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Encyclopedia Brittanica

Volume 4, Part 1: Brain to Casting

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Brienne Le Chateau
Brienne-le-chateau, A Town Of North-eastern France, Department Of Aube, 1m. From The Aube And 26m. N.e. Of Troyes. Pop. (1931) 1,717. The Château, Which Overlooks The Town, Was Built In The 18th Century By Cardinal De Brienne (q.v.) . The Church Dates From The 16th Century And Contains Good Stained ...

Brig
Brig (fr. Brigue, Ital. Briga), A Town In The Swiss Canton Of The Valais, Situated At The Foot Of The Northern Slope Of The Simplon Pass, South Of The Rhone. Its Older Houses Are Very Italian In Appearance, While Its Most Prominent Buildings (castle, Former Jesuits' College And Ursuline Convent) ...

Brigade
Brigade, A Unit In Military Organization Commanded By A Major-general, Brigadier Or Colonel, And Composed Of Two Or More Regiments Of Infantry, Cavalry Or Artillery (fr. And Ger. Brigade, Ital. Brigata, Span. Brigada; The English Use Of The Word Dates From The Early 17th Century). The British Infantry Brigade Con ...

Brigadier
Brigadier, A Military Rank Conferred By Louis Xiv. Upon The Commander Of Several Regiments. The British Copied It From The French Very Early And A Royal Warrant Of 1699 States That "the Major General Of Our Ordnance Within Our Kingdom For The Time Being Shall Have Rank And Precedency As ...

Brigandage
Brigandage. The Brigand Is The Outlaw Who Con Ducts Warfare By Skirmishes And Surprises; Who Makes The War Support Itself By Plunder, By Extorting Blackmail, By Capturing Prisoners And Holding Them To Ransom ; Who Enforces His Demands By Violence, And Kills The Prisoners Who Cannot Pay. Brigandage May Be, ...

Brigandine
Brigandine, A French Word Meaning The Armour For The Brigandi Or Brigantes, Light-armed Foot Soldiers ; Part Of The Armour Of A Foot Soldier In The Middle Ages, Consisting Of A Padded Tunic Of Canvas, Leather, Etc., And Lined With Closely Sewn Scales Or Rings Of Iron. ...

Brigantes
Brigantes, A People Of Northern Britain, Who Inhabited The Country From The Mouth Of The Humber On The East, And Mersey On The West, As Far Northwards As The Wall Of Antoninus. Their Chief Town Was Eburacum (or Eboracum; York). They First Came Into Contact With The Romans During The ...

Brigg
Brigg (properly Glanford Brigg Or Glamford Bridge), Urban District Of Lindsey (north Lincolnshire), England, Situ Ated On The River Ancholme, Which Affords Water Communication With The Humber. Pop. (1931) 4,019. It Is 23 M. By Road North Of Lincoln, And Is Served By The L.n.e. Railway. Trade Is Prin Cipally ...

Brigham
Brigham, A City In Northern Utah, U.s.a., Near The Bear River Bay Of Great Salt Lake, 20m. N. Of Ogden; The County Seat Of Box Elder County. It Has An Elevation Of 4,307ft. And Lies At The Mouth Of The Canyon Formed By Box Elder Creek. It Is On Federal ...

Brighouse
Brighouse, Municipal Borough, West Riding, Yorkshire, England, 51m. N. Of Huddersfield By The L.m.s. Railway, On The River Calder. Population (1931) It Has Large Woollen And Worsted Factories. Much Of The Machinery And Many Tools Used In The Textile Industry Are Made Locally. Iron Founding, Especially Moulding, Quarry Working And ...

Brightlingsea
Brightlingsea, Urban District, Seaport And Fishing Sta Tion, Essex, England, On A Creek Of The Colne Estuary, The Ter Minus Of A Branch From Colchester (8 M.) Of The L.n.e. Railway. Pop. (1931) 4,145. The Colchester Oyster-beds Are Mainly In This Part Of The Colne, And The Oyster Fishery Is ...

Brighton
Brighton, Municipal, County And Parliamentary Borough, And Seaside Resort, Sussex, England, 51m. S. Of London By The Southern Railway. Pop. Of County Borough Of Parliamentary Borough, 188,914. Accessibility From The Metropolis Is The Chief Factor In Its Popularity. It Is Situated On The Seaward Slope Of The South Downs ; ...

