Home >> Encyclopedia-britannica-volume-4-part-2-brain-casting >> Caracalla to Carlstadt

Encyclopedia Brittanica

Volume 4, Part 2: Brain to Casting

Loading


Caracalla
Caracalla (or Caracallus), Marcus Aurelius Antoninus (186-217), Roman Emperor, Eldest Son Of The Emperor Septimius Severus, Was Born At Lugdunum (lyons) On April 4 186. His Original Name Was Bassianus; His Nickname Caracalla Was Derived From The Long Gallic Tunic Which He Wore. After The Death Of Severus (211) At ...

Caracal_2
Caracal (lynx Caracal), Sometimes Called Persian Lynx, An Animal Widely Distributed Throughout South-western Asia And A Large Portion Of Africa. It Is Somewhat Larger Than A Fox, Uniform Reddish Brown Above, And Whitish Beneath, With Two White Spots Above Each Of The Eyes, And A Tuft Of Long Black Hair ...

Caracara
Caracara, The Name Given To Three American Genera Of The Family Falconidae. Also Called Carrion-hawks, The Caracaras Are Recognized By Their Long Legs And The Brightly Coloured Naked Skin Of The Cheeks And Throat. They Are Gregarious And Feed Largely On Carrion, Birds, Reptiles And Amphibians. The Audubon Caracara (polyborus ...

Caracas
Caracas, The Principal City And The Capital Of The United States Of Venezuela, Situated At The Western Extremity Of An Elevated Valley Of The Venezuelan Coast Range Known As The Plain Of Chacao, 61m. S.s.e. Of La Guaira, Its Port On The Caribbean Coast, In Lat. 1o 3o' N., Long. ...

Caracole
Caracole, A French Word, Meaning The Wheeling About Of A Horse (cf. Span. Caracol, A Snail). In Horsemanship A Half Turn To The Left Or Right, Or To Both Alternately, So As To Describe A Zigzag Course; The Term Is Loosely Used To Describe Any Dis Play Of Fancy Riding. ...

Caractacus Or
Caractacus Or (better) Caratacus, The Latin Form Of The Celtic Caradoc (fl. A.d. 5o), British Chieftain Of The Tribe Of Catuvellauni, A Son Of Cunobelinus, King Of The Trino Bantes. He Led The Native Resistance Against Aulus Plautus (a.d. , And After Being Defeated, Probably At Wallingford, And Afterwards At ...

Carales
Carales, ' The Most Important Ancient City Of Sardinia, Situated On The South Coast (gr. Kapaxtr, Mod. Cagliari, Q.v.). It Is Attributed To The Carthaginians, And Punic Tombs Exist In Considerable Numbers Near The Present Cemetery On The East, And Still More On The Rocky Plateau To The North-west Of ...

Caran Dache
Caran D'ache, The Pseudonym (meaning "lead-pencil") Of Emmanuel Poire (1858-1909), Caricaturist And Illustrator, Who Was Born And Educated At Moscow, Being The Grandson Of One Of Napoleon's Officers Who Had Settled In Russia. He De Termined To Be A Military Painter, And When He Arrived In Paris From Russia Was ...

Carapegua
Carapegua, An Interior Town Of Paraguay, 37m. South East Of Asuncion On The Old Route Between That City And The Missions. The Estimated Population Is 15,000 (probably The Population Of The Large Rural District About The Town Is Included In This Estimate) . The Town (founded In 1725) Is Situated ...

Cararian
Car.arian, A Group Of Tribes Of South American Indians, Supposed On Very Meagre Evidence To Constitute An Independent Linguistic Stock. The Canaris Lived At The Period Of The Spanish Conquest In The Highlands Of Southern Ecuador, From Alausi Southward To The Jubones River, And Extended West As Far As The ...

Carat
Carat, A Unit Of Weight For Diamonds, Other Gems, And Pearls; It Also Indicates The Purity Or Fineness Of Precious Metals. Originally Grains Or Leguminous Seeds Were Used For The Weighing Of Precious Stones And As These Were Not Of Uniform Size Or Weight The Carat In Different Gem Centres ...

Caravaca
Caravaca, A Town Of South-eastern Spain, In The Province Of Murcia, Near The Left Bank Of The River Argos, A Tributary Of The Segura. Pop. (193o) 21,306. Caravaca Is Dominated By The Mediaeval Castle Of Santa Cruz, The 17th Century Chapel Which Has A Miraculous Cross Celebrated For Its Healing ...

