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Encyclopedia Britannica

Volume 7, Part 2: Damascus to Education in Animals

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Abraham Duquesne
Duquesne, Abraham, Marquis (1610-1688), French Naval Officer, Was Born At Dieppe In 161 O. He Spent His Youth In The Merchant Service, And Captured The Island Of Lerins From The Spaniards In May 1637. About The Same Time His Father Was Killed In An Engagement With The Spaniards, And The ...

Adam Duncan Duncan
Duncan, Adam Duncan, 1st Viscount (1731 1804), British Naval Commander, Was Born On July 1, 1731, At Lundie, In Forfarshire, Scotland. Entering The Navy In 1746, He Saw Much Active Service In European And American Waters, And In Feb. 1795 He Hoisted His Flag As Commander-in-chief Of The North Sea ...

Adolf Ebert
Ebert, Adolf (182o-189o), German Romance Philologist, Was Born At Kassel On June 1, 1820. He Was Professor Of Romance Languages In Marburg, And From 1862 Onwards In Leipzig, Where He Died On July 1, 1890. He Wrote A Standard Work On Mediaeval Literature, Which Is Still Indispensable To The Student ...

Adrenal Glands
Adrenal Glands The Adrenal Glands Or Suprarenal Capsules Are Two Conical Bodies, Flattened From Before Backward, Resting On The Upper Poles Of The Kidneys Close To The Sides Of The Vertebral Column ; Each Has A Concave Base Which Is In Contact With The Kidney. On The Anterior Surface Is ...

Agnes Mary Frances Duclaux
Duclaux, Agnes Mary Frances (1857— ), English Poet And Critic (née Robinson), Was Born At Leamington On Feb. 27, 1857. In 1888 She Married James Darmesteter (q.v.), And In 1901, After His Death, Emile Duclaux, Director Of The Pasteur Institute. She Published Several Volumes Of Poetry, Includ Ing A Handful ...

Albrecht Durer
Durer, Albrecht German Painter, Draughtsman And Engraver, Was Born At Nuremberg On May 21, 1471. Albrecht Diirer The Elder, Born At Gyula, Hungary, In 1427, Was A Goldsmith By Trade, And Settled Soon After The Middle Of The 15th Century In Nuremberg. He Served As Assistant Under A Master-goldsmith Of ...

Alexander Duff
Duff, Alexander (1806-1878), Scottish Missionary In India, Was Born At Auchnahyle, Moulin, Perthshire. At St. An Drews University He Came Under The Influence Of Dr. Chalmers, And Was Sent Out By The Foreign Mission Committee Of The General Assembly As Their First Missionary To India. He Was Ordained In Aug. ...

Alexander Dyce
Dyce, Alexander (1798-1869), British Dramatic Edi Tor And Literary Historian, Was Born In Edinburgh On June 3o, 1798. He Was Educated At Edinburgh High School And Exeter College, Oxford. He Took Holy Orders, And Became A Curate At Lantegloss, In Cornwall, And Subsequently At Nayland, In Suffolk. In 1827 He ...

Alexandre Alexandre Davy De
Dumas, Alexandre (alexandre Davy De La Paille Terie) French Novelist And Dramatist, Was Born At Villers-cotterets (aisne) On July 24, 1802. His Father, Gen Eral Dumas (alexandre Davy De La Pailleterie) Was Born In San Domingo, The Natural Son Of Antoine Alexandre Davy, Marquis De La Pailleterie, By A Negress, ...

Alexandre Dumas
Dumas, Alexandre ("dumas Fils") French Dramatist And Novelist, Was Born In Paris On July 27, 1824, The Natural Son Of Alexandre Dumas (see Above) And The Dress Maker Marie Labay. "happily," Writes The Son, "my Mother Was A Good Woman, And Worked Hard To Bring Me Up"; While Of His ...

Alexandre Vincent Pineux Duval
Duval, Alexandre Vincent Pineux (1767 1842), French Dramatist, Was Born At Rennes On April 6, 1767. He Was In Turn Sailor, Architect, Actor, Theatrical Manager And Dramatist. Of His 6o Or More Plays Les Pro Jets De Menage (179o), Les Tuteurs Venges (1794) And Les Heritiers (1796) Have Been Revived ...

Alfred Dove
Dove, Alfred (1844-1916), German Historian, Was Born On April 4, 1844, In Berlin, And Studied Medicine And Science At Heidelberg And Berlin. From 1870 He Edited Grenzboten And Then H A Neuen Reich. In 1s74 He Became Professor Of History At Breslau And In 1884 At Bonn. In 1890 He ...

