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Encyclopedia Britannica

Volume 6, Part 2: Colebrooke to Damascius

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Holosymmetric Class
Holosymmetric Class (holohedral; Ditetragonal-bipyramidal.) Crystals Of This Class Are Symmetrical With Respect To Five Planes, Which Are Of Three Kinds; One Is Perpendicular To The Principal Axis, And The Other Four Intersect In It ; Of The Latter, Two Are Perpendicular To The Equal Crystallographic Axes, While The Two Others ...

Holosymmetric Class_2
Holosymmetric Class (holohedral; Bipyramidal.) Here There Are Three Dissimilar Dyad Axes Of Symmetry, Each Coinciding With A Crystallographic Axis; Perpendicular To Them Are Three Dissimilar Planes Of Symmetry; There Is Also A Centre Of Symmetry. There Are Seven Kinds Of Simple Forms : Bipyramid (figs. 54 And 55).—this Is The ...

Holosymmetric Class_3
Holosymmetric Class (holohedral; Prismatic.) Here There Is A Single Plane Of Symmetry Perpendicular To Which Is A Dyad Axis ; There Is Also A Centre Of Symmetry. The Dyad Axis Coincides With The Ortho-axis And The Vertical Axis Oz And The Clino-axis Ox Lie In The Plane Of Symmetry. All ...

Holosymmetric Class_4
Holosymmetric Class (holohedral; Pinacoidal.) Here There Is Only A Centre Of Symmetry. All The Forms Are Pinacoids, Each Consisting Of Only Two Parallel Faces. The Indices Of The Three Pinacoids Parallel To The Axial Planes Are { Ioo} , And { O01 } ; Those Of Pinacoids Parallel To Only ...

Holosymmetric Class_5
Holosymmetric Class (holohedral; Ditrigonal-scalenohedral.) In This Class, Which Presents The Corn Monents Type Of Symmetry Of The Hexa Gonal System, The Triad Axis Is Associated With Three Similar Planes Of Symmetry In Clined To One Another At 6o° And Intersect Ing In The Triad Axis ; There Are Also Three ...

Holosymmetric Class_6
Holosymmetric Class (holohedra1; Dihexagonal-bipyramidal.) Intersecting In The Hexad Axis Are Six Planes Of Symmetry Of Two Kinds, And Perpendicular To Them Is An Equatorial Plane Of Sym Metry. Perpendicular To The Hexad Axis Are Six Dyad Axes Of Two Kinds And Each Perpendicular To A Vertical Plane Of Symmetry. The ...

Hugh Paulinus De Cressy
Cressy, Hugh Paulinus De (c. English Benedictine, Was Born At Thorpe-salvin, Yorkshire. In 1626 He Became A Fellow Of Merton College, Oxford, And Later Dean Of Leighlin, Ireland, And Canon Of Windsor. In 1646, During A Visit To Rome He Joined The Roman Catholic Church, And In 1649 Be Came ...

Iel
Iel, 1st Marquess (1859-1925), English Statesman, Eldest Son Of The 4th Baron Scarsdale, Rector Of Kedleston, Derbyshire, Was Born On Jan. 11, 18j9, And Was Educated At Eton And Balliol College, Oxford. At Oxford He Was President Of The Union (188o), And Was Elected A Fellow Of All Souls College ...

Implements For After Cultivation
Implements For After-cultivation The Objects Of After-cultivation Are To Destroy Weeds, To Keep The Surface Layers Of The Soil In A Loose Condition In Order To Conserve Moisture, To Aerate The Soil, And In The Case Of Such Crops As Cotton, Maize And Potatoes, To Provide Fine Loose Mould For ...

Insolvency Or Bad Debt
Credit, Insolvency Or Bad Debt Insur Ance. It Was Not Until The Last Decade Of The I9th Century That Attempts Were Made To Provide Insurance Against Bad Debts. Since Then Two British Companies Have Underwritten Such Risks Profitably. In America Insurance Against Bad Debts Has Been Pro Vided By The ...

International Cricket
International Cricket Europe.-wherever Englishmen, And Especially English Sol Diers And Sailors Or Missionaries, Have Gone, They Have Taken Cricket With Them. But For The Outbreak Of The Revolution It Would Have Been Played In Paris In 1789 Under The Auspices Of The British Ambassador; The Light Division Enjoyed It At ...