Caravan
Caravan, A Word Of Persian Origin (more Correctly Kara Wan), Adopted Into The Later Arabic Vocabulary. (i) A Covered Cart, Drawn By Horse Or Motor Power, Used For Living Purposes, Chiefly By Gypsies And Holiday Makers. (2) A Body Of Traders Travelling Together For Greater Security Against Robbers (and In ...

Caravanserai
Caravanserai. A Public Building, For The Shelter Of A Caravan (q.v.) And Of Wayfarers Generally In Asiatic Turkey. It.is Commonly Constructed In The Neighbourhood, But Not Within The Walls, Of A Town Or Village. It Is Quadrangular In Form, With A Dead Wall Outside; This Wall Has Small Windows High ...

Caravel
Caravel, A Light Ship, Of The I 5th And 16th Centuries, Much Used By The Spanish And Portuguese For Long Voyages. It Was A Broad-beamed Vessel, With A Double Tower At The Stern (the Sterncastle), And A Single One In The Bows (the Forecastle, A Term Which Survives). Two Of ...

Caravellas
Caravellas, A Small Seaport Of Southern Bahia, Brazil. On The Caravellas River A Few Miles Above Its Mouth, Which Is Dangerously Obstructed By Sandbars. Population (192o) 9,966. Caravellas Was Once The Centre Of A Flourishing Whale Fishery, But Has Since Fallen Into Decay. It Is The Port Of The Bahia ...

Caraway
Caraway, The Fruit, Or So-called Seed, Of Carum Carvi, An Umbelliferous Plant Growing Throughout The Northern And Cen Tral Parts Of Europe And Asia, And Naturalized In Waste Places In England And In North America From Newfoundland To Colorado. The Plant Has Finely-cut Leaves And Compound Umbels Of Small White ...

Carayan
Carayan, An Independent Linguistic Stock Of South Ameri Can Indians, Named From The Caraya (karaya), Its Most Im Portant Tribe. The Carayan Tribes Live In Central Brazil On The Araguaya River From Near Its Mouth South To About 14 S. Lat. Krause Finds Their Culture Very Similar To That Of ...

Carballo
Carballo, A Town Of North-western Spain, In The Province Of Corunna. It Lies On The Right Bank Of The River Allones, Aom. S.w. Of Corunna, Its Nearest Railway Station. Pop. (193o) 15,127. Though A Market Centre For Local Cereals And Dairy Produce, Car Ballo Is Chiefly Noted For The Hot ...

Carbazole
Carbazole, A Constituent Of Coal Tar, Occurring With Crude Anthracene, Crystallizing In Plates Or Tables, Melting Point 238 C, And Readily Subliming. It May Be Separated From Crude Anthracene By Fusing It With Caustic Potash When It Is Converted In To Carbazole-potassium, Which Can Be Easily Separated By Distilling Off ...

Carbides
Carbides Are, Strictly, Compounds Of Carbon With One Other Element. The Term, However, Is Generally Used To Designate Only Those Binary Compounds Of Carbon Which Are Comparatively Infusible And Non-volatile. Carbides Are Generally Products Of The Electric Furnace, And It May Be Said That Henri Moissan, Who Made Many Brilliant ...

Carbine
Carbine, A Word Which Came Into Use Towards The End Of The I6th Century To Denote A Form Of Small Fire-arm, Shorter Than The Musket And Chiefly Used By Mounted Men (fr. Carabine, Ger. Karabiner) . It Has Retained This Significance, Through All Subse Quent Modifications Of Small-arm Design, To ...

Carbo
Carbo, The Name Of A Roman Plebeian Family Of The Gens Papiria. The Following Are The Most Important Members: I. Gaius Papirius Carbo, Tribune Of The People (131 B.c.), Carried A Law Extending Voting By Ballot To The Enactment And Repeal Of Laws ; Another Proposal, That The Tribunes Should ...

Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates, A Group Of Substances Which Includes The Sugars, Starches, And Celluloses, Along With The Many Varied Products, Either Found In Nature Or Prepared In The Laboratory, Which Are Closely Related To Them Chemically. This Group Of Compounds Is Comparable In Importance With The Proteins And Fats. Its Members Play ...

Carbolic Acid Or Phenol
Carbolic Acid Or Phenol Discovered In 1834 By F. Runge In Coal Tar. A. Laurent In 1841, First Obtained It In A Pure Crystalline Condition, Determined Its Composition And Named It Phenyl Hydrate Or Phenic Acid. It Is, In Fact, To Be Regarded As Derived From, Benzene, The Simplest Hydrocarbon ...

