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Encyclopedia Brittanica

Volume 5, Part 1: Cast-Iron to Cole

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Certified Public Accountant
Certified Public Accountant, An American Designation The Use Of Which Is Restricted By State Law To Account Ants Who Have Met The Legal Requirements Of The State Or States In Which They Seek Recognition. In Addition To Meeting Certain Edu Cational And Professional Demands, Candidates Must Also Submit To Written ...

Cerussite
Cerussite, A Mineral Consisting Of Lead Carbonate, And Forming An Important Ore Of Lead; It Contains 77.5% Of The Metal. The Name Is Derived From The Latin Cerussa, "white Lead." It Crystallizes In The Orthorhombic System, And Often Forms Pseudo-hexagonal Twins Like Those Of Aragonite, With Which It Is Isomorphous. ...

Cesarevich
Cesarevich (better Tsesarev1ch), The Title Until 1917 Of The Heir-apparent To The Russian Throne. The Full Official Title Was Nasliednik Tsarevich; I.e., "heir Of Caesar," And In Russian The Heir To The Throne Was Commonly Called Simply Nasliednik, The Word Tsarevich Never Being Used Alone. Tsarevich Means Any Son Of ...

Cesena
Cesena (anc. Caesena), A Town And Episcopal See Of Emilia, Italy, Province Of Forli, 12m. S.e. By Rail From The Town Of Forli, On The Line Between Bologna And Rimini, 144f T. Above Sea-level. Pop. (1921) 15,943 (town) ; (commune). The Town Is At The Foot Of The Apennines, And ...

Cespedes
Cespedes (in Ital. Cedaspe), Pablo De (1538-1608), Spanish Poet, Painter, Sculptor And Architect, Was Born At Cordova And Educated At Alcala De Henares, Where He Studied Theology And Oriental Languages. On Leaving The University He Went To Rome, Where He Became The Pupil And Friend Of Federigo Zuc Caro, Under ...

Cess
Cess, A Term Formerly More Particularly Applied To Local Taxation, In Which Sense It Still Is Used In Ireland ; Otherwise It Has Been Superseded By "rate." In India It Is Applied, With The Qualify Ing Word Prefixed, To Any Taxation, Such As "irrigation-cess" And The Like, And In Scotland ...

Cessio Bonorum
Cessio Bonorum, In Roman Law, A Voluntary Surrender Of Goods By A Debtor To His Creditors. It Did Not Amount To A Discharge Unless The Property Ceded Was Sufficient For The Purpose, But It Secured The Debtor From Personal Arrest. The Creditors Sold The Goods In Satisfaction, Pro Tanto, Of ...

Cetacea
Cetacea, An Order Of Mammals (from The Gr. Kftos, A Whale), Divisible Into Three Suborders :—archaeoceti, Exclusively Fossil ; Mystacoceti, Whalebone Whales ; And Odontoceti, Toothed Whales, Comprising Sperm Whales, Bottle-nosed Whales And Dol Phins. The Term "whale" Does Not Indicate A Natural Division Of The Order, And It Is ...

Cetatea Alba
Cetatea Alba, A Town Of Rumania (akkerman, In Old Slav, Byelgorod, I.e., White Town) In Lat. 46° 12' N., Long. 3o° 19' E., On The Right Bank Of The Estuary (liman) Of The Dniester, 12m. From The Black Sea. The Town Stands On The Site Of The Ancient Milesian Colony ...

Cethegus
Cethegus, The Name Of A Roman Patrician Family Of The Cornelian Gens. Two Individuals Are Of Some Importance:— 0) Marcus Cornelius Cethegus, Pontif Ex Maximus And Curule Aedile, 213 B.c. In 211, As Praetor, He Had Charge Of Apulia; Later, He Was Sent To Sicily, Where He Proved A Successful ...

Cetinje
Cetinje (serbian, Tsetinye), Capital Of Montenegro, Yugo Slavia, In A Narrow Plain Deep In The Limestone Mountains, 2,068f T. Above The Sea. Pop. (1931) 6,367. On One Peak Stands The White Dynastic Tomb Erected By Its Last Ruler, And On Another The Old Bell Tower Formerly Used For The Heads ...