Iron And Steel
Iron And Steel.) In Architecture, Cupola Is Primarily A Dome-shaped Covering For A Building Or Room, Especially When The Curvature Is Slight; Thus, In Fortifications, A Low, Flat Turret Resembling An Overturned Saucer, In Which Guns Are Mounted. By Extension The Term Has Come To Mean A Lantern (q.v.) Crowning ...

Isaac Moise Adolphe Cremieux
Cremieux, Isaac Moise ("adolphe") (1796-1880), French Lawyer And Politician, Was Born Of Jewish Parents At Nimes On April 3o, 1796, And Died In Paris On Feb. Io, 1880. After Practising At The Bar Of His Native City, He Went To Paris In 183o, And From That Time Played A Considerable ...

Isabella Valancy Crawford
Crawford, Isabella Valancy Canadian Poetess, The Daughter Of An Irish Physician, Was Born In Dublin On Dec. 25, 185o, And Died In Toronto On Feb. 12, 1887. In 1858 Dr. Crawford And His Family Emigrated To Canada And Set Tled In Ontario. After Her Father's Death Isabella Supported Her Self ...

Jacob Dolson Cox
Cox, Jacob Dolson (1828-1900), American General, Political Leader And Educationalist, Was Born On Oct. 27, 1828 In Montreal, Canada. He Was Reared In New York City, And Studied In A Law Office In 1842-44. Working In A Broker's Office In He Came Under The Influence Of Charles G. Finney, Whose ...

Jacques Courtois
Courtois, Jacques (1621-1676) And Guillaume (1628-1679). The Two French Painters Who Bore These Names Are Also Called By The Italian Equivalents Giacomo (or Jacopo) Cortese And Guglielmo Cortese. Each Of The Brothers Is Likewise Named, From His Native Province, Le Bourguignon, Or Il Borgog None. Jacques Courtois Was Born At ...

Jakobus Jan Cremer
Cremer, Jakobus Jan (1827-188o), Dutch Novelist, Born At Arnhem, Started Life As A Painter. His First Tales (betuw Sche Novellen And Overbetuwsche Novellen), Published About 1855—reprinted Many Times Since, And Translated Into German And French—made His Reputation. These Short Stories Of Dutch Provincial Life Are Written In The Quaint Dialect ...

James Andrew Broun Ramsay
Dalhousie, James Andrew Broun Ramsay, Ist Marquess And Ioth Earl Of (1812-1860), British Statesman And Indian Administrator, Was Born At Dalhousie Castle, Scotland, On April 22, 1812. He Was The Third Son Of George Ramsay, 9th Earl Of Dalhousie (177o-1838), One Of Wellington's Generals, Who, After Holding The Highest Offices ...

James Craggs
Craggs, James (1657-1721), English Politician, Who, After Following Various Callings In London, Entered The Service Of The Duchess Of Marlborough, Through Whose Influence He Be Came In 1702 Member Of Parliament For Grampound, Retaining His Seat Until 1713. He Was In Business As An Army Clothier And Held Several Official ...

James Craig Craigavon
Craigavon, James Craig, 1st Viscount ), The First Prime Minister Of Northern Ireland, Was Born Jan. 8, 1871, A Son Of James Craig Of Craigavon, Co. Down. He Was Educated At Merchiston School, Edinburgh, And Served In The South African War Of I899-19o2 In The Royal Irish Rifles. He Won ...

James Crichton
Crichton, James (156o?-1582), Commonly Called The "admirable Crichton," Was The Son Of Robert Crichton, Lord Ad Vocate Of Scotland In The Reign Of Mary And James Vi., And Of Elizabeth, Daughter Of Sir James Stewart Of Beath, Through Whom He Claimed Royal Descent. He Was Born Probably At Eliock In ...

James Croll
Croll, James (1821-1890), Scottish Scientist, Was Born Near Cargill (perthshire), On Jan. 2, 1821. He Was Self-educated, But In 1859 Was Made Keeper Of The Andersonian Museum In Glasgow, And From 1867 To 188o Was In Charge Of The Edin Burgh Office Of The Geological Survey Of Scotland. He Wrote ...