Carbon Compounds
Carbon Compounds. The Element Carbon Is Remark Able For The Number And Variety Of Compounds To Which It Can Give Rise In Combination With Common Elements Such As Hydrogen, Oxygen And Nitrogen. Organic Chemistry Is Defined As "the Chem Istry Of Carbon Compounds," And A Few Of The Vast Number ...

Carbon Dioxide
Carbon Dioxide, A Colourless Gas At Ordinary Temper Atures. It Is Found To Be The Most Common Oxide (q.v.) Of Car Bon And Is One Of The Usual Products Of Combustion (q.v.) Of All Carbon Compounds; It Is The Chief Constituent Of The Breath Exhaled By Animals (see Respiration). Commercially ...

Carbon Disulphide
Carbon Disulphide, Carbon Bisulphide Or Thiocar Bonic Anhydride, A Chemical Product First Discovered In 1796 By W. A. Lampadius, Who Obtained It By Heating A Mixture Of Char Coal And Pyrites. Carbon Disulphide, May Be More Con Veniently Prepared By Passing The Vapour Of Sulphur Over Red Hot Charcoal, The ...

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Results From Breathing Atmospheres Containing The Gas. Carbon Monoxide Is Produced By Burning Carbon-containing Fuels In A Deficiency Of Air Or Oxygen. Common Producers Are Room Heaters, Gas Ranges, Automobile Exhausts, Mine Explosions, Blasting, Iron And Steel Furnaces And Burning Electric Installation. Since The Gas Is Colour ...

Carbon Paper
Carbon Paper, A Tissue Of Varying Weight Coated With A Colour, Generally Carbon, And Some Waxy Medium. It Is Usually Coated On One Side But May Be Coated On Both Sides For Special Purposes. For Typewriting Duplication Which Is Its Chief Usage It Is Of Course Coated On One Side ...

Carbon
Carbon, A Non-metallic Element, Is Found In The Free State As Diamond, Graphite And As Crude Forms Of The Former (symbol C, Atomic Number 6, Atomic Weight 12.000) ; In Combination It Occurs In All Animal And Vegetable Tissues, In Coal And Pe Troleum And (as Carbonate) In Many Minerals ...

Carbonado
Carbonado, A Name Given In Brazil To A Dark Massive Form Of Impure Diamond, Known Also As "carbonate" And In Trade Simply As Carbon. It Is Sometimes Called Black Diamond. Gen Erally It Is Found In Small Masses Of Irregular Polyhedral Form, Black, Brown Or Dark-grey In Colour, With A ...

Carbonari
Carbonari, The Members Of Certain Secret Revolutionary Societies That Played An Active Part In The History Of Italy And France Early In The 19th Century. The Carbonari (ital. "charcoal Burners") Gained Importance In Southern Italy During The Reign Of Joachim Murat (1808-15). They Aimed At Freeing The Coun Try From ...

Carbonates I
Carbonates. (i) The Metallic Carbonates Are The Salts Of Carbonic Acid, Many Of Them Are White Solids, But Some, Such As Those Of Copper (blue Or Green) And Nickel (green), Possess Colours Which Are Characteristic Of The Metal Concerned. Many Are Found As Minerals, The More Important Of Such Naturally ...

Carbondale
Carbondale, A City Of Jackson County, Illinois, U.s.a., 8om. S.e. Of St. Louis; On Federal Highway 51, And Served By The Illinois Central Railway System. The Population In 1920 Was 6,267, And Was 7,528 In 193o By The Federal Census. It Is An Important Coal-mining Region, As The Name Intimates, ...

Carbondale_2
Carbondale, A City In The Anthracite Fields Of Lacka Wanna County (pa.), U.s.a., Amid Beautiful Mountain Scenery Near The Upper End Of The Lackawanna River Valley, 16m. N.e. Of Scranton. It Is On Federal Highway Io6 And Is Served By The Dela Ware And Hudson, The Erie And The New ...

Carbonic Acid Snow
Carbonic Acid Snow. Carbon Dioxide Under Heavy Pressure In Cylinders Is Allowed To Escape Into A Suitable Cylindrical Receptacle The Diameter Of Which Varies According To The Size Of The Lesion To Be Treated. A Semi-solid Snow Is Formed And This Can Be Compressed Into A Pencil. The Pencil, Covered ...

