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Encyclopedia Britannica

Volume 9, Part 1: Extraction to Gambrinus

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Fife
Fife, Eastern County, Scotland, Bounded North By The Firth Of Tay, East By The North Sea, South By The Firth Of Forth, And West By The Shires Of Perth, Kinross And Clackmannan. The Isle Of May, Inchkeith, Inchcolm, Inchgarvie And The Islet Of Oxcar Belong To The Shire. It Has ...

Fife_2
Fife, Originally The Small Primitive Cylindrical Transverse Flute, Now The Small Bb Military Flute, Usually Conoidal In Bore, Used In A Drum And Fife Band. The Pitch Of The Fife Lies Between That Of The Concert Flute And Piccolo. The Words Fife And The Fr. Fi F Re Were Undoubtedly ...

Fifth Monarchy Men
Fifth Monarchy Men, The Name Of A Puritan Sect In England Which For A Time Supported The 'government Of Oliver Cromwell In The Belief That It Was A Preparation For The "fifth Monarchy," That Is For The Monarchy Which Should Succeed The Assyrian, The Persian, The Greek And The Roman, ...

Figaro
Figaro, A Famous Dramatic Character First Introduced On The Stage By Beaumarchais In The Barbier De Seville, The Mariage De Figaro And The Folle Journee. Figaro Soon Seized The Popular Imagination And Became The Recognized Representative Of Daring, Clever And Nonchalant Roguery And Intrigue. Mozart Chose The Marriage Of Figaro ...

Figeac
Figeac, A Town Of South-western France, Capital Of An Arrondissement In The Department Of Lot, 47 M. E.n.e. Of Cahors On The Orleans Railway. Pop. It Stands On The Right Bank Of The Cele, Here Crossed By An Old Bridge. Figeac Grew Up Round An Abbey Founded By Pippin The ...

Figueira Da Foz
Figueira Da Foz, A Seaport Of Central Portugal, In The District Of Coimbra, At The Terminus Of The Lisbon-figueira And Guarda-figueira Railways. Pop. (193o) 8,213. Figueira Da Foz Is An Important Fishing-station, And One Of The Headquarters Of The Coasting Trade In Grain, Fruit, Wine, Olive Oil, Cork And Coal; ...

Figueras
Figueras, A Town Of North-eastern Spain, Province Of Gerona, 14 M. S. Of The French Frontier, On The Barcelona-perpig Nan Railway. Pop. (193o) 14,089. Figueras Is Built At The Foot Of The Pyrenees, On The N. Edge Of El Ampurdan, A Fertile And Well-irrigated Plain, Which Produces Grain, Fruit And ...

Figurate Numbers
Figurate Numbers. The Early Greek Mathemati Cians Found That If Groups Of Dots Were Used To Represent Num Bers, They Could Be Arranged So As To Form Geometric Figures, Examples Of Which Are As Follows:— Of These, The First Represents A Triangular Number; There Being Dots, Io Is A Triangular ...

Figured Bass
Figured Bass (also Known As Thorough-bass, Gen Eral Bass And Basso Continuo) Is A Kind Of Musical Shorthand. Whereby The Harmonies Of A Composition Are Indicated By Means Of Figures Above Or Below The Bass Part, Instead Of In The Ordinary Notation. It Came Into Existence Early In The 17th ...

Figurehead
Figurehead, An Ornamental Figure Placed Under The Bowsprit Of A Sailing Ship. It Took The Form Of A Full-length Figure Or Scroll Handsomely Carved And Embellished—symbolical Of The Ship It Represented. In Ancient Times Figureheads Were Placed On The Prows Of War Galleys. ...

Fiji
Fiji, A British Colony Consisting Of An Archipelago In The Pacific Ocean, The Most Important In Polynesia, Between 15° And 20° S., And On And About The Meridian Of 180°. The Proper Name Is Viti As In The Name Of The Principal Island. The Islands Number About G5o, Of Which ...