Brighton_2
Brighton, A Watering-place Of Bourke County, Victoria, Australia. It Is Practically A Suburb Of Melbourne (q.v.). It Has Two Piers And A Growing Population (c. 15,000) . ...

Brights Disease
Bright's Disease, A Term In Medicine Applied To A Class Of Diseases Of The Kidneys (acute And Chronic Nephritis) Which Have As Their Most Prominent Symptom The Presence Of Albumen In The Urine, Often Accompanied By Dropsy. These Associated Symptoms In Connection With Kidney Disease Were First Described In 1827 ...

Brignoles
Brignoles, A Town In South-east France, In The Depart Ment Of Var, 36m. By Rail N.n.e. Of Toulon. Pop. (1931) 3,966. It Lies 754ft. Above Sea Level, In The Fertile Valley Of The Carami, Contains An Old Palace Of The Counts Of Provence, And Has An Active Trade In Olive ...

Brihaspati Or Brahmanaspati
Brihaspati Or Brahmanaspati ("lord Of Prayer"), A Deity In The Vedic Hindu Mythology, An Ally Of Indra In His Conquest Of The Cloud Demon. In The Rig Veda He Is Identi Fied With Agni (q.v.). Offspring Of Heaven And Earth, He Inspires Prayer And Protects The Pious. Depicted As Having ...

Brill
Brill (psetta Laevis), A Flatfish Closely Related To The Turbot, Differing From It In Having Very Small Scales And No Bony Tuber Cules In The Skin. It Abounds On Parts Of The British Coast, And Is Only Less Favoured For The Table Than The Turbot Itself. French Gastronomist, Was Born ...

Brimstone
Brimstone, The Popular Name Of Sulphur (q.v.) Particu Larly Of The Commercial "roll Sulphur." The Word Means Literally "burning Stone" ; The First Part Being Formed From The Stem Of The Mid. Eng. Brennen, To Burn. Earlier Forms Of The Word Are Brenstone, Bernstone, Brynstone, Etc. ...

Brindaban
Brindaban, A Town Of British India, In The Muttra Dis Trict Of The United Provinces, On The Right Bank Of The Jumna, 6 M. N. Of Muttra. Pop. (1931) 17,148. Brindaban Is One Of The Most Popular Places Of Pilgrimage In India, Being One Of The Group Of Vaishnavite Holy ...

Brindisi
Brindisi (anc. Brundisium, Q.v.), Archiepiscopal See, Apulia, Italy, Province Of Lecce, 24m. N.w. By Rail From Lecce, And 346m. From Ancona. Pop. 37,965 (town) ; 39,658 (commune). The Sheltered Inner Harbour, Soft. And More In Depth, Allows Ocean Steamers To Lie At The Quays. The Castle Of Frederick Ii. With ...

Brindisi_2
Brindisi, A Drinking Song, The Name Being Derived From The Italian Brindisi, A Toast. ...

Brioni
Brioni, A Group Of Islands North-west Of Pola, Separated From The West Coast Of Istria By The Strait Of Fasana. The Largest Island, Brioni Maggiore, Previously Barren, Has Been Converted Into A Favourite Resort With Large Hotels, Being Supplied With Water By An Underground Channel From The Mainland. The Vegetation ...

Brioude
Brioude, Town Of France, Capital Of An Arrondissement In The Department Of Haute-loire, On The Left Bank Of The Allier, 47m. N.w. Of Le Puy On The P.l.m. Railway. Pop. 4479 Brioude (anc. Brivas) Was In Turn Captured By Goths (532), Burgundians, Saracens (73 2) And Normans. After 1361 The ...

Briquetting
Briquetting. When Coal Is Hewn And Transported, Much Of It Is Unavoidably Reduced To Small Pieces And Dust, The Supply Of Which Frequently Exceeds The Demand. The Material Tends To Accumulate, A Loss To The Coal Mining Industry And An Obstacle To Its Further Development. One Of The Most Effective ...

Brisbane
Brisbane, The Capital City Of Queensland, Australia, Situ Ated (27° 28' S., 153° 2' E.) Near The South-eastern Corner Of The State On The Brisbane River About 14m. From Its Mouth In Moreton Bay. The City Lies Astride The River, Which Here Winds Through Gently Hilly Country ; The Low-lying ...