Carbonic Acid
Carbonic Acid, The Acid Assumed To Be Formed When Carbon Dioxide Is Dissolved In Water (formula, ; Its Salts Are Termed Carbonates. The Name Is Also Given To The Neutral Carbon Dioxide From Its Power Of Forming Salts With Oxides, And On Account Of The Acid Nature Of Its Solution ...

Carboniferous System
Carboniferous System, In Geology, The Whole Of The Great Series Of Stratified Rocks And Associated Volcanic Rocks Which Occur Above The Devonian And Below The Permian Sys Terns. The Period Of Time During Which These Rocks Were Accumu Lated Is Known As The Carboniferous Period, And Forms The Last And ...

Carbonuria
Carbonuria, The Presence Of Carbon In The Urine. This Is Normally Present As An End Product Of Metabolism. It Is Found Mainly In The Form Of Carbon Dioxide But Small Quantities Of The Element Are Also Present. Anything Causing An Increase Of Metab Olism Will Increase The Quantity Of Carbon. ...

Carborundum
Carborundum Is The Name Given By Acheson In America To A Substance He Obtained Accidentally When Experimenting In 1891 With The Electric Furnace In The Hope Of Producing Artificial Diamonds. These Experiments Were Followed By Others With An Incandescent Furnace Of Which A Larger Form Is Now Used For The ...

Carboy
Carboy, A Large Globular Glass Vessel Or Bottle, Encased In Wicker Or Iron-work For Protection, Used Chiefly For Holding Vitriol, Nitric Acid And Other Corrosive Liquids. (from The Pers. Qardbah, A Flagon.) ...

Carbuncle
Carbuncle, In Mineralogy, A Garnet (q.v.) Cut With A Convex Surface. In Medicine The Name Given To An Acute Local Inflammation Of The Deeper Layers Of The Skin, Followed By Sloughing. It Is Accompanied By Great Local Tension And Con Stitutional Disturbance, And Pain Is Often Acute. A Hard, Flattened ...

Carburetter
Carburetter Is A Device To Form An Explosive Mixture Of Air And A Hydrocarbon Liquid Fuel Of A Volatile Nature Such As Petrol Or Gasolene. The Function Of A Carburetter May Be Divided Into Three Steps : To Discharge Into The Air Stream The Desired Amount Of Fuel; To Atomize ...

Carcagente Or Carcajente
Carcagente Or Carcajente, A Town Of Eastern Spain, In The Province Of Valencia, Near The Right Bank Of The River Jucar, At The Junction Of The Valencia-murcia And Carca Gente-denia-alicante Railways. Pop. (193o) 15,393. Carcagente Is A Picturesque Old Town With Roman Remains, Surrounded By The Dense Olive, Carob, Palm, ...

Carcar
Carcar, A Municipality (with Administration Centre And Ten Barrios Or Districts), Of The Province And Island Of Cebu, Philippine Islands, On The Carcar River Near Its Mouth At The Head Of Carcar Bay, 23 M. S.w. Of Cebu, The Provincial Capital. Pop. (1918) 37,392, Of Whom 18,229 Were Males. It ...

Carcass
Carcass, The Dead Body Of An Animal; A Butcher's Term, For The Body Of An Animal Without The Head, Extremities And Offal. Also An Iron Case Filled With Combustibles And Fired From A Howitzer To Set Fire To Buildings, Ships, Etc., The Flames Issuing Through Holes Pierced In The Sides. ...

Carcassonne
Carcassonne, A City Of South-western France, Capital Of The Department Of Aude, 57 M. S.e. Of Toulouse, On The Railway To Narbonne. Pop. (1931) 29,047. Carcassonne Lies Near The Eastward Bend Of The River Aude, Which Divides It Into Two Distinct Towns, The Ville Basse And The Ancient Cite, Connected ...

Card Index
Card Index. A Method Of Filing Which Has The Great And Peculiar Advantage Of Enabling A List Of Records To Be Kept In Perfect Alphabetical Order Even While Its Contents Are Increased Or Diminished. Each Name Or Subject Is Entered On A Separate Card, And The Cards Are Arranged Alphabetically ...

Cardamoms
Cardamoms, The Fruit Of Several Plants Of The Genera Elettaria And Amomum, Belonging To The Family Zingiberaceae, The Principal Of Which Is Elettaria Cardamomum, From Which The True Official Or Malabar Cardamom Is Derived. The Malabar Car Damom Plant Is A Large Perennial Herb With A Thick Fleshy Root Stock, ...