Filament
Filament Is The Cathode In One Of The Common Types Of A Vacuum Tube For Radio Receiving Sets. The Filament May Be The Source Of The Electron (q.v.) Emission Which Constitutes The Current Flowing Through The Vacuous Space. ...

Filariasis
Filariasis, The Name Of A Disease Due To The Nematode Filaria Sanguinis Hominis, Of Which Two Varieties Are Known Nocturna And Diurna. A Milky Appearance Of The Urine, Due To The Presence Of A Substance Like Chyle, Which Forms A Clot, Had Been Observed In Tropical And Subtropical Countries; And ...

Filbert
Filbert, The Name Generally Given To The Oblong Nuts Of Certain Old World Species Of Hazel (q.v.) Chiefly Corylus Avellana And C. Maxima. The Round Nuts Of These Species Are Often Called Cob-nuts. Numerous Varieties Are Extensively Cultivated In The Old World, The Large Nuts Of The Better Kinds Forming ...

File Manufacture
File Manufacture. Like Every Other Steel Tool Of Modern Manufacture, The File Has Been Improved Greatly In Quality By Metallurgical And Engineering Science. The Industry Has Been More Especially Developed In Sheffield And The United States, But It Is Also Carried On In Switzerland, Germany, Sweden, France And Italy. There ...

File
File. Originally A String Or Thread (through The Fr. Flu And File, From Lat. Filurn, A Thread) ; Hence Used Of A Device, Originally A Cord, Wire Or Spike On Which Letters, Receipts, Papers, Etc., May Be Strung For Convenient Reference. The Term Has Been Ex Tended To Embrace Various ...

Filey
Filey, An Urban District And Seaside Resort, Buckrose Par Liamentary Division, East Riding Of Yorkshire, England, 9i M. S.e. Of Scarborough By The L.n.e. Railway, And 71- M. By Road. Pop. It Stands Upon The Slope And Summit Of The Cliffs Above Filey Bay, Which Is Fringed By A Fine ...

Filibuster
Filibuster, A Name Originally Given To The Buccaneers (q.v.). The Term Is Probably Derived From The Dutch Vry Baiter, Freebooter; It Was Revived In America To Designate Those Adven Turers Who, After The Termination Of The War Between Mexico And The United States, Organized Expeditions Within The United States To ...

Filigree
Filigree, Jewel Work Of A Delicate Kind Made With Twisted Threads Usually Of Gold And Silver. Though Filigree Has Become A Special Branch Of Jewel Work It Was Originally Part Of The Ordi Nary Work Of The Jeweller. Signor A. Castellani States, In His Memoir On The Jewellery Of The ...

Fillet
Fillet, A Band Or Ribbon Used For Tying The Hair, The Lat. Vitta, Which Was Used As A Sacrificial Emblem, And Also Worn By Vestal Virgins, Brides And Poets. The Word Is Thus Applied To Any Thing In The Shape Of A Band Or Strip, As, In Coining, To The ...

Film
Film, A Thin Skin, Pellicle Or Lamina Of Any Material, An Opaque Layer; A Fine Cobweb, Gossamer Or Silk Thread. Body Sur Face Emanations In Epicureanism Were Films, Supposedly Percepti Ble Objects. In Physics It Is A Liquid Or Gaseous Coating; Botani Cally, A Seed Pod Partition. Verbally The Word ...

Filmy Ferns
Filmy Ferns, A General Name For A Family Of Ferns, The Hymenophyllaceae, With Delicate, Much-divided Leaves And Often Moss-like Growth, Comprising The Genera Hymenophyllum And Tricliomanes, Together Comprising Some 450 Species, Natives Chiefly Of The Humid Tropics And Mainly Epiphytic. Two Species Of Trichomanes Occur In The South-eastern United States. ...

