, 1st Earl Of (1847-1927), Was Born On Nov. 1847, The Son Of Sir Benja Min Guinness, First Baronet. He Was Educated At Trinity College, Dublin, And After Some Experience Of The Business Became Chair Man Of The Famous Guinness Brewery. He Retired From The Man Agement ...

Edward Frederick Lindley Wood
Irwin, Edward Frederick Lindley Wood: See Halifax, Edward Frederick Lindley Wood. ...

Edward Irving
Irving, Edward (1792-1834), Scottish Church Divine, Generally Regarded As The Founder Of The "catholic Apostolic Church" (q.v.), Was Born At Annan, Dumfriesshire, On Aug. 4, 1792. At The Age Of 13 He Entered The University Of Edinburgh. In 1809 He Graduated M.a.; And In 181o, On The Recommendation Of Sir ...

Electric Steel
Electric Steel Electric Furnaces (q.v.) An Usually Round In Plan, With Low Side Walls, Flat Domed Roofs And Invert Bottoms, Built Inside A Stout Bowl Of Steel Plates, Which In Turn Is Attached To Some Tilting Device. Side Walls Are Pierced By One Or More Doors And A Pouring Spout. ...

Emile Jaques Dalcroze
Jaques-dalcroze, Emile (1865— ), Swiss Com Poser And Teacher Of Musical Eurhythmics (q.v.) Was Born At Vienna July 6, 1865, Of French-swiss Parents. He Went To Geneva In 1875 Where He Attended The College And The University, And Fol Lowed The Courses At The Conservatoire. He Then Studied (1887) At ...

Emmanuel
Emmanuel) ; (b) Viii. C. 734 B.c., And Vv. 5-10 And 11-15 All Of The Same Period. An Epilogue Of Uncertain Date Follows In Vv. 16-18. This Is An Important Section Which Seems To Have Been Written Down When The Failure Of The Prophetic Addresses Contained In Vii. 1-8, 15, ...

Epistle Of James
James, Epistle Of. This Epistle, According To Its Open Ing Verse, Is Addressed By James To "the Twelve Tribes Of The Dis Persion," Which Probably Means Christendom In General, Con Ceived As The New Israel (cf. I Peter I. 1, 3, Gal. Vi. 16). According To The Traditional View, This ...

Epistle Of Jeremy
Jeremy, Epistle Of, An Apocryphal Book Of The Old Testament. The Letter Purports To Have Been Written By Jeremiah To The Exiles Who Were Already In Babylon Or On The Way Thither. The Author Was A Hellenistic Jew, And Not Improbably A Jew Of Alexandria. His Work, Which Shows Little ...

Extant Speeches
Extant Speeches The Pseudo-plutarch, In His Life Of Isaeus, Mentions An Art Of Rhetoric And 64 Speeches, Of Which So Were Accounted Genuine. From A Passage Of Photius It Appears That At Least' The 5o Speeches Of Recognized Authenticity Were Extant As Late As A.d. 85o. Only Eleven, With A ...

Finn Mac Cumhail
Finn Mac Cumhail). In The Earlier, The Ultonian, Cycle The Fig Ures And The Age In Which They Live Are Sharply Drawn, And We Can Have No Hesitation In Assuming That The Thin Represents In The Main The State Of Ireland At The Beginning Of The Christian Era. Finn And ...

Forms Of Irrigation
Forms Of Irrigation Basin Are Two Main Forms Of Irrigation. In The More Ancient System The Area To Be Served Is Surrounded By Embankments, And Is Thus Called A "basin"; Into It A Canal Leads The Waters From The River Until A Depth Of 3 Ft. Or 4 Ft. Is ...

Francis Jammes
Jammes, Francis (1868-1938), French Poet And Novel Ist, Was Born At Tournai Dec. 2, 1868, And When Still A Child Went To Live At Orthez. He Studied At The College De Pau And The College De Bordeaux, And Afterwards Became For A Short Time A Notary's Clerk At Orthez. There ...

Francis Jeffrey Jeffrey
Jeffrey, Francis Jeffrey, Loiw , Scottish Judge And Literary Critic, Son Of A Depute-clerk In The Court Of Session, Was Born At Edinburgh On Oct. 23, 1773. He Was Educated At Edinburgh High School, The University Of Glasgow And Queen's College, Oxford. He Was Admitted To The Scottish Bar In ...