Cette
Cette, A Seaport Of Southern France In The Department Of Herault, 18 M. S.w. Of Montpellier, At The Junction Of The P.l.m. And Midi Railways. Pop. 34,661. After Marseille It Is The Principal Commercial Port On The South Coast Of France. The Port Was Created In 1666 By The Agency ...

Cetus
Cetus ("the Whale"), In Astronomy, A Constellation Of The Southern Hemisphere, Fabled By The Greeks To Be The Monster Sent By Neptune To Devour Andromeda, But Which Was Slain By Perseus. It Contains The Long-period Variable Star Mira Ceti (o Ceti), Which Was The First Star Recognized To Be Variable ...

Cetywayo
Cetywayo (d. 1884), King Of The Zulus, Was The Eldest Son Of King Umpande Or Panda And A Nephew Of The Two Previous Kings, Dingaan And Chaka. Cetywayo Was A Young Man When In 1840 His Father Was Placed On The Throne By The Aid Of The Natal Boers; And ...

Ceuta
Ceuta (arabic Sebta), A Spanish Military And Convict Station And Sea-port On The North Coast Of Morocco, In 54' N., 5° 18' W. Pop. (estimated, 1930), 50,614. It Is Situated On A Promontory Connected With The Mainland By A Narrow Isthmus, And Marking The South-eastern End Of The Straits Of ...

Ceva
Ceva, A Town Of Piedmont, Italy, Province Of Cuneo, 33m. E. By Rail From The Town Of Cuneo, On The Line To Savona, 1,27of T. Above Sea-level. Pop. (1921) 3,793 (town) ; 5,836 (commune). The Mediaeval Fortress (defending The Confines Of Piedmont Towards Liguria) Was Destroyed By The French In ...

Cevennes
Cevennes, A Mountain Range Of Southern France, Forming The South And East Fringe Of The Plateau Central And Part Of The Watershed Between Atlantic And Mediterranean Basins. It Consists Of A Narrow Ridge Some 32o M. Long, With Numerous Lofty Plateaux And Secondary Ranges Branching From It. The Northern Division, ...

Ceylon
Ceylon, A Large Island And British Crown Colony In The Indian Ocean, Separated On The North-west From India By The Gulf Of Manaar And Palk Strait. It Lies Between 55' And 9° 51' N. And Between 79° 41' And 81° 54' E; Its Extreme Length From North To South Is ...

Chabazite
Chabazite, A Mineral Species Belonging To The Group Of Zeolites. It Occurs As White To Flesh-red Crystals Which Vary From Transparent To Translucent And Have A Vitreous Lustre. The Crystals Are Rhom Bohedral, And The Predominating Form Is Often A Rhombohedron With Interfacial Angles Of 85° 14'; They Therefore Closely ...

Chablis
Chablis, A Town Of North-central France, In The Department Of Yonne, On The Left Bank Of The Serein, 14 M. E. Of Auxerre By Road. Pop. (1931) 1,915. Its Church Of St. Martin Belongs To The End Of The I 2th Century. The Town Gives Its Name To A Well-known ...

Chabot
Chabot, Frangois French Revolutionary, Born At St. Geniez, Near Aveyron, Had Been A Franciscan Friar Before The Revolution, And After The Civil Constitution Of The Clergy Continued To Act As "constitutional" Priest. Then He Was Elected To The Legislative Assembly, Sitting At The Extreme Left, And Forming With C. Bazire ...

Chabrias
Chabrias (4th Century B.c.), Athenian General. In 388 B.c. He Defeated The Spartans At Aegina And Commanded The Fleet Sent To Assist Evagoras, King Of Cyprus, Against The Persians. In 378, When Athens Joined Thebes Against Sparta, He Defeated Agesilaus Near Thebes. On This Occasion He Invented A Manoeuvre, Which ...

Chacma
Chacma, The Cape Baboon, Papio Porcarius, Inhabiting The Mountains Of South Africa As Far North As The Zambezi. The Size Of An English Mastiff, This Powerful Baboon Is Blackish-grey In Colour With A Tinge Of Green Due To The Yellow Rings On The Hairs. Unlike Most Of Its Tribe, It ...

Chaco Canyon
Chaco Canyon, A Tract Of About 20,000 Ac. In North Western New Mexico, U.s.a., Set Apart In 1907 As A National Monu Ment. It Contains The Most Remarkable Architectural Remains Of Prehistoric North America And Has Yielded A Rich Collection Of Objects Illustrative Of A Vanished Civilization. The Buildings, Which ...