Cardan
Cardan (ital. Cardano), Girolamo (geronymo Or Hier0nimo) (1501-1576), Italian Mathematician, Physician And Astrologer, Born At Pavia, Was The Illegitimate Son Of Facio Car Dano (1444-1524), A Learned Jurist Of Milan. He Was Educated At Pavia And At Padua, Where He Graduated In Medicine. He Was, However, Excluded From The College ...

Cardboard
Cardboard. The Earliest Cardboard Was A Layer Of Papyrus, Beaten By Hand To The Desired Thickness, Pressed And Dried By The Sun. In The Middle Ages Cardboard Was Made In The East From Grasses. Playing Cards So Manufactured Were Painted By Hand. The Manufacture Of Machine-made Cards Is Somewhat Similar ...

Cardenas
Cardenas (san Juan De Dios De Cardenas), A Maritime Town Of Cuba, In Matanzas Province, About 75m. East Of Havana, On The Level And Somewhat Marshy Shore Of A Spacious Bay Of The Northern Coast Of The Island, Sheltered By A Long Promontory. Pop. 0931), , It Has A Railway ...

Cardiff
Cardiff, A City, Municipal, County And Parliamentary Borough, Seaport And County Town Of Glamorganshire, South Wales, Situated On The Taff, 2 M. Above Its Outflow, 1451,m. From London By The G.w.r. Via Badminton, And 451 M. E.s.e. Of Swansea. A Large Number Of Branch Lines Once Owned By Different Companies ...

Cardigan
Cardigan (aberteifi), Municipal Borough, Cardiganshire, Wales, Situated On The Right Bank Of The Teifi About 3m. Above Its Mouth. (pop., 1931, 3,309.) It Is Connected By An Ancient Stone Bridge With The Suburb Of Bridgend On The Southern Or Pembroke Bank Of The River. The Castle Was Originally Built By ...

Cardiganshire
Cardiganshire, A County Of South Wales (ceredigion, Sir Aberteifi), Bounded North By Merioneth, East By Montgomery, Radnor And Brecon, South By Carmarthen And Pembroke, And West By Cardigan Bay And The Irish Sea. With An Area Of 688 Sq.m. It Ranks Fifth In Size Of The Welsh Counties. Cardiganshire May ...

Cardinal Flower
Cardinal Flower (lobelia Cardinalis), A Late-flower Ing Herbaceous Perennial Of The Lobelia Family, Widely Distributed In Eastern North America. It Grows In Moist Rich Soil, Often On Muddy Banks, From Southern New Brunswick And Ontario Westward To Colorado And South To Florida And Texas, Blooming In Late August Or September. ...

Cardinal Virtues
Cardinal Virtues, A Phrase Used For The Principal Virtues On Which Conduct In General Depends. Socrates And Plato (see Republic, Iv. 427) Take These To Be Prudence, Courage (or Fortitude), Temperance And Justice. It Is Noticeable That The Virtue Of Benevolence, Which Has Played So Important A Part In Biblical ...

Cardinal
Cardinal, In The Roman Church, The Title Of The Highest Dignitaries Next To The Pope. The Cardinals Constitute The Council Or Senate Of The Sovereign Pontiff In The Government Of The Church; They Constitute A Spiritual Body Called The Sacred College, Act As Administrators Of The Church During A Vacancy ...

Carding
Carding. The Process Of Using The "card" (lat. Carduus, A Thistle Or Teasel) For Combing Textile Fibrous Materials. The Practice Of Carding Is Of Such Great Antiquity That Its Origin Can Not Be Traced. It Consists In Combing Or Brushing Fibres Until They Are Straight And Placed In Parallel Lines ...

Cardona
Cardona (perhaps The Anc. Udura), A Town Of North Eastern Spain, In The Province Of Barcelona; About 20m. N.w. Of Mauresa, The Nearest Railway Station. Pop. (192o) 4,139. Car Dona, Built On A Hill Nearly Surrounded By The River Cardoner, Is Dominated By A Castle With Triple 13th Century Walls ...

Cardoon
Cardoon, Cynara Cardunculus (family Compositae), A Perennial Plant From The South Of Europe And Barbary, A Near Relation Of The Artichoke. The Edible Part, The Chard, Is Composed Of The Blanched And Crisp Stalks Of The Inner Leaves. Besides The Common And Spanish Cardoons, There Are The Prickly-leaved Tours Cardoon, ...