James Currie
Currie, James (1756-1805), Scottish Physician And Editor Of Burns, Son Of The Minister Of Kirkpatrick-fleming, In Dumfriesshire, Was Born There On May 31, 1756, And Died At Sid Mouth On Aug. 31, 1805. He Spent Some Years In America Before He Studied Medicine And Became Physician (1783) Of Liverpool Infirmary. ...

James Middleton Cox
Cox, James Middleton (187o— ), American Politician, Was Born Near Jacksonburg (o.), On March 31, 187o. After Being Educated In The Common Schools He Worked In A Newspaper Office, And For A Short Time Was A Country School Teach Er. Later He Became A Reporter On The Cincinnati Enquirer. In ...

Jean Cousin
Cousin, Jean (1500-1590), French Painter, Was Born At Soucy, Near Sens, And Began As A Glass-painter, His Windows In The Sainte Chapelle At Vincennes Being Considered The Finest In France. As A Painter Of Subject Pictures He Is Ranked As The Founder Of The French School, As Having First Departed ...

Jean Cruveilhier
Cruveilhier, Jean French Anatomist, Born At Limoges On Feb. 9, 1791, Was Professor Of Anatomy In Paris. He Gave The First Description Of Disseminated Sclerosis, And Left An Early Account Of Progressive Muscular Atrophy, But He Erroneously Supposed That Pyemia Was Always The Result Of Phle Bitis Which He Referred ...

Jean Pierre De Crousaz
Crousaz, Jean Pierre De (1663-1748), Swiss Writer, Was Born At Lausanne. In 1700 He Became Professor Of Philosophy And Mathematics There, And In 1724 Theological Dis Putes About The Consensus (a Document Drawn Up As A Test Of Protestant Orthodoxy As To The Doctrine Of Grace) Led To His Going ...

Johann Baptist Cramer
Cramer, Johann Baptist (177 Naturalized English Musician, Of German Extraction, Was Born In Mannheim. Son Of Wilhelm Cramer (1743-1799), A Famous London Violinist And Musical Conductor, One Of A Numerous Family Who Were Identified With The Progress Of Music During The 18th And I9th Centuries, He Was Brought To London ...

Johann Kristen Clausen Dahl
Dahl, Johann Kristen Clausen Norwegian Landscape Painter, Was Born In Bergen On Feb. 24, 1788, And Died In Dresden On Oct. 14, 1857. He Settled In Dres Den In 1818. Dahl Is Usually Included In The German School, Al Though He Was Nearly 4o When He Finally Took Up His ...

John Adolf Dahlgren
Dahlgren, John Adolf (18o9-187o), Admiral In The U.s. Navy, Was The Son Of The Swedish Consul At Philadelphia, Pa., And Was Born In That City On Nov. 13, 1809. He Entered The Navy In 1826, And Saw Some Service In The Civil War In Command Of The South Atlantic Blockading ...

John Beattie Crozier
Crozier, John Beattie British Phil Osopher, Was Born At Galt, Canada, Of Scottish Parentage, On April 23, 1849. After Graduating In Medicine At Toronto Univer Sity In 1872, He Bought A Practice In London, England, And Then Began A Systematic Study Of Philosophy And Economics. His First Publication The Religion ...

John Cowell
Cowell, John (1554-1611), English Jurist, Was Born At Ernsborough, Devonshire. He Was Educated At Eton, And King's College, Cambridge, Ultimately Becoming Professor Of Civil Law And Master Of Trinity Hall. In 1607 He Compiled A Law Dictionary, The Interpreter, In Which He Exalted The King's Prerogative So Much That He ...

John Craig
Craig, John (1512?-260o), Scottish Reformer, The Son Of Craig Of Craigston, Aberdeenshire, Was Educated At St. Andrews And Became A Dominican. He Came Under Suspicion Of Heresy, And Made His Way In 1536 To England And Then To Italy, Where By The Influence Of Cardinal Pole, He Became Master Of ...

John Crome
Crome, John English Landscape Painter, Founder And Chief Representative Of The "norwich School"—of Ten Called Old Crome, To Distinguish Him From His Son—was Born At Norwich, On Dec. 22, 1768. His Father Was A Weaver And His Early Years Were Spent In Work Of The Humblest Kind. During His Ap ...