Filter Passing Viruses
Filter-passing Viruses, Organisms Small Enough To Pass Through A Bacterial Filter Made Of Unglazed Porcelain Or Compressed Infusorial Earth. In These Filters The Grains Of The China Clay Or Infusorial Earth Used For Their Manufacture Are Sufficiently Small And Uniform To Leave Interstices, The Cross Section Of Which Is 0.2 ...

Filtration
Filtration. In Many Industrial Processes It Is Neces Sary To Separate Finely Divided Solid Materials From Liquids. The Process Of Filtration Consists In Passing The Liquid Through A Porous Medium, Which Retains The Solid Particles. In Some Cases The Re Covery Of The Solid Material Is The Main Object; In ...

Fimbriate
Fimbriate, A Zoological And Botanical Term Meaning Fringed (lat. Firnbriae, Fringe). In Heraldry (q.v.) A Bearing With A Narrow Edge Or Border Is "fimbriate" Or "fimbriated." ...

Finale
Finale, A Term In Music For The Concluding Movement In An Instrumental Composition, Whether Symphony, Concerto, Or Sonata, And In Opera Of The Older Type The Concluding Section Of Each Act. Among Instrumental Examples The Great Choral Finale To Bee Thoven's 9th Symphony, And, Among Operatic Finales, That Of Mozart's ...

Finance
Finance Is That Part Of Practical Affairs Which Is Concerned With Money Taken In A Broad Sense, To Include Not Only That Which Is Legally Money (such As Coin And Paper Money) But Also Bank Credit Or "credit Money." Without Suggesting That A Word Of Such Extensive Practical Application Can ...

Finch
Finch, A Name Applied (but Almost Always In Combination, As Bullfinch, Chaffinch, Etc.) To Birds Of The Family Fringillidae. Generally Speaking Finches Are Small Birds With A Hard Bill, Living Mainly On Seeds, And Characteristic Of The Palaearctic Region, Where Most Of The Very Numerous Species Live. See Also Bullfinch ...

Finchley
Finchley, An Urban District In The Finchley Parliamentary Division Of Middlesex, England, 7 M. N.w. Of St. Paul's Cathedral, London, With Stations, Finchley And East Finchley On The L.n.e. Railway. Pop. (1931) 58,961. The Parish Church Of St. Mary (restored 1873) Has Some Interesting Ancient Brasses. Finchley Extends North From ...

Finch_2
Finch, English Family. Sir Thomas Finch (d. 1563), Who Was Knighted For His Share In Suppressing Sir T. Wyatt's Insurrection Against Queen Mary, Was The Son And Heir Of Sir William Finch, Who Was Knighted In 1513. He Was The Father Of Sir Moyle Finch (d. 1614), Created A Baronet ...

Findlay
Findlay, A City Of North-western Ohio, U.s.a., On The Blan Chard River ; The County Seat Of Hancock County. It Is On Federal Highway 25 And Several State Roads, And Is Served By The Baltimore And Ohio, The Big Four, The New York Central, And The Nickel Plate Railways, And ...

Fine Arts
Fine Arts. In A General Sense The Fine Arts Are Those Among The Arts And Industries Which Man Cultivates For His Necessities Or Conveniences, And Which Minister Also To His Love Of Beauty. Architecture, For Example, Providing Shelter And Ac Commodation, Offers In Its Use And Mechanic Perfection Visions Of ...

Fine
Fine, In The Legal Sense, A Pecuniary Penalty Inflicted For The Less Serious Offences. Fines Are Necessarily Discretionary As To Amount ; But A Maximum Is Generally Fixed When The Penalty Is Im Posed By Statute, And It Is An Old Constitutional Maxim That Fines Must Not Be Unreasonable. In ...

Finfoot
Finfoot, The Name Applied To Members Of An Interesting Family Of Birds (heliornithidae) Of Grebe-like Form, Allied Most Closely To The Rails (rallidae) And Inhabiting Various Parts Of The Old World And South America. (see Ornithology.) ...