Chaco
Chaco, A Territory Of Northern Argentina, Part Of A Large District Known As The Gran Chaco, Bounded North By The Tern Tory Of Formosa, East By Paraguay And Corrientes, South By Santa Fe, And West By Santiago Del Estero And Salta. The Ber Mejo River Forms Its Northern Boundary, And ...

Chaconne
Chaconne, A Slow Dance, Introduced Into Spain By The Moors, Now Obsolete. It Resembled The Passacaglia (q.v.). The Word Is Used Also Of The Music Composed For This Dance—a Slow, Stately Movement In 4 Time. Such A Movement Was Often Intro Duced Into A Sonata, And Formed The Conventional Finale ...

Chad
Chad, A Lake Of Northern Central Africa Lying Between 12° 50' And 14° 1o' N. And 13° And 15° E. It Lies About 85oft. Above The Sea In The Borderland Between The Sudan And The Sahara. The Lake Has Greatly Shrunken Since It Was First Seen By Europeans ; This ...

Chadderton
Chadderton, An Urban District Of Lancashire, England, On The River Irk, Rm. W. Of Oldham. Pop. (1931), 27,455. It 1s A Textile Town, With Some Metal-working. ...

Chadron
Chadron, A City Of North-western Nebraska, U.s.a., In The Heart Of The Pine Ridge Country, At An Altitude Of 3,3 7of T. ; The County Seat Of Dawes County. It Is On Federal Highway 20 And The Chicago And North Western Railway. The Population Was In 1920 (91% Native White), ...

Chaeremon
Chaeremon, Athenian Dramatist Of The First Half Of The 4th Century B.c. Aristotle (rhetoric, Iii. 12) Says His Works Were Intended For Reading, Not For Representation. According To Suidas, He Wrote Comedy As Well As Tragedy, And The Title Of His Achilles, Slayer Of Thersites Suggests That It Was A ...

Chaeremon_2
Chaeremon, Of Alexandria (1st Century A.d.) Stoic Phil Osopher And Grammarian. He Was Superintendent Of Part Of The Alexandrian Library And Belonged To The Higher Ranks Of The Priesthood. In A.d. 49 He Was Summoned To Rome, With Alex Ander Of Aegae, To Become Tutor To The Youthful Nero. He ...

Chaeroneia
Chaeroneia, An Ancient Town Of Boeotia, About 7m. W. Of Orchomenus. It May Be The Homeric Arne. The Site Is Partly Occupied By The Village Of Kapraena; The Ancient Citadel Was Known As The Petrachus, And There Is A Theatre Cut In The Rock. Until The 4th Century B.c. It ...

Chaetognatha
Chaetognatha, A Small Group Of Transparent And For The Most Part Pelagic Organisms, Whose Position Is Very Isolated. There Are Eight Genera And 38 Species; The Best-known Genus Is Sagitta With 27 Species. These Animals Exist In Extraordinary Quantities, So That Under Certain Conditions The Surface Of The Sea Seems ...

Chaetopoda
Chaetopoda, Originally A Zoological Class, Including All The Annelida (q.v.), Except The Echiuroidea (q.v.). F. E. Beddard Uses The Term To Cover The Modern Classes Archiannelida, Poly Chaeta, Oligochaeta, Hirudinea (leeches) And Myzostomida (q.v.). Parker And Haswell (textbook Of Zoology) Use The Term To Include Only The Polychaetes And Oligochaetes. ...

Chafer
Chafer, A Word Used In Modern Speech To Distinguish The Beetles Of The Family Scarabaeidae, And More Especially Those Species Which Feed On Leaves In The Adult State. For The Characters Of The Scarabaeidae, See Coleoptera. This Family Includes A Large Number Of Beetles, Some Of Which Feed On Dung ...

Chaff
Chaff, The Husks Left After Threshing Grain (a.s. Ceaf, Allied To O.h.ger. Cheva, A Husk Or Pod) ; Also Hay And Straw Chopped Fine As Food For Cattle ; Hence, The Worthless Part Of Anything. The Colloquial Phrase, To Chaff, Meaning To Make Fun Of A Person, Is Derived From ...