John Crowne
Crowne, John (c. 164o-1703), British Dramatist, Was A Native Of Nova Scotia And Was Born About 164o. His Father "colonel" William Crowne, Accompanied The Earl Of Arundel On A Diplomatic Mission To Vienna In 1637, And Wrote An Account Of His Journey. He Emigrated To Nova Scotia, Where He Received ...

John Crunden
Crunden, John (d. 1828) English Architectural And Decorative Designer. Most Of His Early Inspiration Was Drawn From Chippendale And His School; Later The Influence Was A Bastard Classicism. He Produced And Published Many Designs. ...

John Curwen
Curwen, John (1816-1880), English Nonconformist Minister And Founder Of The Tonic Sol-fa System Of Musical Teach Ing, Was Born At Heckmondwike, Yorkshire, Of An Old Cumberland Family, And Died At Manchester On May 26, 1880. His Father Was A Nonconformist Minister, And He Himself Adopted This Calling, Which He Practised ...

John Cutts Cutts Of
Cutts Of Gowran, John Cutts, Baron (1661 1707), British Soldier, Was Educated At Catherine Hall, Cambridge. In 1686 He Served Under Charles Of Lorraine In Hungary, And In 1688 As Lieutenant-colonel In Holland. He Fought For William In The English Revolution Of 1688, And In 169o, As Commander Of A ...

John Dalton
Dalton, John (1766-1844), English Chemist And Physi Cist, Was Born About Sept. 6, 1766, At Eaglesfield, Near Cocker Mouth In Cumberland. His Father, Joseph Dalton, Was A Weaver In Poor Circumstances, Who Belonged To The Society Of Friends. John Received His Early Education From His Father And From John Fletcher, ...

John Damascenus
Damascenus, John: See John Of Damascus. Damascenus, Nicolaus: See Nicolaus Damas Cenus. ...

John De Courci
Courci, John De (d. 1219?), Anglo-norman Conqueror Of Ulster, Was A Member Of A Celebrated Norman Family Of Ox Fordshire And Somersetshire. It Appears That He Accompanied William Fitzaldelm To Ireland When The Latter, After The Death Of Strongbow, Was Sent Thither By Henry Ii., And That He Immediately Headed ...

John Dobree Dalgairns
Dalgairns, John Dobree English Roman Catholic Priest, Was Born In Guernsey On Oct. 21, 1818, And Educated At Exeter College, Oxford. Dalgairns Became A Roman Catholic In 1845, And With Newman Became A Member Of The Congregation Of The Oratory At Rome. On His Return To Eng Land In 1848 ...

John Henry Dallmeyer
Dallmeyer, John Henry (183o-1883), Anglo-ger Man Optician, Was Born On Sept. 6, 183o At Loxten, Westphalia, The Son Of A Landowner. On Leaving School At The Age Of 16, He Was Apprenticed To An Osnabruck Optician, And In 1851 He Came To London, Where He Obtained Work With An Optician ...

John Jordan Crittenden
Crittenden, John Jordan (1787-1863), U.s. Statesman, Was Born In Versailles (ky.), On Sept. Io, 1787. After He Had Graduated From The College Of William And Mary In 1807, He Began The Practice Of Law In His Native State. He Was Attorney General Of Illinois Territory, And, From 1811 To 1817, ...

John Merle Coulter
Coulter, John Merle (1851-1928), American Bot Anist, Was Born At Ningpo, China, On Nov. 20, 1851. He Gradu Ated At Hanover College, Hanover, Ind., In 187o And Pursued Further Study There And At Indiana University, Receiving From The Latter In 1884 The Degree Of Doctor Of Philosophy. After Serving As ...

John Philpot Curran
Curran, John Philpot ,1750-1817), Irish Politi Cian And Judge, Was Born On July 24, 1750, At Newmarket, Cork, Where His Father, A Descendant Of One Of Cromwell's Soldiers, Was Seneschal To The Manor-court. He Was Educated At Middleton, And Trinity College, Dublin; And In 1773, Having Taken His M.a. Degree, ...

John Robert Cozens
Cozens, John Robert (c. 1752-1797), English Land Scape Painter In Watercolours, Born In London. His Father, Alex Ander Cozens, Said To Have Been The Natural Son Of Peter The Great And An Englishwoman From Deptford, After Having Studied Art In Italy, Came To England In 1746, Was Drawing Master At ...