Fingals Cave
Fingal's Cave. A Famous Cave Situated On The Southern Coast Of Staffa, An Island Of The Inner Hebrides. It Was Discovered In 1772 By Sir Joseph Banks And Is Of Singular Beauty. The Cave Is 227 F T. Long And 42 F T. Wide, Each Side Being Lined With A ...

Finger Numerals
Finger Numerals. The Absence Of Inexpensive Mate Rial Upon Which To Write, Cheap Paper Being A Recent Invention, Led Most Early Peoples To Represent Numbers By Positions Of The Fin Gers, As Is Done By Deaf Mutes To-day. The Use Of Such Symbols Has Survived Until Modern Times, Particularly In ...

Finger Prints
Finger-prints. The Use Of Finger-prints As A System Of Identification Is Of Very Ancient Origin, And Was Known From The Earliest Days In The East When The Impression Of His Thumb Was The Monarch's Sign-manual. A Relic Of This Practice Is Still Pre Served In The Formal Confirmation Of A ...

Finger
Finger, One Of The Five Members With Which The Hand Is Terminated, A Digit ; Sometimes The Word Is Restricted To The Four Digits Other Than The Thumb. (see Skeleton : Appendicular.) ...

Fingering
Fingering, In Music, The Method Of Using The Fingers In Order To Facilitate Execution On A Keyed, Stringed, Or Wind Instru Ment. In The Case Of Keyed Instruments, The Evolution Of The Keyboard—which Originally Consisted Of Keys From Four To Six Inches Wide—has Necessitated Corresponding Changes In The Sys Tem ...

Fingoes
Fingoes, A Collective Name Applied To A Number Of Bantu Speaking Tribes Who Formerly Inhabited The Greater Part Of Natal, But Most Of Whom Now Live Scattered About In The Eastern Province And Native Territories Of The Cape. The Best-known Are The Amabele, Amahlubi And Amazizi, But They Include Many ...

Finial
Finial, In Architecture, The Decorative Upper Termination Of A Pinnacle, Gable End, Buttress, Canopy Or Spire ; Especially In The Romanesque And Gothic Styles. It Usually Consists Of A Vertical Pointed Central Element Surrounded By Four Outcurving Leaves Or Scrolls. When The Form It Decorates Has Crockets (q.v.) The Finial ...

Fining
Fining, A Process For The Clarification Of Liquors Such As Wine And Beer, Generally Consisting Of A Solution Of Isinglass Or A Solu Tion Of Tartaric Or Sulphurous Acid. In The Fining Of Wine, Gelatin, Or In The Case Of High-class Red Wines, White Of Egg Is Employed. After These ...

Finistere
Finistere, The Most Western Department Of France, Formed From Part Of The Old Province Of Brittany. Pop. Area, 2,729 Square Miles. It Is Bounded W. And S. By The Atlantic Ocean, E. By The Departments Of Cotes-du-nord And Morbihan, And N. By The English Channel. Finistere Is The West End ...

Finland
Finland (sziomen Tasavalta), "the Land Of A Thousand Lakes," Is An Independent Republic Of Northern Europe, Inhabited By A Branch Of The Finno-ugrian Peoples (finns, Estonians, Magyars, Etc.) . Through Most Of The Early Centuries Of Develop Ment (10o A.d.-18o9 A.d.) It Was Dominated Culturally And Po Litically By The ...

Finn Mac Cumhaill
Finn Mac Cumhaill (fin Ma-kool') Was Probably The General To Whom Cormac Mac Airt, King In Tara (fl. C. A.d. 25o) Entrusted The Task Of Organizing A Standing Army, Whereby He Sought To Establish A Suzerainty Over The Whole Of Ireland. But He Has Attracted To Himself A Vast Body ...

Finnish Literature
Finnish Literature. The Earliest Writer In The Fin Nish Vernacular Was Michael Agricola (1506-1557), Who Published An A B C Book C. 1542, And, As Bishop Of Abo, A Number Of Reli Gious And Educational Works. A Version Of The New Testament In Finnish Was Printed By Agricola In 1548, ...