Chaffarinas Or Zaffarines
Chaffarinas Or Zaffarines, A Group Of Islands Belonging To Spain, Off The North Coast Of Morocco, 2 M. To The North Of Cape Del Agna. Pop. C. 320. The Islands, Which Were The Tresinsulae Of The Romans And The Za F Ran Of The Arabs, Were Occupied By Spain In ...

Chaffinch
Chaffinch, A Bird (fringilla Coelebs), Belonging To The Family Fringillidae (see Finch), Distinguished, In The Male Sex, By The Deep Greyish Blue Of Its Crown Feathers, The Yellowish Green Of Its Rump, Two Conspicuous Bars Of White On The Wing Coverts, And The Reddish Brown Passing Into Vinous Red Of ...

Chafing Dish
Chafing-dish, A Sort Of Portable Grate Heated By Elec Tricity, And Used For Cooking Or Keeping Food Warm. In A Light Form, And Heated By Electricity, It Is Also Used For Cooking Various Dainty Dishes At Table. ...

Chagos
Chagos, An Archipelago In The Indian Ocean, Belonging To Great Britain And Administered By Mauritius, Set Around The Chagos Bank (circumference C. 270m.), In 44' To 39' S., And 55' To 72° 52' E. Total Land Area, 76 Square Miles. The Atolls On The South And East Side Of The ...

Chagres
Chagres, A Village Of The Republic Of Panama, On The Atlantic Coast Of The Isthmus, At The Mouth Of The Chagres River, And About 8 M. W. Of Colon. It Has A Harbour From 1 O To 12 Ft. Deep, Which Is Difficult To Enter, However, On Account Of Bars ...

Chain Manufacture
Chain Manufacture Is The Fabrication Of A Series Of Links, Usually Of Metal, Which Are Joined Together By One Of Several Methods. A Chain Provides A Flexible Loop Or A Connection Between Objects. The Metal Of The Link Is Sometimes Twisted To Form A Knot, Or Welded To Strengthen The ...

Chain Store
Chain Store. A Chain Store (known In Great Britain As "multiple Shop") Is A Retail Store That Is One Unit Of An Organized Group Of Retail Stores Handling Essentially The Same Type Of Mer Chandise, Operating Under A Common Ownership Or Ultimate Capi Tal Control And Under A Central Management ...

Chair
Chair, A Movable Seat, Usually With Four Legs And For A Single Person, The Most Varied And Familiar Article Of Domestic Furniture. (in Mid. Eng. Cliaere, Through O.fr. Chaere Or Cliaiere, From Lat. Cathedra, Later Caledra, Gr. Rca9s3pa Seat, Cf. "cathe Dral" ; The Modern Fr. Form Chaise, A Chair, ...

Chaise
Chaise, A Light Two-or Four-wheeled Carriage With A Movable Hood Or "calash" (the French For "chair," Through A Transference From A "sedan-chair" To A Wheeled Vehicle) . The "post-chaise" Was The Fast-travelling Carriage Of The And Early 1 Gth Cen Turies. It Was Closed And Four-wheeled For Two Or Four ...

Chaitanya
Chaitanya, Indian Mystic, Was Born In 1486 At Navidvip, Bengal (died C. He Was Educated At The Pathsala, Or Pri Mary School Of Navidvip And At Eight Years Of Age Entered The Sanskrit Tol. At An Early Age He Became Proficient In Sanskrit Grammar And Rhetoric. He Initiated A Popular ...

Chakma
Chakma, A Tribe In India, Of Mixed Origin, Probably The Descendants Of Prisoners Taken By The Arakanese From The Mogul Armies Who Were Provided With Magh, Mon Or Arakanese Wives. It Migrated From The Southern Portion Of The Chittagong Coastal Plain Towards The End Of The 18th Century And Is ...

Chakrata
Chakrata, A Small Mountain Cantonment In The Dehra Dun District Of The United Provinces Of India, On The Range Of Hills Overlooking The Valleys Of The Jumna And The Tons, At An Elevation Of 7,00o Ft. ...

Chalcedon
Chalcedon, More Correctly Calchedon, An Ancient Maritime Town Of Bithynia, In Asia Minor, Almost Directly Opposite Byzantium, South Of Scutari. It Was A Megarian Colony Founded On A Site So Obviously Inferior To That Which Was Within View On The Opposite Shore, That It Received From The Oracle The Name ...