Bristle
Bristle. The Stiff Hair Of Swine. Its Forked Tips, Resiliency, And Minutely Ridged Surface Have Made It A Basic Material In Brush Manufacture For Many Centuries. It Is Produced And Pre Pared Chiefly In China, The Soviet Union, Japan, Poland, India, Germany, And France. The Increased Use Of Brushes Has ...

Bristol
Bristol, Parliamentary And County Borough, City And Sea Port Of England, In Gloucestershire And Somersetshire, But Also A Separate County In Itself With Its Own Assizes, Lying On Both Sides Of The River Avon At The Confluence Of The Rivers Avon And Frome, 118m. W. Of London By Rail. Population ...

Bristol_2
Bristol, An Industrial City Of Hartford County, Connecti Cut, U.s.a., In The Central Part Of The State, 16m. S.w. Of Hart Ford, On The Pequabuck River And Served By The New York, New Haven And Hartford Railroad. It Is Co-extensive With Bristol Township And Has An Area Of 27 Sq. ...

Bristol_3
Bristol, A Borough Of Bucks County (pa.), U.s.a., On The Delaware River, Opposite Burlington (n.j.), 2om. North-east Of Philadelphia, And Served By The Pennsylvania Railroad. The Population In 1920 Was 10,273, Of Whom 2,453 Were Foreign-born White; And Was 11,799 In 1930 Federal Census. Its Manufactures Include Carpets, Worsted And ...

Bristol_4
Bristol, The Shire-town Of Bristol County (r.i.), U.s.a., 15m. S.e„ Of Providence, On A Peninsula Between Narragansett Bay And Mount Hope Bay. It Is Served By The New York, New Haven And Hartford Railroad, And By A Ferry To The Island Of Rhode Island. The Population In 1930 Was 11,953 ...

Bristol_5
Bristol, An Urban Unit On The Tennessee-virginia (united States) Boundary Line, Formed Of Two Adjoining Cities, One In Sulli Van County, Tenn., The Other In Washington County, Virginia. The State Line Runs Through The Main Business Street, And Each City Is Necessarily A Distinct Political Unit, Though In Other Respects ...

Bristow
Bristow, A City Among The Oil And Gas Wells Of Creek County, Okla., United States, 65m. N.e. Of Oklahoma City. It Is On Federal Highway 66, And Is Served By The Frisco Lines And The Oklahoma-southwestern Railway. The Population In 1920 Was 3,460; In 1930 It Was 6,619 By The ...

Britain
Britain, The Anglicized Form Of The Classical Name Of Eng Land, Wales And Scotland, Sometimes Extended To The British Isles As A Whole (gr. Iiperavucat Lat. Britan Nia, Rarely Brittania). The Greek And Roman Forms Are Doubt Less Attempts To Reproduce A Celtic Original, The Exact Form Of Which Is ...

Britannia Metal
Britannia Metal, A Silvery White Alloy With Bluish Tint, Consisting Essentially Of Tin And Antimony, Although Copper Is Occasionally Added. The Best Qualities Of This Alloy Contain 9o% Of Tin And Io% Of Antimony And May Be Regarded As Tin Hard Ened By Antimony. Commoner Grades Of The Alloy May ...

Britannicus
Britannicus, Son Of The Roman Emperor, Claudius, By Messalina, Was Born Probably A.d. 41. He Was Originally Called Claudius Tiberius Germanicus, And Received The Name Britannicus In Honour Of Claudius' Expedition To Britain (a.d. 43) . Till His Mother's Execution In 48 He Was Looked Upon As The Heir; But ...

British Central Africa
British Central Africa, Geographically The Re Gions Of Central Africa In British Possession, I.e., Nyasaland And Northern Rhodesia. In Feb. 1893 The Nyasaland Protectorate Was Officially Styled "the British Central Africa Protectorate," But The Old Name Was Restored In Oct. 1907. (see Nyasaland Protec ...

British Columbia
British Columbia, The Western Province Of The Dominion Of Canada. It Is Bounded On The East By The Watershed In The Rocky Mountains Until This, In Its North-westerly Course, Reaches The Meridian 120° W., Which Is Followed North To 6o° N., Thus Including Within The Province A Part Of The ...