Cardwell
Cardwell, A Town Of Cardwell County, Queensland, Aus Tralia, On Rockingham Bay. Pop. Of Town And District C. S,000. Gold And Tin Are Found In The Neighbourhood; There Are Factories For Preserve And Sauce-making And For Meat-extract And Tinning Production. Much Cedar-wood Is Exported. ...

Cargo
Cargo, A Ship-load, Or The Goods (or Even, Less Technically, Persons) Carried On Board A Ship; And So, By Analogy, A Term Used For Any Large Amount. For The Maritime Law Affecting The Cargo Of A Ship, See Average; Affreigmtment; Insurance; Salvage; Lien ; For The Specialities Of Cargo-ships See ...

Caria
Caria, An Ancient District Of Asia Minor, Bounded On The North By Ionia And Lydia, On The West And South By The Aegean Sea, And On The East By Lycia And A Small Part Of Phrygia. The Coast-line Consists Of A Succession Of Great Promontories Alternat Ing With Deep Inlets. ...

Cariban
Cariban, One Of The Important Linguistic Stocks Of South American Indians ; The Name Is Derived From The Caribs, The Warlike And Widely Raiding Indians Met First By Columbus In The Lesser Antilles And Adjacent Coast Of Venezuela. The Name Carib Probably Means "strangers." The Carib Tribes In This Region, ...

Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea, An Arm Of The Atlantic Ocean Bounded By The Islands Of The West Indies On The East And North, By Vene Zuela, Colombia, Panama And Costa Rica On The South, And By Nicaragua, Honduras, Guatemala, British Honduras And Mexico On The West. It Is About 400m. Wide At ...

Caribbee Islands
Caribbee Islands, A Name Chiefly Of Historical Im Portance, Sometimes Applied To The Whole Of The West Indies, But Strictly Comprehending Only The Chain Of Islands Stretching From Porto Rico To The Coast Of South America. These Are Also Known As The Lesser Antilles, And The Bulk Of Them Are ...

Caribou Highway
Caribou Highway Extends From Cache Creek, B.c., Canada, To Hazelton In The Same Province, And Consists Of About 5oom. Of Improved Road Way. This Scenic Route Follows The Frazer River, Crosses The Great Lake Country To The Headwaters Of The Skeena River Near Hazelton And Passes Through Regions Abounding In ...

Caribou
Caribou, The Name Of The North American Reindeer. There Are Two Races, The Larger "woodland Caribou" And The "barren Ground Caribou." (see Reindeer.) ...

Caricature
Caricature, A General Term, Adopted From The French, For The Art Of Pictorial Ridicule Or Satire Of Any Kind, Whether Personal, Social Or Political, De Rived From The Italian Word Cari Catura In The Sense Of A Portrait In Which Characteristic Features Are Ludicrously Exaggerated. The Practice Of Personal Caricature ...

Carigara
Carigara, A Municipality (with Administration Centre And 35 Barrios Or Districts) Of The Province And Island Of Leyte, Philippine Islands, On Carigara Bay, 22 M. W. Of Tacloban, The Provincial Capital. Pop. (1918) 17,558, Of Whom 8,862 Were Males And None White. Carigara Is Open To Coast Trade, Exports Large ...

Carignano
Carignano, A Town Of Piedmont, Italy, In The Province Of Turin, Um. M. S. By Tramway From The Town Of Turin. Pop. (1921) Town, 3,952, Commune, 6,639. It Has A Handsome Church (s. Giovanni Battista) Erected In 1756-66 By The Architect Bene Detto Alfieri Di Sostegno (i 7 Oo-17 67 ...

Carillon
Carillon, An Arrangement For Playing Tunes Upon A Set Of Bells By Mechanical Means. The Word Is Said To Be A Fr. Form Of Late Lat. Or Ital. Quadriglio, A Simple Dance Measure On F Our Notes Or For Four Persons (lat. Quattuor) ; And Is Used Sometimes For The ...

Carina
Carina, One Of The Three Constellations (see Constella Tion) Into Which The Large Southern Ptolemaic Constellation Argo (q.v.) Was Subdivided. It Contains Several Variable Stars (see Star). ...