Chalcedony Or Calcedony
Chalcedony Or Calcedony, A Variety Of Native Silica Occurring In Concretionary, Mammillated Or Stalactitic Forms Of Waxy Lustre And A Great Variety Of Colours—though Usually White, Grey, Yellow Or Brown. It Has A Compact Fibrous Structure And A Fine Splintery Fracture. Its Relation To Quartz Has Been The Subject Of ...

Chalcocite
Chalcocite, A Mineral Consisting Of Cuprous Sulphide (cu2s), Crystallizing In The Orthorhombic System. It Is Known Also As Copper-glance, Redruthite And Vitreous Copper. The Crystals Have The Form Of Six-sided Tables Or Prisms Which Are Usually Twinned, With The Result That They Simulate Hexagonal Symmetry. The Mineral More Often Occurs ...

Chalcondyles
Chalcondyles (or Chalcocondylas), Laonicus, The Only Athenian Byzantine Writer. He Wrote A History, In Ten Books, Of The Period From 1298-1463, Describing The Fall Of The Greek Empire And The Rise Of The Ottoman Turks, Down To The Conquest Of The Venetians And Mathias, King Of Hungary, By Mohammed Ii. ...

Chalcopyrite Or Copper Pyrites
Chalcopyrite Or Copper-pyrites, A Copper Iron Sulphide An Important Ore Of Copper. Chalcopyrite Crystallizes In The Tetragonal System With Inclined Hemihedrism, But The Form Is So Nearly Cubic That It Was Not Recognized As Tetragonal Until Accurate Measurements Were Made In 1822. Crystals Are Usually Tetrahedral In Aspect But Frequently ...

Chaldaea
Chaldaea. The Expressions "chaldaea" And "chaldae Ans" Are Frequently Used In The Old Testament As Equivalents For "babylonia" And "babylonians." Chaldaea Was Really The Name Of A Country, Used In Two Senses. It Was First Applied To The Ex Treme Southern District, Whose Ancient Capital Was The City Of Bit ...

Chaldee
Chaldee, A Term Formerly Applied To The Aramaic Por Tions Of The Biblical Books Of Ezra And Daniel Or To The Vernacular Paraphrases Of The Old Testament (see Targum), On The Assump Tion That The Language Was That Of Chaldaea (q.v.). But The Cuneiform Inscriptions Show That The Language Of ...

Chalder Or Chaldron
Chalder Or Chaldron, An Old Dry Measure Of Capac Ity, Usually Called Chalder In Scotland And Chaldron In England. In Scotland The Chalder Was Equivalent To 16 Bolls (q.v.) Of Corn, And Was Used In Computing The Stipends Of Parish Ministers, But, Like The Chaldron, It Varied According To The ...

Chalet
Chalet, A Term Applied To The Timber Houses Of Switzerland. The Bavarian Alps, Tirol And The French Alps. The Chalet Is Distinguished Above All By The Frank And Interesting Manner In Which It Makes Use Of Its Material, Wood. The Timber Used Is Generally In Heavy Planks, From 3 To ...

Chalice
Chalice, The Cup Used In The Celebration Of The Eucharist (q.v.). For The Various Forms Which The Chalice So Used Has Taken, See Drinking-vessels. The Ancient Custom Of Mixing Water With Wine In The Eucharistic Service, Practised From Early Times In Both Eastern (except The Armenian) And Western Churches, Is ...

Chalk
Chalk Is A White Or Greyish, Loosely Coherent Kind Of Lime Stone Rock, Composed Almost Entirely Of The Calcareous Remains Of Minute Marine Organisms (foraminifera, Cocoliths, Etc.) And Frag Ments Of Shells. The Purest Kinds Contain Up To 99% Of Calcium Carbonate In The Form Of The Mineral Calcite. Silica ...

Chalking The Door
Chalking The Door, A Former Scottish Custom Of Tenant Eviction Within Burgh. The Law Was That "a Burgh Officer, In Presence Of Witnesses, Chalks The Most Patent Door 4o Days Before Whit Sunday, Having Made Out An Execution Of `chalking,' In Which His Name Must Be Inserted, And Which Must ...

Challenge
Challenge: See Duel, Jury. ...

Challis
Challis, The Chief Town Of The Island Of Euboea In Greece, Is Situated On The Strait Of The Euripus At Its Narrowest Point. Ancient Chalcis Was Peopled By Ionians, And Early Developed Great Industrial And Colonizing Activity. In The 7th And 8th Cen Turies It Founded Thirty Townships On The ...