Alfred Dreyfus
Dreyfus, Alfred French Soldier, Was Born On Oct. 9, 1859, The Son Of A Mulhouse Manufacturer. After Studying At The Ecole Polytechnique, He Entered The Army As A Lieutenant Of Artillery. He Became A Captain In 1889, Passed Through The Ecole Superieure De La Guerre (staff College), And Re Ceived ...

Alfred East
East, Alfred (1849-1913), British Painter And Etcher, Was Born At Kettering, Northamptonshire, On Dec. 15, He Studied At The Glasgow School Of Art And Then In Paris At The L?cole Des Beaux-arts, And Under Robert Fleury And Bougue Reau. He Began To Exhibit At The Royal Academy In 1883, And ...

Amalgamation Of Dyeworks And
Dyeworks And Chemical Industries, Amalgamation Of. The Company Known As I. G. Far Benindustrie Aktiengesellschaft, Founded Dec. 2, 1925, Embodies The Amalgamation Of The German Tar Dye Factories (badische Anilin- & Soda-fabrik, Ludwigshafen, Farbenfabriken Vorm. Friedr. Bayer & Co., Leverkusen, Farbwerke Vormals Meister Lucius & Bruning, Hoechst, Aktiengesellschaft Fur Anilinf ...

Amoebic Dysentery
Amoebic Dysentery This Is Also Called Amoebiasis, Loeschiasis Or Tropical Dysentery, The Latter Because Of Its Early Endemicity And Greater Incidence In The Tropical Areas. The Causal Organism E. Histolytica (loesch 1871) Affects Man Alone In Nature, Though The Dog, Cat, Guinea-pig And Rat Have Been Infected Experimentally. The E. ...

Anatomical Drawing
Drawing, Anatomical. The Study Of The Anatomy Of The Human Body Is Approached By The Artist And The Anatomist From Different Points Of View. The Former, By A Process Of Artistic Selection, Seeks The Ideal And Adopts The Proportions Which Give The Most Pleasing Effect, While The Latter Desires To ...

Anatomy Of Ear
Ear, Anatomy Of. The Human Ear Is Divided Into Three Parts—external, Middle And Internal. The External Ear Con Sists Of The Pinna And The External Auditory Meatus. The Pinna Is Composed Of Yellow Fibro-cartilage Covered By Skin. Round The Margin In Its Upper Three-quarters Is A Rim Called The Helix ...

Ancient Eclipses
Ancient Eclipses It Is Not Surprising That, In Ancient Times When Eclipses Were Regarded As Portents, A Large Number Of Eclipses Should Have Been Mentioned In History Or In Literature, In Addition To Those Which Are Recorded In Astronomical Treatises Or On Astronomical Tablets. The Value Of These Records May ...

Ancient Order Of Druids
Druids, Ancient Order Of, A Friendly Society Founded, As An Imitation Of The Ancient Druids, In London In 1781. They Adopted Masonic Rites And Spread To America (1833) And Australia. Their Lodges Are Called "groves." In 1872 The Order Was Introduced Into Germany. (see Friendly Societies.) ...

Andre Hubert Dumont
Dumont, Andre Hubert (18o9-1857), Belgian Geologist, Was Born At Liege On Feb. 15, 1809. He Was Professor Of Mineralogy And Geology And Afterwards Rector In The University Of Liege. He Spent 20 Years On The Preparation Of A Geological Map Of Belgium (1849), And Then Collected Materials For A Geological ...

Andre Marie Jean Jacques
Dupin, Andre Marie Jean Jacques 1865), Commonly Called Dupin The Elder, French Advocate, Presi Dent Of The Chamber Of Deputies And Of The Legislative Assembly, Was Born At Varzy, In Nievre, On Feb. 1, 1783. Entering The Cham Ber Of Deputies In 1815, He Joined The Liberal Opposition. At The ...

Andrea Doria
Doria, Andrea (1466-156o), Genoese Condottiere And Admiral, Was Born At Oneglia Of An Ancient Genoese Family. Being Left An Orphan At An Early Age, He Became A Soldier Of Fortune, And Served First In The Papal Guard And Then Under Various Italian Princes. But It Was As A Naval Captain ...

Animal Ecology
Ecology, Animal. Animal Ecology Is Rather A Difficult Subject To Define, Because It Lies On The Borderlines Of So Many Other Subjects, And Also Because Comparatively Little Work Has So Far Been Done On It, So That Its Exact Scope And Limits Still Remain To Be Established. In A General ...