British East Africa
British East Africa, In Its Narrower Sense The Name By Which The East Africa Protectorate Was Generally Known Until In 192o It Became Kenya Colony And Protectorate (see Kenya Colony). In Its Wider Sense The Term Includes All The Territories In East Central Africa Under British Administration, Namely Uganda, Kenya, ...

British Electrical Manufacturers As
British Electrical Manufacturers' As Sociation. In Administration Two Main Principles Have Governed The Development Of The Electrical Industry In Great Britain--large-scale Production And Co-operation Of Manufac Turers Within A Central Trade Association. Both Principles Are Closely Related, Since Effective Co-operation Can Only Take Place In An Industry When A Certain ...

British Empire
British Empire, The Name Given To The Whole Aggregate Of Territory, The Inhabitants Of Which, Under Various Forms Of Government, Are Linked Together By A Common Ultimate Allegiance To The British Crown As Their Titular Sovereign. The Land Surface Of The Earth Is Estimated To Extend Over About 52,500,000 Square ...

British Honduras
British Honduras, Formerly Called Belize, Or Balize, A British Crown Colony, Bounded N. And N.w. By The Mexican Territory Of Quintana Roo, N.e. And E. By The Bay Of Honduras; S. And W. By Guatemala. Area 8,600sq.m., Including About 21 2 Sq.m. Of Cays. The Frontier, Defined By Conventions Of ...

British Industries Fair
British Industries Fair. The British Industries Fair Owes Its Inception To The Conditions Brought About In 1914 By The Sources Of Supply Of Many Articles Hitherto Imported In Large Quantities By British Firms Being Cut Off As A Result Of The War. To Assist British Manufacturers In Undertaking The Supply, ...

British Legion
British Legion. The British Legion Was Established In 1921, Under The Late Field-marshal Earl Haig, Its First President, For The Purpose Of Uniting In One National Organization The Various Existing Associations Of Ex-service Men. These Were The Comrades Of The Great War, The National Association Of Discharged Sailors And Soldiers, ...

British Music Society
British Music Society. This Is A Body Which Was Formed In 1918, On The Initiation Of Dr. Eaglefield Hull And Under The Presidency Of Lord Howard De Walden, To Further The Interests Of British Music And Of Music In General In Great Britain. The Society Aims At Stimulating The Musical ...

British Thermal Unit
British Thermal Unit, The Amount Of Heat Required To Raise One Pound Of Water Through One Degree Fahrenheit, De Noted By The Abbreviation B.th.u. (see Physical Units.) ...

Britomartis
Britomartis, "sweet Maiden," An Old Cretan Goddess, Later Identified With Artemis, Whose Favourite Companion She Is Said To Have Been. Being Pursued By Minos, King Of Crete, Who Was Enamoured Of Her, She Sprang From A Rock Into The Sea, But Was Saved From Drowning By Falling Into Some Fishermen's ...

Briton Ferry
Briton-ferry, Urban District, Glamorganshire, Wales, East Bank, Estuary Of Neath River In Swansea Bay. Population (1921) 9,165. The Name La Brittone Was Given By The Norman Settlers Of The I 2th Century To Its Ferry Across The Estuary Of The Neath, But The Welsh Name Of The Town, At Least ...

Brittany Or Britanny
Brittany Or Britanny, An Ancient Province And Duchy Of France (fr. Bretagne), Known As Armorica (q.v.) Until The Influx Of Celts From Britain. It Consists Of The Northwest Penin Sula, Nearly Corresponding To The Departments Of Finistere, Cotes Du-nord, Morbihan, Ille-et-vilaine And Lower Loire. It Is Popu Larly Divided Into ...

Brittle Stars
Brittle Stars, The Popular Name For Star-fish (q.v.) Of The Class Ophiuroidea (see Echinoderma). The Name Refers To The Habit Of These Animals Of Breaking Off Their Arms (autotomy, Q.v.) When Alarmed. ...

Britton Or Brittaine Breton
Breton, Britton Or Brittaine, Nicholas English Poet, Was Born In The Parish Of St. Giles Without-cripplegate. There Is No Official Record Of His Residence At The University, But The Diary Of The Rev. Richard Madox Tells Us That He Was At Antwerp In 1583 And Was "once Of Oriel College." ...