Challis_2
Challis, A Light, All-wool Fabric Of Almost Gossamer Texture Used For Women's Dressing Gowns And Children's Suits And Dresses. Challis Is Distinguished From All The Other Muslin-delaine Weaves, Of Which Class It Is A Member, By The Tiny Romantic Designs In Which It Is Printed. These Designs Are Mostly Of ...

Chalukya
Chalukya, The Name Of An Indian Dynasty Which Ruled In The Deccan From A.d. 550 To 75o, And Again From 973 To 1190. The Chalukyas Claimed To Be Rajputs From The North. The Dynasty Was Founded By A Chief Named Pulakesin I., Who Mastered The Town Of Vatapi (now Badami, ...

Chalumeau
Chalumeau Is A Word Having Several Different Musical Meanings (from Lat. Calamus, A Reed) . Thus It Is The Name Of An Obsolete Wind Instrument, With A Single Beating Reed, Of The Clarinet Type; And Also Of A Later Instrument, With A Double Reed, Which Developed Into The Oboe. It ...

Chamba
Chamba, An Indian State In The Punjab, Amid The Hima Layas, On The South Border Of Kashmir. Area, 3,216sq. Miles. Pop. (1931), 146,87o. Revenue, Ł6o,000. The Sanatorium Of Dal Housie, Though Within The State, Is Attached To The District Of Gurdaspur. Chamba Is Entirely Mountainous ; In The East, North ...

Chamber Music
Chamber Music, A Term Obviously Denoting Music For Performance In A Room Of A Private House, Has Acquired The Special Meaning Of Large Works In The Sonata Style For A Group Of Indi Vidual Instruments; Although It May Be Borne In Mind That In The Early 18th Century Vocal Cantatas ...

Chamber Orchestra
Chamber Orchestra, A Small Orchestra Of Some 20 Or 3o Players Suited To The Performance Of Works Of The Smaller And Lighter Order. ...

Chamber Symphony
Chamber Symphony, A Musical Composition Written For A Small Orchestra Exceeding In Numbers The Largest Of The Ordinary Chamber Music Combinations (octet Or Nonet) But Not Approaching Those Of A Full Orchestra, And Confined Usually To A Single Instrument In Each Class. Such A Work Is Franz Schreker's Kammersymphonie For ...

Chamberlain
Chamberlain, Etymologically, And Also To A Large Extent Historically, An Officer Charged With The Superintendence Of Do Mestic Affairs. Such Were The Chamberlains Of Monasteries Or Cathedrals, Who Had Charge Of The Finances, Gave Notice Of Chapter Meetings, And Provided The Materials Necessary For The Services. In These Cases, As ...

Chambers
Chambers, In Law, The Rooms Of Counsel Or Of Judges Or Judicial Officers Who Deal With Questions Of Practice And Other Matters Not Of Sufficient Importance To Be Dealt With In Court. It Is Doubtful At What Period The Practice Of Exercising Jurisdiction "in Chambers" Commenced In England; There Is ...

Chambersburg
Chambersburg, A Borough Of Franklin County, Penn Sylvania, U.s.a., On An Elevated Site In The Broad And Fertile Cum Berland Valley, 52 M. S.w. Of Harrisburg; It Is On Federal High Ways I 1 And 3o, And Is Served By The Pennsylvania And The West Ern Maryland Railways. The Population ...

Chambery
Chambery, A City Of France, Capital Of The Department Of Savoie, Pleasantly Situated On The Leisse, In A Fertile Valley Among The Alps, 79m. By Rail S.s.w. Of Geneva. Pop. (1931) 20,896. It Was Formerly Capital Of The Duchy Of Savoy, And Remains, With Its Quiet Narrow Streets And Its ...

Chambord
Chambord, A Village Of Central France, In The Department Of Loir-et-cher, On The Left Bank Of The Cosson, Io M. E. By N. Of Blois. Pop. (1931) 16o. The Village Stands In The Park Of Cham Bord, Which Is Enclosed By A Wall 2 2 M. In Circumference. The Celebrated ...