Animal Numbers
Animal Numbers Although The Intensive Study Of The Structure Of Animal Corn Munities Has Not So Far Been Carried Beyond The Very Earliest Stages, Yet It Is Obvious That Farther Research In This Branch Of Ecology Affords A Good Prospect Of Throwing Light Upon The Mode In Which The Numbers ...

Anne Charlotte Edgren Leffler
Edgren-leffler, Anne Charlotte, Duchess Of Cajanello (1849-1892), Swedish Author, Daughter Of The Mathe Matician Prof. C. 0. Leffler, Was Born On Oct. 1, 1849. Her First Volume Of Stories Appeared In 1869, But The First To Which She Attached Her Name Was Ur Lifvet ("from Life," 1882), A Series Of ...

Annette Elisabeth Droste Hulshoff
Droste-hulshoff, Annette Elisabeth, Freiin Von German Poet, Was Born At The Family Seat Of Hialshoff Near Munster In Westphalia On Jan. Io, Her Early Mental Training Was Largely Influenced By Her Cousin, Von Droste Zu Vischering, Archbishop Of Cologne (see Below), And She Received A Liberal Education. After Prolonged Visits ...

Anthony Joseph Drexel
Drexel, Anthony Joseph American Banker, Was Born In Philadelphia (pa.) Sept. 13, 1826. He Was The Son Of Francis M. Drexel (1792-1863), Founder Of The Banking House Of Drexel And Co. Anthony, With His Brothers Francis And Joseph,, Succeeded To The Control Of The Business, And Organized The Banking-houses Of ...

Antoine Gustave Droz
Droz, Antoine Gustave (1832-1895), French Man Of Letters, Son Of The Sculptor J. A. Droz (1807-1872), Was Born In Paris. He Was Educated As An Artist, And First Exhibited In The Salon Of 1857. A Series Of Sketches Dealing Gaily And Lightly With The Intimacies Of Family Life, Published In ...

Anton Dvorak
Dvorak, Anton (jvor'zhahk) (1841-1904), Bohemian Musical Composer Born At Nelahozeves (otherwise Miihlhausen) In Bohemia On Sept. 8, 1841, Was The Son Of Frantisek Dvorak, A Small Publican And Village Butcher. At The Door Of His Father's Inn Dvorak First Appeared As A Practical Musician, Taking His Place Among The Fiddlers ...

Archibald
Archibald, 5th Earl Of Douglas (c. 1391-1439), Succeeded To His Father's English And Scottish Honours, Though He Never Touched The Revenues Of Touraine. He Fought At Bauge In 1421, And Was Made Count Of Longueville In Normandy. His Two Sons, William, 6th Earl (1423?-1440), And David, Though They Were Little ...

Arterial Drainage
Drainage, Arterial. Rivers Form, In Every Country, The Natural System Of Arterial Drainage, But It Is Of Ten Necessary To Supplement Them By Artificial Means To Prevent Land In The Low-lying Districts From Becoming Water-logged. In Some Coun Tries, Notably Holland, Large Areas Lie Near To, And In Some Cases ...

Arthur Drews
Drews, Arthur (1865-1935), German Philosopher, Was Born On Nov. I At Utersen, Holstein, And Was Educated At Munich, Berlin, Heidelberg And Halle. From 1898 He Was Professor At The Polytechnic Academy In Karlsruhe. His Contributions To The Critical Appreciation And History Of Philosophy Are Die Deutsche Spekulation Seit Kant (1893) ...

Articles On Drama And
Drama And The Stage, Articles On. Drama As A Whole Is Divided Into 24 Sections, As Under: (i) General, (2) Indian, (3) Chinese, (4) Japanese, (5) Persian And Other Asiatic Drama, (6) Dramatic Elements In Egyptian Culture, (7) Greek, (8) Roman, (9) Downfall Of The Classical Drama, (io) Medi Aeval ...

Articles On Education
Education, Articles On. The Main Article Edu Cation Is Divided Into The Following Sections: (i) Introduction. (2) History Down To The 19th Century. (3) Growth Of National Systems, With Subheads : England ; Wales ; Scotland ; Ireland ; The United States; France; Germany; Italy; Austria; Spain; Portu Gal ; ...

Artistic Anatomy
Artistic Anatomy The Representation Of The Anatomical Form Of Man As Applied To The Graphic Arts May Be Called Artistic Anatomy. This Form Of Illustration May Be Divided Into Three Groups : (i) The Sche Matic, (2) That Which Represents The Subject Exactly, (3) The Ideal Conception Or The Ideal ...