Britton
Britton, The Title Of The First Great Treatise Of The Law Of England In The French Tongue, Which Purports To Have Been Writ Ten By Command Of King Edward I. The Author Is Probably Either John Le Breton, A Justice For The County Of Norfolk, Or A Royal Clerk Of ...

Brive Or Brives La Gaillarde
Brive Or Brives-la-gaillarde, A Town Of France, Capital Of An Arrondissement, Department Of Correze, 62m. S.s.e. Of Limoges On The Main Line Of The Orleans Railway From Paris To Montauban. Pop. (1931) 22,441. It Lies On The Left Bank Of The Correze In A Fertile Plain Where Important Roads And ...

Brixham
Brixham, Seaport And Urban District, Devonshire, England, 33m. S. Of Exeter, On A Branch Of The G.w. Railway. Pop. (1931) 8,147. The Town Is Irregularly Built On The Cliffs To The South Of Torbay, And Its Harbour Is Sheltered By A Breakwater. Early In The 19th Century It Had Important ...

Brixton
Brixton, A District With Railway Station (s.r.) In The South Of London, England, Included In The Metropolitan Borough Of Lambeth (q.v.). Pop. Of Parl. District ...

Brizo
Brizo, An Ancient Goddess, Long Worshipped In Delos. She Delivered Oracles In Dreams To Those Who Consulted Her About Fishery And Seafaring. The Women Of Delos Offered Her Presents Consisting Of Little Boats Filled With All Kinds Of Eatables (except Fish) In Order To Obtain Her Protection For Those Engaged ...

Brno
Brno (ger. Briinn), The Capital Of Moravia, Czechoslovakia, Is Situated At The Confluence Of The Svratka And The Svitava, Be Tween Two Hills, One Of Which, The Spielberg (945ft.), Is Crowned By A Fortress Now Used As A Barracks But Which Formerly Was An Austrian Political Prison. In This Capacity ...

Broach Or Bharuch
Broach Or Bharuch, An Ancient City And Modern Dis Trict Of British India, In The Northern Division Of Bombay. The City Is On The Right Bank Of The Nerbudda, About 3om. From The Sea, And 2o3m. N. Of Bombay. The Area, Including Suburbs, Occu Pies 2i Square Miles. Pop. (1921) ...

Broach
Broach, A Word Used For Any One Of Many Forms Of Pointed Instruments, Such As Bodkins, Wooden Needles Used In Tapestry, Roasting Spits And Even The Tools (also Called "rimers" Or "reamers") Employed For Enlarging Or Smoothing Holes. Hence Comes The Expression "to Broach" For "to Tap" A Cask. In ...

Broadcast Music
Broadcast Music Is One Of The Most Prominent Features Of All Wireless Entertainment Programmes, Alike In Europe And America, As Well As, It May Be Added, In All Other Parts Of The World—japan For Instance—where Broadcasting Is Known. Natur Ally, However, The Mode Of Procedure Adopted In This Case And ...

Broadcasting As A Business
Broadcasting As A Business One Element Of Importance In Advertising Is The Number Of Pos Sible Customers It Reaches. The Value Of Combining The Toll Broadcasting Idea With The Chain Broadcasting Idea, To Increase The Audience And Thereby To Justify The Expense Of Better Pro Grammes, Was Self-evident. ...

Broadcasting Technique
Broadcasting Technique Broadcasting Technique Necessitates Some Considerable Additions To The Bare Essentials Of A Wireless Telephone Transmitter In Order That The System May Conform To The Canons Of The New Art. The Essential Links In The Chain Between Artist And Listener Can Be Classified As Follows: (i) The Microphone And ...

Broadside
Broadside, Sometimes Termed Broadsheet, A Single Sheet Of Paper Containing Printed Matter On One Side Only. The Broad Side Seems To Have Been Employed From The Beginning Of Printing For Royal Proclamations, Papal Indulgences And Similar Documents. England Appears To Have Been Its Chief Home, Where It Was Used Chiefly ...

Broadstairs
Broadstairs, A Watering-place In The Isle Of Thanet (kent), England, 3m. S.e. Of Margate, On The Southern Railway. Pop. Of Urban District, Broadstairs And St. Peter's (192i) A High Figure Because Census Was In Tourist Season. Pop. (i931) 12,748. From 1837 To 1851 Broadstairs Was A Favourite Summer Resort Of ...