Finsterwalde
Finsterwalde, A Town Of Germany, In The Prussian Province Of Brandenburg, On The Schackebach, A Tributary Of The Little Elster, 28 M. W.s.w. Of Cottbus By Rail. Pop. The Town, Which Is First Mentioned In 1288, Came Into The Possession Of Electoral Saxony In 1635 And Of Prussia In 1815. ...

Fiorenzo Di Lorenzo
Fiorenzo Di Lorenzo (c. Italian Painter Of The Umbrian School, Born At Perugia, Where He Was A Member Of The Gild Of Painters, And In 1472 Was Elected Decemvir Of The City. On Dec. 9 Of The Same Year He Was Commissioned To Paint An Altarpiece For Santa Maria Nuova; ...

Fir
Fir, The Scandinavian Name Originally Given To The Scotch Pine (pinta Sylvestris) And Now Sometimes Employed As A Gen Eral Term For The Whole Of The True Conifers (abietoideae), But In A More Exact Sense, It Has Been Transferred To The "silver Firs," The Genus Abies Of Modern Botanists. (see ...

Firdousi
Firdousi, Persian Poet. Abu '1 Kasim Mansur (or Hasan), Who Took The Nom De Plume Of Firdousi (firdausi Or Firdusi), Author Of The Epic Poem The Shdhndma, Or "book Of Kings," A Complete History Of Persia In Nearly 6o,000 Verses, Was Born At Shadab, A Suburb Of Tus, About The ...

Fire Brat
Fire-brat A Small Insect (thermobia Domestica) Related To The Silverfish (q.v.), And Found In Bakehouses, Where It Feeds Upon Bread And Flour. ...

Fire Engines
Fire Engines. The Modern "fire Engine" (also Termed "motor Pump") Has A Petrol Power Unit Driving A Pump Which Takes Suction From A Water Supply And Forces The Water Through Lines Of Flexible Hose To Nozzles From Which Streams Are Directed Upon The Flames. In Most Cases, The Engine Is ...

Fire Escapes
Fire Escapes In England Refer To Constructing Ladders Mounted On Wheels Which Are Intended To Be Used Exclusively For The Purpose Of Enabling People To Escape From Burning Buildings. Abraham Wivell Invented The First Portable Fire Escape Ladder Of This Kind About 1837. Before Wivell's Time, However, Various Smaller Fire ...

Fire Insurance In The
Fire Insurance In The United States The Outstanding Feature In Fire Insurance In The United States Of America Is The Extent To Which The Business Is Government Con Trolled. The Control Is Vested In The 48 State Governments, And Their Regulations And Requirements Vary Considerably. Certain Fea Tures Are, However, ...

Fire Insurance
Fire Insurance. Fire Insurance Is An Economic Service Which Distributes Over A Large Part Of The Community Fire Waste Which Might Cripple The Immediate Sufferers And Provides An At Mosphere Of Security Against Catastrophe. By Operating On A Suffi Cient Scale The Insurer Is Able From The Contributions Of The ...

Fire Prevention And Extinction
Fire Prevention And Extinction. Every Fire Involves A Permanent And Absolute Loss Of National Capital, But The Loss Is Usually So Well Distributed By The Existing System Of Insurance That Its Incidence Is Not Of Ten Seriously Felt. Fire Losses Are In Reality Borne By The Community, Insurance Offices Being ...

Fire Walking
Fire-walking, A Religious Ceremony Common To Many Races, And Widespread In All Ages. It Still Survives In Bulgaria, Trinidad, Fiji Islands, Tahiti And India, The Straits Settlements, Mauritius, And Japan. Indian Settlers In Natal Performed The Rite In Pietermaritzburg In The Autumn Of 1927, In Fulfilment Of A Vow. The ...