Asher Brown Durand
Durand, Asher Brown (1796-1886), American Painter And Engraver, Was Born At South Orange (n.j.), On Aug. 21, 1796. He Worked With His Father, A Watchmaker; Was Ap Prenticed, In 1812, To An Engraver Named Peter Maverick; And His First Work, The Head Of An Old Beggar After Waldo, Attracted The ...

Babylonian And Assyrian Costume
Babylonian And Assyrian Costume C. 3000-2000 B.c.—in Sumerian Days (300o-200o B.c.) Baby Lonian Men Wore A Fringed Garment Of Wool, Known To Us Generally By The Name Of The Kaunakes (a Graecized Form Of The Classical Period) : The Wool Seems To Have Been Unspun, And Probably The Garment Consisted ...

Bacillary Dysentery
Bacillary Dysentery While Sharing With The Amoebic The Clinical Dysenteric Syndrome Above Described, It Differs Therefrom By The Shortness Of The Incubation Period, Generally 24 To 72 Hours, Its Acute Onset With Fever That May Persist Several Days Or More, And Other Symptoms Of Toxaemia; Extreme Contagiousness; Seasonal Prevalence (mid ...

Barons And Earls Of
Dudley, Barons And Earls Of. The Holders Of These English Titles Are Descended From John De Sutton (c. 1310 59) Of Dudley Castle, Staffordshire, Who Was Summoned To Parlia Ment As A Baron In 1342. Sutton Was The Son Of Another John De Sutton, Who Had Inherited Dudley Castle Through ...

Battle Of Dresden
Battle Of Dresden The Battle Of Dresden, The Last Of The Great Victories Of Napo Leon, Was Fought On Aug. 26 And 27, 1813. The Intervention Of Austria In The War Of Liberation, And The Consequent Advance Of The Allies Under The Austrian Field-marshal Prince Schwarzenberg From Prague Upon Dresden, ...

Battle Of Dunes Or
Dunes Or Dunkirk Dunes, Battle Of, Was Fought Near Dunkirk On May 24 (june 3), Between The French And English Army Under The Command Of Marshal Turenne And The Spanish Army Under Don Juan Of Austria And The Prince Of Conde. The Severest Part Of The Fighting Was Borne By ...

Battles Of The Dunajec San
Dunajec-san, Battles Of The. The Dunajec And San Rivers, Which, Rising In The Carpathians, Flow Northwards Across Galicia To Join The Vistula On The Polish Border, Mark The First Two Stages Of The Great Austro-german Offensive Of 1915. The Russian Pronunciation Of The First Of These Rivers Is Dunaietz. ...

Benjamin Minge Duggar
Duggar, Benjamin Minge (1872— ), American Botanist, Was Born At Gallion, Ala., On Sept. 1, 1872. He Graduated At Harvard In 1895, Received In 1898 The Degree Of Doctor Of Philosophy From Cornell University And Later Studied In Various Universities In Germany And France, And In Naples. He Was Cryptogamic ...

Blossius Aemilius Dracontius
Dracontius, Blossius Aemilius, Of Carthage (according To The Early Tradition, Of Spanish Origin), Christian Poet, Flourished In The Latter Part Of The 5th Century A.d. He Be Longed To A Family Of Landed Proprietors And Practised As An Advocate In His Native Place. After The Conquest Of The Country By ...

Calculation Of Eclipses Of
Calculation Of Eclipses Of The Sun We Can Divide Our Calculations Into Two Parts. In The First Part We Seek To Determine If An Eclipse Can Occur And In The Second To Determine Its Circumstances (i.e., Whether Or No It Is Visible At A Given Point On The Earth's Surface, ...

Campaign Of Dyrrachium
Dyrrachium, Campaign Of (48 B.c.). Having Destroyed Pompey's Power In Spain, Julius Caesar Returned To Italy, And On Nov. 28, 49 B.c., Set Sail From Brundisium With Seven Legions For Palaeste On The Epirotic Coast. Landing On The 29th, On Dec. 2 He Headed For Dyrrachium, Which, However, He Failed ...

Carotid Bodies
Carotid Bodies These Are Two Small Bodies Situated Between The Origins Of The External And Internal Carotid Arteries. Microscopically They Are Divided Into Nodules Or Cell Balls By Connective Tissue, And These Closely Resemble The Structure Of The Parathyroids, But Are With Out Any Thymic Tissue. The Blood-vessels In Their ...