Frederic Eugene Ives
Ives, Frederic Eugene (1856-1937), American In Ventor, Was Born On Feb. 17, 1856, On A Farm In Litchfield, Con Necticut. He Was Apprenticed As A Printer On The Litchfield In Quirer, 1869. He Diligently Studied Photography And It Was In Those Early Days He First Dreamed Of A Quick And ...

Frederick George Jackson
Jackson, Frederick George Brit Ish Arctic Explorer, Was Educated At Denstone College And Edin Burgh University. His First Voyage In Arctic Waters Was On A Whaling-cruise In 1886-87, And In 1893 He Made A Sledge-journey Of 3,00o Miles Across The Frozen Tundra Of Siberia Between The Ob And The Pechora. ...

Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi
Jacobi, Friedrich Heinrich Ger Man Philosopher, Was Born At Dusseldorf On Jan. 25, 1743. He Was Educated At Geneva For A Commercial Career, But In 1770 Gave Up The Management Of His Father's Business, And Became A Member Of The Council For The Duchies Of Julich And Berg, Where He ...

Friedrich Ludwig Jahn
Jahn, Friedrich Ludwig German Pedagogue And Patriot, Commonly Called Turnvater ("father Of Gymnastics"), Was Born In Lanz On Aug. 11, 1778. He Studied Theology And Philology From 1796 To 1802 At Halle, Gottingen And Greifswald. After Jena He Joined The Prussian Army. In 1809 He Went To Berlin, Where He ...

Gaelic
Gaelic In The Absence Of A Native Coinage It Is Extremely Difficult To Say When The Use Of Letters Was Introduced Into Ireland. It Is Probable That The Latin Alphabet First Came In With Christianity. With The Exception Of The One Bilingual Ogam Inscription As Yet Discovered In Ireland (that ...

Garibaldi
Garibaldi On His Death In May 1859 Ferdinand Of Naples Was Succeeded By His Son Francis Ii. The Son Indicated No Intention Of Changing His Father's Policy, And, In Spite Of Napoleon's Advice, Refused To Grant A Constitution Or To Enter Into An Alliance With Sardinia. The Result Was A ...

Georg Jenatsch
Jenatsch, Georg (1596-1639), Swiss Political Leader, One Of The Most Striking Figures In The Troubled History Of The Grisons In The 17th Century, Was Born At Samaden, The Upper Engadine. He Studied At Ziirich And Basel, And In 1617 Became The Protestant Pastor Of Scharans (near Thusis). He Took The ...

George Jeffreys Jeffreys
Jeffreys, George Jeffreys, 1st Baron (1648 1689), Lord Chancellor Of England, Son Of John Jeffreys, A Welsh Country Gentleman, Was Born At Acton Park, In Denbighshire, In 1648. He Was Educated At Shrewsbury, St. Paul's And Westminster Schools, And At Trinity College, Cambridge, And Entered The Inner Temple In 1663. ...

George Payne Rainsford James
James, George Payne Rainsford (1799 186o), English Novelist, Son Of Pinkstan James, Physician, Was Born In London, On Aug. 9, 1799, And Was Educated At A Private School At Putney, And In France. He Had, According To His Own Account, Composed The Stories Afterwards Published As A String Of Pearls ...

Giolitti
Giolitti The Ensuing General Election Held In Nov. 1892 Marked By Unprecedented Violence And Abuse Of Official Pressure Upon The Electorate, Fitly Ushered In What Proved To Be One Of The Most Unfortunate Periods Of Italian History Since The Completion Of National Unity. Early In 1893 A Scandal Arose In ...

Gottlieb Von Jagow
Jagow, Gottlieb Von German Foreign Secretary At The Outbreak Of The World War, Was Born On June 22, 1863 In Berlin. He Entered The Diplomatic Service In 1895 And After Having Been Prussian Minister At Munich, German Am Bassador At Rome And German Minister At The Hague, Was Appointed In ...

Gustav Jager
Jager, Gustav (1832-1917), German Naturalist And Hygienist, Was Born At Burg, Wurttemberg, On June 23, 1832. After Studying Medicine At Tubingen He Became A Teacher Of Zoology At Vienna. In 1867 He Was Appointed Professor Of Zoology At The Academy Of Hohenheim, And Subsequently He Became Teacher Of Zoology And ...

Heinrich Isaac
Isaac, Heinrich (born C. 145o), Belgian Composer. The Exact Date And Place Of His Birth Are Unknown But Cambrai Has Been Assigned As His Place Of Origin By Some Writers. About He Appears To Have Gone To Florence And For Many Years He Was Organist At The Medici Chapel. After ...