John Wilson Croker
Croker, John Wilson (178o-18s7), British States Man And Author, Was Born At Galway On Dec. 20, 178o, Being The Only Son Of John Croker, The Surveyor-general Of Customs And Excise Of Ireland. He Was Educated At Trinity College, Dublin, Where He Graduated In 1800. Immediately Afterwards He Was Entered At ...

Joseph Cowen
Cowen, Joseph (1831-190o), English Orator, Politician And Journalist, Son Of A Northumberland Mine-owner, Sir Joseph Cowen, Was Educated At Edinburgh University. From An Early Age He Showed Rare Gifts Of Eloquence And Enthusiasm On Behalf Of Advanced Democracy At Home And Liberty Abroad. He Sympathized With The Chartists And His ...

Joseph George Cumming
Cumming, Joseph George English Geologist And Archaeologist, Was Born At Matlock, Derbyshire, On Feb. 15, 1812. He Was Educated At Oakham Grammar School And Emmanuel College, Cambridge. From 1841 To 1856 He Was Vice Principal Of King William's College, Castletown, Isle Of Man. He Wrote The Isle Of Man; Its ...

Juan De La Cueva
Cueva, Juan De La (1550?-1610?), Spanish Dramatist And Poet, Was Born At Seville. A Precursor Of Lope, He Draws His Inspiration From The National Legend, Historic Tradition, And Contemporary Life, As In Los Siete Infantes De Lara, El Saco De Roma, And El In F Amador, An Anticipation Of Don ...

Jules Dalou
Dalou, Jules 2 ), French Sculptor, Was Born In Paris, And Died There On April 15, 1902. He Was A Pupil Of Car Peaux And Duret And Combined The Vivacity And Richness Of The One With The Academic Purity And Scholarship Of The Other. He Was One Of The Most ...

Julius Sophus Felix Dahn
Dahn, Julius Sophus Felix German Historian, Jurist And Poet, Was Born On Feb. 9, 1834, In Hamburg, Where His Father, Friedrich Dahn (1811-89), Was A Leading Actor At The City Theatre. His Mother, Constance Dahn, Née Le Gay, Was A Noted Actress. In 1834 The Family Moved To Munich. Felix ...

Karl Czerny
Czerny, Karl (179r-1857), Austrian Pianist And Com Poser, Was Born At Vienna, Where He Remained Throughout His Life. His Father, Who Was A Teacher Of The Piano, Trained Him For That Instrument From An Early Age With Such Success That He Per Formed In Public At The Age Of Nine, ...

Karl Fredrik Dahlgren
Dahlgren, Karl Fredrik Swedish Poet, Was Born At Stensbruk In Ostergotland On June 20, 1791. At A Time When Literary Partisanship Ran High In Sweden, And The Writers Divided Themselves Into "goths" And "phosphorists," Dahlgren Made Himself Indispensable To The Phosphorists By His Polemical Activity. In The Mock-heroic Poem Of ...

Kenyon Cox
Cox, Kenyon (1856-1919), American Painter, Was Born At Warren (0.), On Oct. 27, 1856, The Son Of Gen. Jacob Dolson Cox. He Was A Pupil Of Carolus-duran And Of J. L. Gerome In Paris From 1877-82, When He Returned To New York, Subsequently Teaching With Much Success In The Art ...

Le Chatelain De Coucy
Coucy, Le Chatelain De, French Trouvere Of The 12th Century. He Is Probably The Guy De Couci Who Was Castel Lan Of The Castle Of That Name From I186 To 1203. Some 26 Songs Are Attributed To Him, And About 15 Or 16 Are Undoubtedly Authen Tic. They Are Modelled ...

Limited Courtaulds
Courtaulds, Limited. This British Joint-stock Com Pany Has Had A Continuous Existence Since 1825, And The Old Firm Of Samuel Courtauld And Company, Limited, The Predecessors Of The Present Company, Had A Wide Reputation For Mourning Crepes Manufactured From Natural Silk. In 1904 The Company Commenced The Manufacture Of Artificial ...