Charles Alexandre Dupuy
Dupuy, Charles Alexandre French Statesman, Born At Le Puy (haute Loire) On Nov. 5, 1851. In 1885 He Was Elected To The Chamber As An Opportunist Repub Lican, And Became Minister Of Public Instruction In Ribot's Cabinet, In 1892. In April 1893 He Formed A Ministry Himself, But Resigned At ...

Charles Drelincourt
Drelincourt, Charles (1595-1669), French Prot Estant Divine, Born At Sedan On July Io, 1595, Became Minister Of The Reformed Church At Charenton. His Catechism (cate Chisme Ou Instruction F Amiliere, 165 2) And Christian's Defense Against The Fears Of Death (consolations De Fame Fidele Contr'e Les Frayeurs De La Mort, ...

Charles Dumoulin
Dumoulin, Charles (molinaeus) French Jurist, Was Born In Paris In I Joo. He Began Practice As An Advocate Before The Parlement Of Paris. Dumoulin Turned Cal Vinist, And When The Persecution Of The Protestants Began He Went To Germany, Where For A Long Time He Taught Law At Stras Bourg, ...

Charles Dupuis
Dupuis, Charles French Author And Politician, Was Born Of Poor Parents At Trye-chateau, Near Gisors. He Represented Seine-et-oise In The Convention, Was Secretary To The Assembly In An Iii. And A Member Of The Council Of Five Hundred In An Iv. After The 18th Brumaire He Was A Member Of ...

Charles Francois Du Perier
Dumouriez, Charles Francois Du Perier French General, Born At Cambrai On Jan. Saw His First Service As A Volunteer In The Campaign Of Rossbach. He Was Retired At The Peace Of 1763, But Was Subsequently Em Ployed In Corsica. Under Choiseul He Was In The Secret Service, And On His ...

Charles Maurice Donnay
Donnay, Charles Maurice ), French Dramatist, Was Born Of Middle-class Parents In Paris In 1859. He Made His Serious Debut As A Dramatist On The Little Stage Of The Chat Noir With Phryne (1891), A Series Of Greek Scenes. Lysis Trata, A Four-act Comedy, Was Produced At The Grand Theatre ...

Charles Montagu Doughty
Doughty, Charles Montagu (1843--1926), Brit Ish Traveller And Writer, Younger Son Of The Rev. C. M. Doughty Of Theberton Hall, Suffolk, Was Born On Aug. 19, 1843. He Was Pre Vented By An Impediment In Speech From Entering The Navy, And His Education Was Continued At King's College, London, And ...

Charles Sackville
Charles Sackville, 6th Earl Of Dorset (1638-1706), Eng Lish Poet And Courtier, Son Of Richard Sackville, 5th Earl (1622-77), Was Born On Jan. 24, 1638, And Succeeded To His Father's Estates And Title In 1677. In Charles Ii.'s First Parliament He Sat For East Grinstead, Sussex. He Won A Reputation ...

Charles Sackville_2
Charles Sackville, 2nd Duke Of Dorset (171i-1769), An Associate Of Frederick, Prince Of Wales, Was A Member Of Parlia Ment For Many Years And A Lord Of The Treasury Under Henry Pelham; He Died On Jan. 5, 1769. His Nephew, John Frederick , 3rd Duke, Was Ambassador In Paris From ...

Chemical Dryness
Dryness, Chemical. The Majority Of Chemical Ac Tions Take Place In The Presence Of Water Or Some Other Solvent Which Plays An Important Part In The Reaction ; In Fact, Water Ap Pears To Be A Substance Whose Presence In Minute Amounts Is Es Sential For The Occurrence Of Most ...

Chinese Drama
Chinese Drama Like The Indian Drama, The Chinese Arose From The Union Of The Arts Of Dance And Song. To The Ballets And Pantomimes Out Of Which It Slowly Developed, And Which Have Continued To Flourish By The Side Of Its More Advanced Forms, The Chinese Ascribe A Primitive Antiquity ...

Christian August Gottlob Eberhard
Eberhard, Christian August Gottlob (1769-1845), A Versatile German Writer, Was Born At Belzig, Near Wittenberg, On Jan. 12, 1769. His Best Works Are Hann Clien And Die Kiuchlein (1822), A Narrative Poem In Ten Parts, And An Epic On The Creation, Der Erste Mensch And Die Erde (1828). He Died ...