Chambre Ardente
Chambre Ardente, The Term For An Extraordinary Court Of Justice In France, Mainly Held For The Trials Of Heretics (fr. "burning Chamber"). These Courts Were Originated By The Cardinal Of Lorraine, The First Of Them Meeting In 1535 Under Francis I. The Chambre Ardente Co-operated With An Inquisitorial Tribunal Also ...

Chameleon
Chameleon, The Common Name Of Members Of One Of The Sub-orders Of Lizards ; The Same Name Is Used Also For The American Lizards Of The Genus Anolis (igu Anidae). The Great Majority Of The Species Of This Sub-order Are Referable To The Genus Chamae Leon (containing About 7o Spe ...

Chamfron Or Chanfrin
Chamfron Or Chanfrin. A Horse's Forehead, More Particularly The Piece Of Armour Which Covered The Front Of A Barded Horse. ...

Chamise
Chamise (adenostoma F Asciculat Ism) . A North American Shrub Of The Rose Family (rosaceae), Called Also Chamiso, Found In The Chaparral Belt On Foothills And Mountain Slopes In Cali Fornia, Ranging Up To 5,000 Ft. Altitude. It Grows From 2 Ft. To Io Ft. High, With Shreddy Brown Bark; ...

Chamois
Chamois, The Franco-swiss Name Of A Hollow-horned Ruminant Known In German As Gemse Or Gemsbok; Scientifically, Rupicapra Tragus. It Is The Only Species In The Genus, Though Every European Range Possesses A Local Race. It Is The Type Of The Sub Family Rupicaprinae, Intermediate Between The Antelopes And Goats (see ...

Chamomile Or Camomile Flowers
Chamomile Or Camomile Flowers, The Flores Anthemidis Of The British Pharmacopoeia, The Flower-heads Of Anthernis Nobilis (family Compositae), A Herb Indigenous To West Ern Europe. It Is Cultivated For Medicinal Purposes In Surrey, At Several Places In Saxony, And In France And Belgium—that Grown In England Being Much More Valuable ...

Chamonix Mont Blanc
Chamonix-mont-blanc, A Well-known Alpine Tour Ist Resort, In The Department Of Haute-savoie, South-east France. Pop. (1931) 1,364. The Valley Of Chamonix Runs From North East To South-west, And Is Watered By The Arve, Which Rises In The Mer De Glace. On The South-east Towers The Snowclad Chain Of Mont Blanc, ...

Champagne Wines
Champagne Wines. Champagne Is The Name Of One Of The Old French Provinces. It Is Also The Name Given To The Wine Made From Grapes Grown In The Former Champagne Province On Some Hill-side Vineyards Within A Comparatively Small And Very Irregular Triangle Formed By An Imaginary Line Drawn From ...

Champagne
Champagne, An Ancient Province Of France, Bounded North By Liege And Luxemburg; East By Lorraine ; South By Bur Gundy ; And West By Picardy And Isle De France. It Now Forms The Departments Of Ardennes, Marne, Aube And Haute Marne, With Part Of Aisne, Seine-et-marne, Yonne And Meuse. Its ...

Champaign
Champaign, A City Of Champaign County, Illinois, U.s.a., In A Rich Agricultural Region, 125m. S. By W. Of Chicago. It Is On Federal Highway 45 ; Is Served By The Big Four, The Illinois Cen Tral, The Wabash And The Illinois Traction Railways; And Has A Commercial Air-port. The Population ...

Champaran
Champaran, A District Of British India, In The Tirhut Division Of Behar And Orissa, Occupying The North-west Corner Of Bihar, Between The Two Rivers Gandak And Baghmati And The Nepal Hills. It Has An Area Of 3,j31 Square M., And A Population ( 1931) Of 1,080,956. The District Is A ...

Champerico
Champerico, A Pacific Port Of Guatemala, Central Amer Ica, 28m. By The International Railways Of Central America From Retalhuleu (q.v.). Population, 1,50o. Exports, Chiefly Coffee. The Harbour Is An Open Roadstead, Ships Being Served By Lighter. ...

Champerty
Champerty, In Comrnon Law, A Bargain Between A Plaintiff Or Defendant In A Cause And Another Person, To Divide The Land (campum Partiri) Or Other Subject-matter Of The Action In The Event Of Success, In Consideration Of That Person Carrying On Or Defending The Suit Partly Or Wholly At His ...