Broadsword
Broadsword, A Sword With A Broad Blade, Used Nor Mally For Delivering A Cut Rather Than A Thrust. (see Claymore.) ...

Brocade Of Cotton
Brocade Of Cotton. The Word Brocade Is Employed As A Conventional Trade Term To Describe A Wide Range Especially Of Cotton Fabrics Of Simple Structure And Consisting Of One Series Each Of Warp And Weft Threads, As Distinct From Compound Struc Tures With Two Or More Of Each Series Of ...

Brocade
Brocade, The Name Usually Given To A Class Of Decorative Textiles Enriched On Their Surface With Weavings In Low Relief, Of Which The Floating Threads At The Back Hang Loose Or Are Cut Away. ...

Brocade_2
Brocade.) The Type Of Fabrics Generally Described As "cotton Brocades." As Produced By Modern Powerlooms (of Which A Typical Model Is Illustrated In Fig. 1), Are Embellished With Jacquard Figuring Developed By Causing Either Warp, Weft, Or Both Series Of Threads To "float," Or Lie More Or Less Freely, In ...

Broccoli
Broccoli, A Large Green Vegetable Resembling The Cauli Flower In Appearance, And The Cabbage In Flavour. Botanically It Is A Variety Of Cabbage (brassica Oleracea Var. Italica) . The Centre Containing The Curds Of Buds Is Less Compact Than That Of The Cauliflower And The Leaves Are Smaller Than Those ...

Brochantite
Brochantite, A Mineral Species Consisting Of A Basic Copper Sulphate Crystallizing In The Orthorhombic System. The Crystals Are Usually Small And Are Prismatic Or Acicular In Habit ; They Have A Perfect Cleavage In One Direction. They Are Transparent To Translucent, With A Vitreous Lustre; And Are Of An Emerald-green ...

Brocken
Brocken, A Mountain Of Germany, In Prussian Saxony, The Highest Point (3,733ft.) Of The Harz, And Indeed Of North Ger Many. Its Huge, Granite-strewn Dome Commands Magnificent Views In All Directions; To Magdeburg And The Elbe, Leipzig And The Thuringian Forest. A Mountain Railway (12m.) Gives Access To The Summit. ...

Brocket
Brocket, The Name Given To A Yearling Stag Of The Red Deer (q.v.), And Hence To Several South American Deer Whose Simple Horns Resemble Those Of A Stag A Year Old. ...

Brockton
Brockton, A City Of Plymouth County (mass.), United States, About 20m. S. Of Boston; Served By The New York, New Haven And Hartford Railroad. Its Area Is 21.4 Sq. Miles. Its Population In 1920 Was 66,254, Of Whom 17,124 Were Foreign-born Whites, And In 1930, Federal Census, Was 63,797. The ...

Brockville
Brockville, Port Of Entry, Ontario, Canada, Capital Of Leeds County, Named After General Sir Isaac Brock, Situated S.w. Of Montreal, On The Left Bank Of The St. Lawrence, And Canadian National Railway, With A Branch To The Canadian Pacific. Steamers Go To St. Lawrence And Lake Ontario Ports, And It ...

Brod
Brod, A Rural Town Of Yugoslavia, On The Left Bank Of The River Sava. Pop. (1931) 13,788. The Railway From Zagreb To Bel Grade Crosses The River Here; And Brod Is The Junction For The Prin Cipal Bosnian Line, To Sarajevo, Mostar And The Adriatic. Its Slight Economic Value Will ...

Broglie
Broglie (1647-1727), Served Under Conde, Turenne And Other Great Commanders Of The Age Of Louis Xiv., Becoming Marechal De Camp In 1676, Lieutenant-general In 1688, And Finally Marshal Of France In The Eldest Son Of Victor Maurice, Franc0is Marie, Afterwards Duc De Broglie Served Continuously In The War Of The ...

Brogue I
Brogue. (i) A Rough Shoe Of Raw Leather (gael. Brog, A Shoe) Worn In Parts Of Ireland And The Scottish Highlands, And Applied Generally To Shoes Intended For Country Wear. (2) A Dialectical Accent, Especially Used Of The Irish Accent In Speaking English. ...