Christian Johann Doppler
Doppler, Christian Johann Aus Trian Physicist, Was Born At Salzburg, On Novi 29, 1803. He Was Educated At Salzburg And Vienna, And Became, In 185o, Director Of The Physical Institute And Professor Of Experimental Physics At Vienna. He Died At Venice On March 17, 1853. Doppler's Earliest Writings Were On ...

Claude Duval
Duval, Claude (1643-167o), A Famous Highwayman, Was Born At Domfront, Normandy, In 1643. Having Entered Do Mestic Service In Paris, He Came To England At The Time Of The Restoration In Attendance On The Duke Of Richmond, And Soon Became A Highwayman Notorious For The Daring Of His Robberies And ...

Claude Joseph Dorat
Dorat, Claude Joseph (1734-178o), French Man Of Letters, Was Born In Paris. He Obtained A Great Vogue By His Reponse D' Abailard A Helofse, And Followed Up This First Success With A Number Of Heroic Epistles, Les Victimes De L'arnour, Ou Lettres De Quelques Amants Celebres (1776). Besides Light Verse ...

Clemens August Droste Vischering
Droste-vischering, Clemens August, Baron Von (1773-1845), German Roman Catholic Divine, Was Born At Munster On Jan. 21, 1773, And Entered The Priesthood In 1798, Being Elected Vicar-general By The Local Chapter In 1807. This Office He Resigned In 1813 Through His Opposition To Napoleon, But Assumed It Again After The ...

Cles
Cles Will Be Found Reference To Various Methods Of Insuring. As To Economic Practice And The Actual Production And Distri Bution Of Wealth, Reference Should Be Made To The Economic Sections Under The Heading Of Each Country, And In Addition, To The Articles Commerce, Trade (world Statistics), Agriculture, (a Special ...

Coccygeal Body
Coccygeal Body This Is A Median Body, The Size Of A Pea, Situated In Front Of The Apex Of The Coccyx And Between The Insertions Of The Levatores Ani Muscles. It Resembles The Carotid Body In Its Microscopical Struc Ture, But Is Not So Vascular. Concentric Corpuscles, Like Those Of ...

Commerce
Commerce. The Organization Of Labour Is Treated Under Trade Unions And The International. For The Relations Of Capital And Labour, See Industrial Relations. The Problems Of Poverty Are Dealt With In The Articles Poor ...

David Douglas
Douglas, David (1798-1834), Scottish Botanist, Was Horn At Scone, Perthshire. After Being A Gardener At The Botani Cal Gardens Of Glasgow, He Went To Oregon In 1823 As A Collector To The Royal Horticultural Society, In 1825 Pushing On To British Columbia Where He Discovered Many New Plants, Trees And ...

Diego Duque De Estrada
Duque De Estrada, Diego Spanish Memoir Writer, Soldier And Adventurer, Was Born At Toledo. He Left A Book Of Amazingly Vivid Memoirs, Entitled Comentarios De El Desenganado De Si Mismo, Prueba De Todos Estados, Y Election Del Mejor De Ellos—"the Commentaries Of One Who Knew His Own Little Worth, The ...

Diseases Of The Ear
Diseases Of The Ear Diseases Of The Ear May Affect The External, Middle Or Internal Ear. The Commoner Affections Of The Auricle Are Eczema, Various Tumours (simple And Malignant), And Serous And Sebaceous Cysts. Effusion Of Blood Into The Auricle Is Often Due To Injury, But May Occur Spontaneously, Especially ...

Diseases Of The Nose
Diseases Of The Nose Apart From Affections Of The External Skin And Tumour-like Overgrowth Of The Mucous Membrane (polypi), Deflection Of The Septum And Plastic Operations For Correction Of Deformities, Dis Eases Of The Nose Are Important From Coincident Infection Of The Air Cells Or Sinuses. In This Connection Also ...

Diseases Of The Throat
Diseases Of The Throat The Tonsils.—this Term Is Popularly Applied To Compact Masses Of Lymphatic Tissue Situated Between The Anterior And Posterior Faucial Pillars. Similar Collections Of Lymphoid Tissue Are Present In The Nasopharynx And In The Base Of The Tongue. The Complete Circle Of This Tissue Is Known As ...

Domenico Dragonetti
Dragonetti, Domenico Italian Double Bass Player, Was Born In Venice On April 7, 1763, And Died In London On April 16, 1846. Dragonetti Was A Virtuoso Of The First Rank, And One Of The Best-known Figures In The Musical Life Of His Day. His First Appearance In London Was In ...