Helen Maria Jackson
Jackson, Helen Maria (1831-1885), American Poet And Novelist, Who Wrote Under The Initials "h. H." (helen Hunt), Was Born In Amherst (mass.) Oct. 18,1831, The Daughter Of Prof. Nathan Welby Fiske. A Girl Of Unusual Versatility And Vivacity, She Was Educated At The Ipswich Female Seminary And At A Private ...

Henri Jaspar
Jaspar, Henri (187o-1939), Belgian Statesman, Was Born At Schaerbeek, Brussels, On July 28, 187o. He Was A Member Of The Catholic Party. While Minister Of Economic Affairs In Nov. 1918, He Organized The Reconstruction Of Belgian Industries; Be Coming Deputy For Liege In 1919. In 1920, Having Been Appointed Minister ...

Henry Brodribb Irving
Irving, Henry Brodribb English Actor, Elder Son Of Sir Henry Irving (q.v.), Was Born In London On Aug. 5, 1870. He Was Educated At Marlborough And New Col Lege, Oxford, And Was Called To The Bar In 1894; But He Abandoned This Profession For That Of The Stage, For Which ...

Henry Charles Fleeming Jenkin
Jenkin, Henry Charles Fleeming (1833— 1885), British Engineer, Was Born Near Dungeness On March 25, 1833, His Father Being A Naval Commander And His Mother A Novelist Of Some Repute. He Studied At Genoa University, Where He Took A First-class Degree In Physical Science. In 1851 He Was Apprenticed To ...

Henry Ireton
Ireton, Henry English Parliamentary General, Eldest Son Of German Ireton Of Attenborough, Notting Hamshire, Was Baptized On Nov. 3, 1611, Became A Gentleman Commoner Of Trinity College, Oxford, In 1626, Graduated And Entered The Middle Temple In 1629. On The Outbreak Of The Civil War He Joined The Parliamentary Army, ...

Henry Jackson
Jackson, Henry (1839-1921), English Classical Scholar, Was Born At Sheffield On March 12, 1839. He Was Educated At Cheltenham College And Trinity College, Cambridge, Where He Was Elected Fellow In 1864. From 1875 To 1906 He Was Praelector In Ancient Philosophy, Acting Virtually As An Unofficial University Reader In That ...

Henry James James Of
James Of Hereford, Henry James, 1st Baron (1828-1911 ) , English Lawyer And Statesman, Son Of P. T. James, Surgeon, Was Born At Hereford On Oct. 3o, 1828, And Educated At Cheltenham College. He Was Called To The Bar At The Inner Temple In 1852 And Joined The Oxford Circuit. ...

Henry James
James, Henry (1843-1916), Anglo-american Novelist, Brother Of William James, Was Born In New York On April 15, 1843. His Father, Henry James The Elder (1811-1882) Was A Highly Original Philosophical And Theological Author, A Sweden Borgian By Faith, Profoundly Devoted Equally To The Life Of Thought And To The Education ...

Hideyoshi And Iyeyasu Nobunaga
Nobunaga, Hideyoshi And Iyeyasu It Now Becomes Comparatively Easy To Follow One Main Thread In The History Of Japan. An Account Of Nobunaga's Conqi....sts Is An Account Of The Successive Withdrawal Of Various Territories From Chaotic Feudalism To Form The Basis Of A New Japanese Empire. At The Time That ...

Hirobumi Ito
Ito, Hirobumi, Prince (1841-1909), Japanese States Man, Was Born In 1841, Being The Son Of Ito Jiizo, And (like His Father) Began Life As A Retainer Of The Lord Of Choshu, One Of The Most Powerful Nobles Of Japan. Choshu, In Common With Many Of His Fellow Daimyos, Was Bitterly ...

History From
History From 1929 To The Present Pledged To A Policy Of Economy And Retrenchment, The New Cabinet Did Much To Improve The Financial Condition Of The Coun Try. Its Policy, However, Brought The Government Into Conflict With The Army, Since It Necessitated The Rejection Of The Demand For Increased Military ...

House Of Savoy
Savoy, House Of). When Emmanuel Philibert Succeeded To His Father Charles Iii. In 1553, He Was A Duke Without A Duchy. But The Princes Of The House Of Savoy Were A Race Of Warriors; And What Emmanuel Philibert Lost As Sovereign He Regained As Captain Of Adventure In The Service ...