Broken Hill Proprietary Company
Broken Hill Proprietary Company Lim Ited. This Company Was Formed In Aug., 1885, To Develop Seven Mining Leases At Broken Hill, New South Wales, On The Now Famous Barrier Range. On Account Of The Great Size Of The Lode It Was Soon Found That The Ordinary System Of Mining Was ...

Broken Hill
Broken Hill (willyama), A Famous Mining City In Yancowinna County In The Central West Of New South Wales, 35 M. From The South Australian Border. It Lies At An Elevation Of 5,000 Ft. On The East Flank Of The Barrier Range, Some 200 M. From Spencer's Gulf And 55o From ...

Broker
Broker. In The Primary Sense Of The Word A Broker Is A Mercantile Agent, Of The Class Known As General Agents, Whose Office Is To Bring Together Intending Buyers And Sellers And Make A Contract Between Them, For A Remuneration Called Brokerage Or Commission; E.g., Cotton Brokers, Wool Brokers, Or ...

Bromberg
Bromberg (polish Bydgoszcz), A Town Of Poland, Province Of Poznan, 7m. From The Vistula, The Centre Of An Important Net Work Of Railways. Pop. (1900), 52,082; (1931), 117,528. The Bromberg Canal Connects The Brahe With The Notec, And Thus Es Tablishes Communication Between The Vistula And Oder. The Town Has ...

Bromeliaceae
Bromeliaceae, In Botany, A Family Of Monocotyledons, Confined To Tropical And Sub-tropical America; It Consists Of About 65 Genera And 85o Species. It Includes The Pineapple (q.v.) And Also The So-called Spanish Moss, A Rootless Plant, Which Hangs In Long Grey Lichen-like Festoons From The Branches Of Trees, A Native ...

Bromide
Bromide, Chemically, A Compound Of Bromine With An Ele Ment Or An Organic Radical, Or A Salt Of Hydrobromic Acid, Such As Sodium Bromide. Various Bromides Are Of Value In Medicine, Especially Potassium Bromide Which Is Extensively Used As A Car Diac And Cerebral Depressant. From The Application Of The ...

Bromine
Bromine, A Deep Red, Liquid, Non-metallic Element Of The Halogen Group, Which Takes Its Name From Its Pungent Unpleasant Smell L(ipc),uos, A Stench). It Was First Recognized As An Element And Isolated By A. J. Balard In 1826 From The Salts In The Waters Of The Mediterranean. It Has The ...

Bromley
Bromley, Municipal Borough Of Kent, England, 1o2 M. S.e. By S. Of London By The Southern Railway. Pop. (1931) It Lies On High Ground North Of The Small River Ravens Bourne In A Well-wooded District, And Has Become A Favourite Residential Locality For Those Whose Business Lies In London. The ...

Brompton
Brompton, A South-western District Of London, England, In The South-east Of The Metropolitan Borough Of Kensington. Brompton Road, Leading South-west From Knightsbridge, Is Con Tinued As Old Brompton Road And Richmond Road, To Join Lillie Road, At Which Point Are The Metropolitan District And Southern Railway Stations Of West Brompton. ...

Bromsgrove
Bromsgrove, Urban District, Worcestershire, England, 12m. N.n.e. Of Worcester, With A Station Im. From The Town On The Bristol-birmingham L.m.s. Line. Pop. (1931) 9,52o. It Lies In An Undulating District Near The Foot Of The Lickey Hills. The Railway Towards Birmingham Here Ascends For 2m. One Of The Steepest Gradients ...

Bronchiectasis
Bronchiectasis (see Also Respiratory System, Dis Eases Of), Dilatation Of The Bronchi, A Condition Occurring In Many Diseases Of The Lungs. Bronchitis, Both Acute And Chronic, Chronic Pneumonia And Phthisis, Acute Pneumonia And Bronchopneu Monia, May All Leave After Them A Bronchiectasis Whose Position Is Determined By The Primary Lesion. ...

Bronchitis
Bronchitis, The Name Given To Inflammation Of The Mucous Membrane Of The Bronchial Tubes (see Respiratory Sys Tem). Two Main Varieties Occur, Specific And Non-specific. The Bronchitis Met With In Typhoid Fever And Diphtheria, Influenza, Measles, Pneumonia, Due To The Micro-organisms Causing These Diseases, Is Specific ; That Which Results ...