Limited Cunard Steamship Company
Cunard Steamship Company, Limited. This British Steamship Company Takes Its Name From Samuel Cunard (q.v.) Who, In 1839, Secured The American Mail Carrying Contract From The British Admiralty. The Original Cunard Fleet, Or As It Was Then Called, The British And North American Royal Mail Steam Packet Company, Consisted Of ...

Local Marketing And Financing
Local Marketing And Financing Of Cotton Crop United States.—the Early Financing Of The American Crop Varies Greatly With The Method Of Agricultural Tenure. In Many Cotton States The Cultivation Is Carried Out By "croppers" Or "renters"—poor Agriculturists, Often Negroes—who Run And Work Small Farms But Who Are Merely Tenants And ...

Lorenzo Di Credi
Credi, Lorenzo Di (1457-1537), Italian Artist, Whose Surname Was Barducci, Was Born At Florence. He Was The Least Gifted Of Three Artists Who Began Life As Journeymen With Andrea Del Verrocchio. The Other Two Were Leonardo Da Vinci And Perugino, Of Whom He Was The Companion And Friend. Credi Had ...

Louis Balbis De Berton
Crillon, Louis Balbis De Berton De (i 543 1615), French Soldier, Called By Henry Iv. "the Bravest Of The Brave," Was Born At Murs In Provence. As A Boy Of 14 He Joined The Army Of The Duke Of Guise And Won Distinction At The Capture Of Calais And Guines ...

Louis Couperus
Couperus, Louis (1863-1923), Dutch Writer, Was Born At The Hague. His Life As A Boy Was Spent In The Dutch East Indies, Where His Father Was A Prominent Government Official. His First Novel Eline Vere, Written Under The Influence Of Tolstoy, Appeared In 1889, And Was Followed By Noodlot (the ...

Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre
Daguerre, Louis Jacques Mande French Painter And Physicist, Inventor Of The Daguerreotype, Was Born At Cormeilles, In The Department Of Seine-et-oise, And Died On July I2, 1851, At Petit-brie-sur-marne, Near Paris. He Was At First An Inland Revenue Officer And Then A Scene-painter For The Opera. In 1822, In Conjunction ...

Lucas Cranach
Cranach, Lucas (1472-1553), German Painter, Was Born At Cronach, In Upper Franconia, And Learnt The Art Of Draw Ing From His Father. He Attracted The Attention Of The Elector Of Saxony, Who Gave Him A Position In His Court In 15o4. The Only Clue To Cranach's Settlement Previous To His ...

Lucius Papirius Cursor
Cursor, Lucius Papirius, Roman General, Five Times Consul And Twice Dictator. In 325 B.c. He Was Appointed Dictator To Carry On The Second Samnite War. After The Disaster Of The Caudine Forks (q.v. 321 B.c.) Cursor To Some Extent Wiped Out The Disgrace By Compelling Luceria (which Had Revolted) To ...

Luigi Cremona
Cremona, Luigi (183o-1903 ), Italian Mathematician, Was Born At Pavia, And Fought As A Volunteer In The Abortive North Italian Rising Of 1848-49. After Studying Under Francesco Brioschi At The University Of Pavia He Became Elementary Mathematical Master At The Gymnasium And Lyceum Of Cremona, And After Wards At Milan. ...

Magnus Jakob Crusenstolpe
Crusenstolpe, Magnus Jakob Swedish Historian, Was Born At Jonkoping On March 11, His First Important Work Was A History Of The Early Years Of The Life Of King Gustavus Iv. Adolphus (1837) Which Was Followed By A Series Of Monographs And By Some Politico-historical Novels, Of Which The House Of ...

Manasseh Cutler
Cutler, Manasseh (1742-1823), American Clergy Man, Was Born In Killingly, Conn., On May 13, 1742. He Graduated At Yale College In 1765, And After Being A School Teacher And A Merchant, And Occasionally Appearing In The Courts As A Lawyer, He Decided To Enter The Ministry. From In' He Was ...

Mandell Creighton
Creighton, Mandell (1843-1901), English Historian And Bishop Of London, Was Born At Carlisle On July 5 1843. He Was Educated At Durham Grammar School And At Merton College, Oxford. Where In 1866 He Became Tutor And Fellow. He Was Or Dained Priest In 1873 ; And During 1872 He Had ...