Carinatae
Carinatae, The Name Often Given In Contradistinction To Ratitae (q.v.) To A Large Section Of Birds, Including All The Mod Ern Flying Forms Except The Tinamous, On Account Of The Keel Like Process On The Breast-bone. The Terms Are Now Commonly Replaced By Palaeognathae (= Ratitae) And Neognathae (= Cari ...

Carini
Carini, A Town In The Province Of Palermo, Sicily, 13m. By Rail W.n.w. Of Palermo. Pop. (1921) 12,912 (town) ; 14,217 (commune). On The Coast Lay The Ancient Hyccara, Said To Be The Only Sican Settlement On The Coast. It Was Stormed And Taken By The Athenians In 415 B.c., ...

Carinthia
Carinthia, Formerly An Alpine Province Of Austria And Now A Gau Of Greater Germany, Occupies The Drainage Area Of The Upper Drava And Its Headwaters, Isolated By Mountain Masses. Within The Province Two Distinct Regions Exist, Viz., Upper Thia, West Of The Confluence Of The Gail And The Drava, And ...

Carisbrooke
Carisbrooke, A Town In The Isle Of Wight, England, I M. S.w. Of Newport. Pop. (1921) 4,767. The Valley Of The Lugley Brook Separates The Village From The Steep Conical Hill On Which Stands The Famous Castle. There Are Remains Of A Roman Villa In The Valley, But No Reliable ...

Carl Gustav Carus
Carus, Carl Gustav (1789-1869), German Phys Iologist And Psychologist, Distinguished Also As An Art Critic And A Landscape Painter, Was Born In Leipzig On Jan. 3, 178g, And In 1811 Became A Privatdocent In The University There. On The Sub Ject Which He Selected (comparative Anatomy) No Lectures Had Previously ...

Carleton Place
Carleton Place, A Town And Port Of Entry Of Lanark County, Ontario, Canada, 28m. S.w. Of Ottawa, On The Missis Sippi River, And At The Junction Of The Main Line And Brock Ville Branch Of The Canadian Pacific Railway. It Has Abundant Water-power Privileges, And Extensive Railway-repair Shops And Woollen ...

Carlingford
Carlingford, Market Town And Port, Co. Louth, Ireland. Pop. (1926) 547. King John's Castle Dates From 1210. There Are Remains Of Castellated Houses Built During Elizabethan And Pre Vious Wars. A Dominican Monastery Was Founded In 1305. The Town Received Several Charters Between The Reigns Of Edward Ii. And James ...

Carlinville
Carlinville, A City Of Western Illinois, U.s.a., On The Chicago And Alton Railroad, 6om. N. By E. Of Saint Louis; The County Seat Of Macoupin County. The Population In 1930 Was Natural Gas Is Found In The Vicinity, And In A Normal Year The County Mines Over 6,000,000 Tons Of ...

Carlisle
Carlisle, A City, Municipal And Parliamentary Borough, And The County Town Of Cumberland, England, 299m. N.n.w. Of London, And 8m. S. Of The Scottish Border. Pop. It Lies On The South Bank Of The River Eden, A Little Below The Point Where It Debouches Upon The Solway Plain, 8m. Above ...

Carlisle_2
Carlisle, A Borough Of Cumberland County, Pennsylvania, U.s.a., In The Pleasant And Fertile Cumberland Valley, 18m. W. By S. Of Harrisburg. It Is On Federal Highway 11, And Is Served By The Pennsylvania And The Reading Railways. The Population In 1930 Was 12,596. It Is The County Seat, And A ...

Carlo Caneva
Caneva, Carlo (1845-1922), Italian Soldier, Was Born At Tarcento (friuli) April 22, 1845, And Entered The Italian Army In 1866. He Served In The African Campaign Of 1897, And In 1902 Was Promoted Lieut.-general. Caneva Commanded One Side In The Much-discussed Manoeuvres Of 191i, His Opponent Being Cadorna And It ...

Carlo Ottavio Castiglione
Castiglione, Carlo Ottavio, Count (1784 1849), Italian Philologist, Was Born At Milan, And Died At Genoa On April Io, 1849. He Assisted Cardinal Mai In Editing The Frag Ments Of Ulphilas's Gothic Version Of The Scriptures Discovered By The Cardinal In 1817, And Himself Edited Separately Between 1829 And 1839 ...

Carloman
Carloman (828-880), King Of Bavaria And Italy, Was The Eldest Son Of Louis The German, King Of The East Franks. He Married A Daughter Of Ernest, Count Of The Bohemian Mark, And In Conjunction With His Father-in-law Resisted The Authority Of His Father In 861. In 865 An Arrangement Was ...