Don Juan
Don Juan, A Legendary Character, Whose Story Has Found Currency In Various European Countries. He Was Introduced Into Formal Literature In The Spanish El Burlador De Sevilla Y Convi Dado De Piedra, A Play Which Was First Printed At Barcelona In 163o, And Is Usually Attributed To Tirso De Molina; ...

Donga
Donga, A Bantu Word For A Narrow Watercourse Or Water Eroded Gully. Adopted By Europeans In South Africa From The Kaffirs, The Word Has Been Applied To Similar Ravines Or Water Courses In Other Parts Of The World. It Is Almost Equivalent To The Arabic Khor, Which, However, Also Means ...

Dongola
Dongola, A Mudiria (province) Of The Anglo-egyptian Sudan. It Lies Wholly Within The Region Known As Nubia And Ex Tends Along Both Banks Of The Nile From About 18° N. To 2o° N. The Rainfall Is Very Slight, And The Area Of Fertility Is Mainly Con Fined To The Lands ...

Dongola_2
Dongola, A Town Of The Anglo-egyptian Sudan, Which Gives Its Name To A Mudiria. It-is Situated On The West Bank Of The Nile, About 45 M. Above The Third Cataract, In 19° 10' N., 3o° 29' E. It Is 1,082 M. S. Of Cairo By River And 638 M. N. ...

Donjon
Donjon, The French Term For The Keep (q.v.) Of A Mediaeval Castle, Used In Contradistinction To Dungeon (q.v.), The Prison, An Anglicized Spelling Of The Same Word. ...

Donkey
Donkey: See Ass. A Steam-engine Of Small Or Moderate Power Which Works A Crane Or Hoist, Chiefly On Board Ship, To Handle Cargo And Luggage. The Steam Is Supplied By A Donkey Boiler, Instead Of Being Taken From The Main Boilers. A Donkey Pump Is Of Very Compact Design, And ...

Donnybrook
Donnybrook, Part Of Dublin, Ireland. The Former Vil Lage Of The Name Was Famous For A Fair Held Under Licence From King John In 1204, But Discontinued In ...

Donora
Donora, A Borough Of Washington County, Pa., U.s.a., On The Monongahela River And The Pennsylvania Railroad, 2om. S. By E. Of Pittsburgh. The Population In 1920 Was 14,131 ; In 193o It Was 13,905. It Is An Important Manufacturing Centre Of The Pittsburgh District, Producing Steel, Nails, Wire, Zinc And ...

Doom
Doom, Originally A Law Or Enactment, The Legal Decision Of A Judge, And Particularly An Adverse Sentence On A Criminal (o.e. Dorn, A Word Common To Teut. Languages For That Which Is Set Up Or Ordered). The Word Is Thus Applicable To The Adverse De Crees Of Fate, And Particularly ...

Doon De Mayence
Doon De Mayence, A Hero Of Romance, Who Gives His Name To The Third Cycle Of The Charlemagne Romances, Those Dealing With The Feudal Revolts. There Is No Real Unity In The Geste Of Doon De Mayence. The Rebellious Barons Are Connected By The Trouveres With Doon By Imaginary Genealogical ...

Door
Door, A Single Piece, Or Assemblage Of Pieces, Of Wood, Metal, Stone Or Other Material, Supported Movably In An Opening, So As To Allow Or Prevent Passage Through That Opening. In Door Open Ings Of Primitive Huts Sheets Of Hide Or Textiles Were Hung As Doors. These Were Either Hung ...

Doorway
Doorway, In Architecture, The Entrance Of A Building, Room Or Enclosure, Especially The Framing Of Such An Opening. In Prim Itive Construction With Brick Or Rubble, Opening Frames Were Usually Of Wood, And Consisted Of Uprights Or Jambs On Each Side, And Lintels Or Heads At The Top. Such Doorways ...

Dopolavoro
Dopolavoro (to Give The Institution Its Full Name, Opera Nazionale Dopolavoro), Is An Italian Organization Which Arose Through The Efforts Of A Group Interested In Improving The Oppor Tunities Afforded The Workers For Intelligent Recreation In Their Leisure Hours, A Question Of Great Importance Since The Eight-hour Day Became, First ...

Doppler Effect
Doppler Effect, The Change In The Observed Frequency Of A Vibration Owing To Relative Motion Between The Observer And The Source Of The Vibration. In Sound (q.v.) This Effect Is An Everyday Experience ; E.g., On Passing A Ringing Bell At Any Speed Above About Io M.p.h. The Pitch Of ...