Manure Distributors
Manure Distributors The Application Of Dung And Mineral Substances (chalk, Marl, Sea-sand) As Fertilizers At Various Stages Of The Operations Of Culti Vation Is Of Very Ancient Origin. Except In Those Cases In Which Animals Were Fed Off Or Folded On The Land It Was Necessary To Cart The Manure, ...

Marcus Curtius
Curtius, Marcus, A Legendary Hero Of Ancient Rome. It Is Said That In 362 B.c. A Deep Gulf Opened In The Forum, Which The Seers Declared Would Never Close Until Rome's Most Valuable Possession Was Thrown Into It. Then Curtius, Recognizing That Nothing Was More Precious Than A Brave Citizen, ...

Maria Cunitz
Cunitz, Maria (c. 1610-1664), Silesian Astronomer, Was The Eldest Daughter Of Dr. Heinrich Cunitz Of Schweinitz, And The Wife (1630) Of Dr. Elias Von Loven, Of Pitschen In Silesia— Both Of Them Men Of Learning And Distinction. From Her Univer Sal Accomplishments She Was Called The "silesian Pallas," And The ...

Martial Law
Martial Law.) The Ecclesiastical Courts, Which Were Formerly Very Powerful In England, And Punished Persons For Various Offences, Such As Blasphemy (q.v.), Perjury, Swearing, And Sexual Offences, Have Now Almost Fallen Into Disuse. Their Authority Over Protestant Dis Senters From The Established Church Was Taken Away By Statute; Their Authority ...

Michael Coxcie
Coxcie, Michael (1499-1592), Flemish Painter, Was Born At Malines, And Studied Under Bernard Van Orley. At Rome In 1532 He Painted The Chapel Of Cardinal Enckenvoort In The Church Of Santa Maria Dell' Anima. Coxcie's Principal Occupation Was Designing For Engravers; And The Fable Of Psyche In 32 Sheets By ...

Michael Dahl
Dahl, Michael , Swedish Portrait Painter, Was Born At Stockholm. In 1688 He Settled In England, And Be Came For Some Years A Dangerous Rival To Kneller. He Painted Portraits Of Princess Anne (afterwards Queen), Prince George Of Denmark And Others. Through Prince George, He Obtained A Com Mission To ...

Michel Guillaume Jean De Crevecoeur
Crevecoeur, Michel-guillaume Jean De (1735-1813), Commonly Called Hector St. John, Was Born Near Caen, France, Jan. 31, 1735, Of An Old Norman Family. One Of America's First "back To Nature" Writers, He Lives Through His Letters From An American Farmer, Perhaps The Most Delightful Book Of The American Colonial Period. ...

Mihaly Vitez Csokonai
Csokonai, Mihaly Vitez Hungarian Poet, Was Born At Debreczen On Nov. 17, 1773, And Died There On Jan. 28, 1805. Appointed Professor Of Poetry In His Native Town He Lost His Position On Account Of His Irregular Life, And The Rest Of His Short Existence Was Spent In Extreme Poverty. ...

Miles Coverdale
Coverdale, Miles (1488?—i56g), English Translator Of The Bible And Bishop Of Exeter, Was Born Of Yorkshire Parents About 1488, Studied Philosophy And Theology At Cambridge, Was Ordained Priest At Norwich In 1514, And Then Entered The Convent Of Austin Friars At Cambridge. Here He Came Under The In Fluence Of ...

Modern Confessions Of Faith
Modern Confessions Of Faith I. New Motives And Forms.—the Form Of The Confessions Of The Modern Period Cannot Be Understood Without Glancing Back For A Moment At The Middle Ages. From The Condemnation Of Pelagius Onwards The Western Church Reached Numerous Doctrinal Decisions Of Its Own. They Have, In Part ...

Nathaniel Crew Crew
Crew, Nathaniel Crew, 3rd Baron (1633-1721), Bishop Of Durham, Was Born On Jan. 31, 1633, And Educated At Lincoln College, Oxford. After Holding Various Ecclesiastical Ap Pointments, He Became Bishop Of Oxford In 1671, Of Durham In 1674, And, Under James Ii., Dean Of The Chapel Royal. After Compton's Suspension ...