Champfer Or Chaumfer Chamfer
Chamfer, Champfer Or Chaumfer, An Archi Tectural Term For The Cutting Off Of The Edges Of The Corners Of A Beam, Post Or Other Similar Form, And Also The Slanting Surface So Produced. Chamfers Are Frequently Hollowed Or Moulded. When The Chamfer Does Not Run The Full Length Of The ...

Champion
Champion, In The Judicial Combats Of The Middle Ages The Substitute For A Party To The Suit Disabled From Bearing Arms Or Specially Exempt From The Duty To Do So (see Wager) . Hence The Word Has Come To Be Applied To Any One Who "champions," Or Contends On Behalf ...

Chan Chan
Chan Chan, A Ruined And Deserted Pre-inca City On The Coast Of Peru, Situated Some 30o M. North Of Lima And Approxi Mately 2 M. North Of Trujillo, In The Department Of La Libertad. It Was Once The Capital Of A Populous, Powerful And Relatively Ad Vanced Civilization Variously Known ...

Chance Medley
Chance-medley, An Accident Of A Mixed Character, An Old Term In English Law For A Form Of Homicide Arising Out Of A Sudden Affray Or Quarrel. This Term Is Not In Use In The United States. Manslaughter In One Of Its Various Degrees Would Embrace Such A Homicide, Under U.s. ...

Chance
Chance, An Accident Or Event, A Phenomenon Which Has No Apparent Or Discoverable Cause; Hence An Event Which Has Not Been Expected, A Piece Of Good Or Bad Fortune. From The Popular Idea That Anything Of Which No Assignable Cause Is Known Has Therefore No Cause, Chance Was Regarded As ...

Chancel
Chancel, Strictly, That Part Of A Church Close To The Altar And Separated From The Nave (q.v.) By Cancelli Or Screens. This Space, Originally Known As The Space Inter Cancellos, Or Locus Altaris Cancellis Septus, Came Itself To Be Called The Chancel. Later The Word Came To Include The Whole ...

Chancellor
Chancellor, An Official Title Used By Most Of The Peoples Whose Civilization Has Arisen Directly Or Indirectly Out Of The Roman Empire. It Stands For Very Various Duties, And Is Borne By Officers Of Various Degrees Of Dignity. The Original Chancellors Were The Cancellarii Of Roman Courts Of Justice, Ushers ...

Chancellorsville
Chancellorsville, A Village Of Spottsylvania County, Virginia, U.s.a., Situated Almost Midway Between Washington And Richmond. It Was The Central Point Of One Of The Greatest Battles Of The Civil War, Fought On May 2 And 3, 1863, Between The Union Army Of The Potomac Under Maj.-gen. Hooker, And The Confederate ...

Chancery
Chancery, In English Law, The Court Of The Lord Chancellor Of England, Consolidated In 1873 Along With The Other Superior Courts In The Supreme Court Of Judicature. Its Origin Is Noticed Under The Head Of Chancellor. It Has Been Customary To Say That The Court Of Chancery Consists Of Two ...

Chance_2
Chance, An Accident Or Event, A Phenomenon Which Has No Apparent Or Discoverable Cause; Hence An Event Which Has Not Been Expected, A Piece Of Good Or Bad Fortune. From The Popular Idea That Anything Of Which No Assignable Cause Is Known Has Therefore No Cause, Chance Was Regarded As ...

Chancre
Chancre Is A Term Formerly Used Loosely, To Designate Any Sore Or Ulcer, Especially One Of A Corroding Nature Or Venereal Origin. It Is Now Applied Almost Exclusively To The Primary Lesion Of Syphilis, Which Used To Be Called A Hard, Indurated Or Hunterian Chancre. It Appears At The Site ...

Chand Bardai
Chand Bardai (c. A.d. 1200), Hindu Poet, A Native Of Lahore, Who Lived At The Court Of Prithiraj, The Last Hindu Sovereign Of Delhi. His Prithiraj Rasau, A Poem Of Some 1 Oo,000 Stanzas, Chroni Cling His Master's Deeds And The Contem Porary History Of His Part Of India, Is ...

Chanda
Chanda. The Southernmost District Of The Central Prov Inces Of British India. Chanda Town Is The Old Capital Of An Ancient Gond Dynasty, Situated Near The Confluence Of The Erai And Wardha Rivers. It Once Had A Much Larger Population For There Are Now Waste And Cultivated Fields Inside The ...