Bronchotomy
Bronchotomy, A Medical Term Used For A Surgical In Cision Into The Throat ; Now Superseded By The Terms Laryngotomy, Thyrotomy And Tracheotomy, Which Indicate More Accurately The Place Of Incision. ...

Bronco
Bronco, Usually Incorrectly Spelt Broncho (spanish For Rough), An Untamed Horse, Especially In The United States, A Mustang. ...

Bronte
Bronte, Province Of Catania, Sicily, On The Western Slopes Of Mt. Etna, 24m. N.n.w. Of Catania Direct, And 34m. By Rail. Pop. (1921), (town) ; 20,014 (commune). The Town Was Founded By Charles V., With An Estate Originally Belonging To The Monastery Of Maniacium (maniace), And Was Granted To Nelson ...

Brontosaurus
Brontosaurus, A Gigantic Vegetarian Dinosaur, Allied To Diplodocus (q.v.), But Somewhat Larger, Reaching A Length Of 7o Feet. Brontosaurus Occurs In The Upper Jurassic Of Wyoming. The Neck And Tail Were Immensely Long And It Is Probable That The Animal Was Semi-aquatic. (see Reptiles ; Dinosauria.) ...

Bronze And Brass Ornamental
Bronze And Brass Ornamental Work. The Use Of Bronze Dates From Remote Antiquity. This Important Metal Is An Alloy Composed Of Copper And Tin, In Proportions Which Vary Slightly, But May Be Normally Considered As Nine Parts Of Copper To One Of Tin. Other Ingredients Which Are Oc Casionally Found ...

Bronze
Bronze, An Alloy Formed Wholly Or Chiefly Of Copper And Tin In Variable Proportions. The Word Has Been Etymologically Connected With The Same Root As Appears In "brown," But Accord Ing To M. P. E. Berthelot (la Chimie Au Moyen Age) It Is A Place Name Derived From Aes Brundusianum ...

Bronzing
Bronzing, A Process By Which A Bronze-like Surface Is Imparted To Objects Of Metal, Plaster, Wood, Etc. On Metals A Green Bronze Colour Is Sometimes Produced By The Action Of Such Substances As Vinegar, Dilute Nitric Acid And Sal-ammoniac. An Antique Appearance May Be Given To New Bronze Articles By ...

Bronzite
Bronzite, In Mineralogy, A Member Of The Pyroxene Group That Crystallizes In Rhombic System (see Pyroxene). The Name Was Originally Applied To The Members Of The Series Exhibiting A Bronzelike Lustre, Due To The Presence Of Regularly Arranged Inclu Sions. These Inclusions Appear In Most Cases To Be Ilmenite Ar ...

Brooch Or Broach
Brooch Or Broach, Originally An Awl Or Bodkin, De Notes A Clasp Or Fastener For The Dress, Provided With A Pin, Hav Ing A Hinge Or Spring At One End And A Catch Or Loop At The Other. Brooches Of The Safety-pin Type (fibulae) Were Extensively Used In Antiquity, But ...

Brook Farm
Brook Farm (1841-47), An Institute Of Agriculture And Education, Situated On 16o Ac. At West Roxbury (mass.), 9m. From Boston, Was Organized In The Summer Of 1841 By The Rev. George Ripley, A Former Unitarian Minister, An Editor Of The Dial, A Critical Literary Monthly, And A Leader In The ...

Brookfield
Brookfield, A City Of Linn County (mo.), On Federal Highway 36 And The Burlington Railway, About 13om. N.e. Of Kansas City. The Population In 193o Was 6,428. It Ships Large Quantities Of Grain, Hay, Poultry And Livestock; Has Railroad Shops And A Shoe Factory; And Is In The "lafayette" Coal-field. ...

Brookhaven
Brookhaven, A City In The Pine Forest Region Of South Western Mississippi, U.s.a., On Federal Highway 51, And Served By The Illinois Central And The Mississippi Central Railways ; The County Seat Of Lincoln County. The Population Was 4,706 In 1920; In 193o, 5,288. Brookhaven Is The Centre Of Large ...