Dopplerite
Dopplerite, A Naturally Occurring Organic Substance Found In Amorphous, Elastic Or Jelly-like Masses, Of Brownish Black Colour, In Peat Beds In Styria And In Switzerland. It Is Tasteless, Insoluble In Alcohol And Ether, And Is Described By Dana As An Acid Substance, Or Mixture Of Different Acids, Related To Humic ...

Dorchester
Dorchester, A Market Town And Municipal Borough And The County Town Of Dorsetshire, England, In The Western Parliamentary Division, 1351 M. S.w. By W. From London By The S.r. And Also Served By The Weymouth Section Of The G.w. Rail Way. Pop. (1931) 10,030. It Stands On An Eminence On ...

Dorchester_2
Dorchester, A Large Village In The Henley Parliamentary Division Of Oxfordshire, England, 9 M. S.s.e. Of Oxford By Road, On The West Bank Of The River Thame, I M. From Its Junction With The Thames. Pop. Of Civil Parish (1921) 818. At Dike Hill Close To The Present Village There ...

Dorchester_3
Dorchester, A Residential And Manufacturing District Of Massachusetts, U.s.a., A Separate Town Until 187o, Be Tween The Neponset River On The South And South Boston And Boston Proper On The North. A Ridge, With An Average Height Of About Ioo F T. Above The Sea, Extends Through The District From ...

Dordogne
Dordogne, An Inland Department Of South-western France, Formed In 1790 From Nearly The Whole Of Perigord, A Part Of Agenais, And Small Portions Of Limousin And Of Angoumois. Area 3,55o Sq.m. Pop. (1931) 383,72o. It Is Bounded N. By Haute Vienne, W. By Charente, Charente-inf Erieure And Gironde, S. By ...

Dordogne_2
Dordogne, A River Of Central And South-western France, Rising At A Height Of 5,640 Ft. On The Puy-de-saucy, A Section Of The Volcanic Core Of The Plateau Central In The Department Of Puy-de-dome, And Flowing To The Garonne, With Which It Unites At Bec D'ambes To Form The Gironde Estuary. ...

Dordrecht
Dordrecht (abbreviated Dordt Or Dort), In The Prov Ince Of South Holland, Holland, On The South Side Of The Merwede, And A Junction Station 121 M. S.e. Of Rotterdam. It Is Connected With Papendrec Ht And Zwyndrecht On The Opposite Shore. Pop. Dordrecht Was Founded By Count Dirk Iii. Of ...

Doria Pamphilii Landi
Doria-pamphilii-landi, A Princely Roman Family Of Genoese Extraction. The Founder Of The House Was Ansaldo D'oria, Consul Of Genoa In The I2th Century, But The Authentic Pedigree Is Traced No Further Back Than To Paolo D'oria (1335). The Most Famous Member Of The Family Was Andrea Doria (q.v.). The Marquisate ...

Dorians
Dorians. In Classical Times A Fourfold Division Ran Through The Greek World, Linguistic And Partially Social. The Dorians Rep Resent One Section Of This Division, The Remaining Three Being Aeolians, Ionians And Arcado-cyprians Or Achaeans. They Were Settled In The Peloponnese Where They Were The Dominant Race, In The Sporades ...

Doric Order
Doric Order, In Architecture, The Simplest And Earliest Perfected Of The Greek Orders, Adopted And Developed In A Modi Fied Form By The Romans, Characterized By A Simple, Moulded Capital, And The Existence In The Frieze Of Upright, Grooved Forms, Known As Triglyphs Separated By Squares, Known As Metopes (see ...

Doris
Doris, A Small District In Central Greece, Between Mts. Oeta And Parnassus, Containing The Head-waters Of The Cephissus. This Little Valley, Which Nowhere Exceeds 4 M. In Breadth And Has But Four Small Townships, Owed Its Importance Partly To Its Command Over The Road From Heracleia To Amphissa, But Chiefly ...

Dorking
Dorking, An Ancient Market Town In The Reigate Parlia Mentary Division Of Surrey, England, With Two (and, Including Box Hill, Three) Railway Stations On The Southern Railway, About 26 M. S.s.w. Of London. Pop. Of Urban District (1931) Io,1o9. It Lies At The Edge Of The North Downs In The ...

Dorman Bridgman Eaton
Eaton, Dorman Bridgman Ameri Can Lawyer, Was Born At Hardwick (vt.), June 27, 1823. He Graduated At The University Of Vermont In 1848 And At The Har Vard Law School In 185o, And In The Same Year Was Admitted To The Bar In New York City. There He Became Associated ...