I Ivanovo Voznesensk
Ivanovo-voznesensk, (i) A Province Of The Rus Sian S.f.s.r., Drained By The Volga And Its Tributary The Unzha. It Lies In The Taiga Or Pine Forest Area, And Is Thickly Forested North Of The Volga And East Of The Unzha, But In The South-western District The Forest Remains In Patches ...

Ibiza Or Iviza
Iviza, Ibiza Or Ivica, An Island In The Mediterranean Sea, Belonging To Spain, And Forming Part Of The Archipelago Known As The Balearic Islands (q.v.). Pop. (1930) 28,635; Area 228 Sq.m. Iviza Lies So M. S.w. Of Majorca And About 6o M. From Cape San Martin On The Coast Of ...

Imitators Of Dante And
Imitators Of Dante And Boccaccio Dante And Boccaccio Were Not Without Their Imitators. Fazio Degli Uberti And Federigo Frezzi Imitated The Diving Commedia, But Only In Its External Form. The Former Wrote The Dittamondo, A Long Poem, In Which The Author Supposes That He Was Taken By The Geographer Solinus ...

In The World War
Italian Front, In The World War, 1914 1918. On The Outbreak Of The World War The Austro-italian Frontier, As Delimited After The War Of 1866, Was About 600 Km. In Length, Four-fifths Of It In The Mountain Zone And A Considerable Part In The High Alps. To Some Extent It ...

Information From Temperature Changes
Information From Temperature Changes Allotropic Changes In Pure Iron.—much Information About Metal Can Be Gained By Studying The Rate At Which Its Temperature Changes During Uniform Cooling. As Long As The Temperature Falls Uniformly, The Loss By Radiation Is Accounted For By Loss In Sensi Ble Heat. But Suppose The ...

Ingots
Ingots Gases In Liquid Metal.—early Attempts To Make Steel In England By Bessemer's Process Were Failures Because The Metal When Poured Into Ingot Moulds Boiled Over And The Remaining Portion When Solid Would Be Full Of Blow-holes, Like Swisscheese. Robert Mushet Noted That The Only Apparent Difference Between Sound Ingots ...

Inter State Commerce
Inter-state Commerce Includes The Movement Of Passengers And Freight From One State To Another, And The Agencies And Facilities By Which The Transfer Is Accomplished ; It Comprises The Mechanism And Services Of Trade, Transport And Communica Tion Between Citizens Of Different States. Broadly Defined, The Term Commerce Applies To ...

International Mercantile Marine Com
International Mercantile Marine Com Pany, An American Corporation Engaged In The Transportation Of Passengers, Mails, Live Stock, Merchandise, And Other Goods Between Various Parts Of The World. It Was Incorporated June 6, 1893, Under The Laws Of The State Of New Jersey, As The Interna Tional Navigation Company, With A ...

International News Service
International News Service. This News Serv Ice Was Organized In 1906 By William Randolph Hearst. It Is A Profit-making Corporation, As Distinguished From The Mutual News Association, And Its Function Is To Serve Evening And Sunday News Papers With The Latest News From All Parts Of The World. Several Hundred ...

International Payments
International Payments. The Observer Who Learns That, During A Given Year, England Imported 1100,000,00o Worth Of Raw Cotton From The United States, And Sold 150,000,000 Worth Of Coal To The Continent, And That Simultaneously Austria, Hungary, Finland And Other Countries Raised Loans Totalling $200,000,000 In New York, Can Be Excused ...

International Society For Contempo
International Society For Contempo Rary Music, An Organization Founded At Salzburg, In 1922, By A Number Of Leading Modern Musicians, With The Object Of Promoting Closer International Musical Relations By Means Of Annual Festivals Devoted To Representative Modern Works Drawn Impartially From All Countries. Edward J. Dent, Now Professor Of ...

International Trade Associations And
International Trade Associations And Congresses. The First Striking Demonstration Of The Inter. National Character Of Modern Civilisation Was The Great Exhibition Of 1851, Itself A Temporary And Loose International Association For Economic Ends. Its Successor Of 1862 (the International Exhibition In London) Contributed To The Formation Of The First Regular ...

Internecine Strife
Internecine Strife The Lombard League.—meanwhile The Election Of Alex Ander Iii. To The Papacy In 1159 Added A Powerful Ally To The Republican Party. Opposed By An Anti-pope Whom The Emperor Favoured, Alexander Relied For Support Upon The Anti-imperialist Communes. They In Return Gladly Accepted A Champion Who Lent Them ...