Nicholas Crell Or Krell
Crell Or Krell, Nicholas (c. Chan Cellor Of The Elector Of Saxony, Was Born In Leipzig And Educated At The University Of His Native Town. About 158o He Entered The Service Of Christian, The Eldest Son Of Augustus I., Elector Of Saxony, And When Christian Succeeded His Father As Elector ...

Nicolas Coustou
Nicolas Coustou (1658-1733) Was The Son Of A Wood-carver At Lyons, Where He Was Born. At 18 He Removed To Paris, To Study Under C. A. Coysevox, His Mother's Brother, President Of The Recently Established Academy Of Painting And Sculpture ; And At 23 He Gained The Colbert Prize, Which ...

Nicolaus Cusanus
Cusanus, Nicolaus (nicholas Of Cusa) (1401-1464), Cardinal, Theologian And Scholar, The Son Of A Boatman Named Krypffs Or Krebs, Derived His Name From His Birthplace, Kues Or Cusa, On The Moselle. He Took His Doctor's Degree In Law At Padua In 1423, And After Studying Theology At Cologne Became Archdeacon ...

Noel Coward
Coward, Noel ), English Playwright And Actor, Was Born At Teddington On Dec. 16, 1899, And Was Educated Privately. He Made His Stage Debut As A Child, And Developed Into A Competent Actor. As A Playwright His Skilful Management Of Dia Logue And His Frank Avowal Of Certain Modern Tendencies ...

Octave Cremazie
Cremazie, Octave (1827-1879), Canadian Poet, Was Born At Quebec On April 16, 1827, And Educated At The Seminary Of Quebec. An Extraordinarily Learned Man, He Started A Bookshop With His Two Brothers, Jacques And Joseph, Which Became The Cen Tre Of A Literary Circle Including Etienne Parent, F. Garneau, Louis ...

Oliver Cromwell
Cromwell, Oliver Lord Protector Of England, Was The Son Of Robert Cromwell Of Huntingdon And Elizabeth Steward. His Father Was The Great-grandson Of Mor Gan Williams, Who Married The Sister Of Thomas Cromwell, The Ruthless Minister Of Henry Viii. Richard, The Son Of Morgan, Acted As Agent To Thomas Cromwell, ...

Olof Von Dalin
Dalin, Olof Von (1708-1763), Swedish Poet, Was Born In The Parish Of Vinberg In Halland, Where His Father Was The Min Ister. He Was Nearly Related To Rydelius, The Philosophical Bishop Of Lund And Was Sent At A Very Early Age To Be Instructed By Him, Linnaeus Being One Of ...

Or Cryptography
Cryptography, Or Writing In Cipher (from Gr. Kpvlrros Hidden, And 'ypackeiv, To Write), Called Also Steganography (from Gr. Or€'y6xn, A Covering), The Art Of Writing In Such A Way As To Be Incomprehensible Except To Those Who Possess The Key To The System Employed. The Unravelling Of The Writing Is ...

Organization Of The Cotton
Organization Of The Cotton Industry The Broad Plan Of This Article Is To Study In Detail The Organiza Tion Of The Cotton Industry In Great Britain, Since That Is The Most Highly Developed In The World, And Then To Pass On To Consider How Far The Organization Of Industries In ...

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Dagnan-bouveret, Pascal Adolphe Jean (1852-1929), French Painter, Born In Paris On Feb. 7, 185 2. He Studied Under Gerome At The Ecole Des Beaux Arts, And First Attracted Notice By His Picture "a Wedding At The Photographers" In The Salon Of 1879. He Joined The Movement, Initiated By Bastien-lepage In ...

Paul Cullen
Cullen, Paul (1803-1878), Cardinal, And Archbishop Of Dublin, Was Born At Prospect, County Kildare, On April 29, 1803, And Educated At Carlow College And The Urban College Of Propa Ganda At Rome. On His Ordination In 1829, He Was Appointed To The Chairs Of Hebrew And Sacred Scriptures In The ...

Paul Louis Courier
Courier, Paul Louis French Hellenist And Political Writer, Was Born In Paris On Jan. 4, 1 7 7 3. Brought Up On His Father's Estate Of Mere In Touraine, He Would Never Take The Name "de Mere," To Which He Was Entitled, Lest He Should Be Thought A Nobleman. At ...

Pauline Craven
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Peter Courtenay
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Physical Properties Of Crystals
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