Carloman_2
Carloman (d. 754), Mayor Of The Palace Under The Merovin Gian Kings, Was A Son Of Charles Martel, And, Together With His Brother, Pippin The Short, Became Mayor On His Father's Death In 741, Administering The Eastern Part Of The Frankish Kingdom. He Extended The Power Of The Franks In ...

Carloman_3
Carloman (751-771), King Of The Franks, Was A Son Of King Pippin The Short, And Consequently A Brother Of Charlemagne. The Brothers Became Joint Kings Of The Franks On Pippin's Death In 768. Trouble Between Them Arising Out Of The Conduct Of The War In Aquitaine Was Followed By Carloman's ...

Carloman_4
Carloman (d. 884), King Of France, Was The Eldest Son Of King Louis Ii., The Stammerer, And Became King, Together With His Brother Louis Iii., On His Father's Death In 879. Although Some Doubts Were Cast Upon Their Legitimacy, The Brothers Ob Tained Recognition And In 88o Made A Division ...

Carlos Calvo
Calvo, Carlos (1824-1906), Argentine Publicist And Historian, Was Born At Buenos Aires On Feb. 26, 1824. He Devoted Himself To The Study Of The Law, And In 186o He Was Sent By The Paraguayan Government On A Special Mission To London And Paris. Remaining In France, He Published In 1863 ...

Carlos I
Carlos I. (1863-1908), King Of Portugal, The Third Sov Ereign Of Portugal Of The Line Of Braganza-coburg, Son Of King Louis I. And Maria Pia, Daughter Of King Victor Emmanuel Of Italy, Was Born At Lisbon On Sept. 28, 1863. On May 22, 1886, He Married Marie Amelie, Daughter Of ...

Carlow
Carlow, A County Of Ireland In The Province Of Leinster, Bounded North By The Counties Kildare And Wicklow, East By Wicklow And Wexford, South By Wexford, And West By Laorghis Co. (formerly Queen's Co.) And Kilkenny. Excepting Louth, It Is The Smallest County In Ireland, Having An Area Of 221,539 ...

Carlow_2
Carlow, County Town, Co. Carlow, Ireland, On The River Barrow. Pop. Of Urban District (192 6) 7,175. Little Of The Castle Now Remains. In The Reign Of Edward Iii. The King's Exchequer Was Removed Thither And Money Applied To Building Town Walls. Early In Elizabeth's Reign Rory Oge O'more Burnt ...

Carlsbad Caverns National Park
Carlsbad Caverns National Park, A Tract Of About 720 Ac. In South-east New Mexico, U.s.a., Set Apart In 1923 As A Government Reservation. The Series Of Caverns From Which It Is Named Was Formed By The Dissolvent Action Of Water On Original Beds Of Rock Salt, Limestone And Gypsum In ...

Carlsbad Decrees
Carlsbad Decrees, The Name Usually Given To A Series Of Resolutions (beschlusse) Passed By A Conference Of The Min Isters Of The More Important German States, Held At Carlsbad Aug. 6-31 1819. The Occasion Of The Meeting Was The Desire Of Prince Metternich To Take Advantage Of The Consternation Caused ...

Carlsbad
Carlsbad, A Celebrated Spa Of Bohemia, Czechoslovakia (czech, Karlovy Vary) , Lies About 1,225 Ft. Above Sea Level At The Junction Of The Tepl And The Ohfe. Surrounded By The Precipi Tous Pine-forested Foothills Of The Erzgebirge, It Is Squeezed Along The Valleys Of Both Streams And Rises Picturesquely Tier ...

Carlsbad_2
Carlsbad, A City In South-eastern New Mexico, U.s.a., On The Pecos River; The County Seat Of Eddy County. The'population In 193o Was 3,708. It Is Served By The Santa Fe Railway, And Is A Shipping Point For Large Quantities Of Cotton, Wool, Alfalfa And Live Stock. The Carlsbad Irrigation Project ...

Carlstadt
Carlstadt, A Borough Of Bergen County, New Jersey, U.s.a., 5m. North Of Jersey City, On The Erie Railroad. The Population Was In 1920 Foreign-born White), And Was In 193o By The Federal Census. The Numerous And Varied Manufactures Include Silk, Wire Gauges, Dynamos, Candles, Wax, Cigars, Safety Razors, Buttons, Embroidery, ...