Fire
Fire Is So Familiar That It Scarcely Needs Definition. Its Extraor Dinary Usefulness And Equally Extraordinary Dangers Impress Practically Every Human Being From Infancy Onward. Ordinary Fire Is The Rapid Chemical Combination Of Oxygen With The Carbon And Other Elements Of Organic Substances In Such A Way That Heat, Flame ...

Fireback
Fireback, The Ornamented Slab Of Cast Iron Protecting The Back Of A Fireplace. The Date At Which Firebacks Became Common Probably Synchronizes With The Removal Of The Fire From The Centre To The Side Or End Of A Room. They Never Became Uni Versal, Since The Proximity Of Deposits Of ...

Firebrick
Firebrick. Under This Term Are Included All Bricks, Blocks And Slabs Used For Lining Furnaces, Fire-mouths, Flues, Etc., Where The Brickwork Has To Withstand High Temperature (see Brick). The Conditions To Which Firebricks Are Subjected In Use Vary Greatly As Regards Changes Of Temperature, Crushing Strain, Corro Sive Action Of ...

Fireclay
Fireclay. Clay Of Highly Refractory Character, Capable Of Resisting A Very High Temperature Without Fracture, Fusion Or Softening. This Quality Is Due To Comparative Freedom From Flux Ing Impurities, Such As Soda, Potash, Lime, Iron, And Magnesia. There Is No Fixed Standard Of Refractoriness For These Clays, But No Clay ...

Firedamp
Firedamp, The Most Prevalent Of The Noxious And In Flammable Gases Found In Mines. The Chief Constituent Of This Gas Is Methane, Also Known As Marsh Gas (q.v.). Firedamp Is Commonly Termed "gas" By The Coal Miner, And A Mine In Which Its Occurrence Is Common Is Known As A ...

Firedog
Firedog, One Of A Pair Of Supports For Wood That Is Burned In An Open Fireplace (see Andiron). It Has An Upright Standard To Which Is Attached A Horizontal Bar Which Raises The Logs Above The Hearth Level. The Spreading Base Gives The Support An Appearance Similar To That Of ...

Firefly
Firefly, A Term Popularly Used For Certain Beetles (py Rophorus) On Account Of Their Power Of Emitting Light. The In Sects Belong To The Family Elateridae (see Coleoptera). The Genus Pyrophorus Contains About 90 Species, And Is Confined To America And The West Indies, Ranging From The Southern United States ...

Fireless Cooker
Fireless Cooker. A Device, Smaller Than The Brick Oven (q.v.), For Cooking By Conserved Heat, And Consisting Of A Food Container Packed By Means Of Insulating Material In An Air-tight Com Partment. The Food In The Container Is First Brought To A Good Heat Over A Fire And Then Placed ...

Fireproofing
Fireproofing. This Term Is Applied To Methods Of Making Normally Combustible Materials Fireproof As Far As May Be, But In Practice The Most That Can Be Done With Them Is To Subdue Or Retard Inflammability. The Subject Is One Of Great Im Portance, Especially In Connection With The Construction Of ...

Fireship
Fireship, A Vessel Laden With Combustibles, Floated Down On An Enemy's Ships To Set Them On Fire. Fireships Were Used In Antiquity And In Middle Ages. The Highly Successful Employment Of One By The Defenders Of Antwerp When Besieged By The Prince Of Parma In 1585 Brought Them Into Prominent ...

Fireweed
Fireweed, The Name Given In The United States To Various Plants Which Spring Up Quickly And Profusely In Burnt-over Areas In Forest Regions, Especially To The Great Willow-herb (q.v.), Which Almost Throughout The Continent Is Exceedingly Abundant After Forest Fires. Its Rapid Spread Is Effected By The Blowing About Of ...

Fireworks
Fireworks. The History Of Pyrotechny May Be Said To Have Begun When A Prehistoric Firemaker First Mixed Saltpetre From His Cooking With Charcoal From His Fire, To Use As Tinder. In Sub Sequent Ages Other Ingredients Were Added As Pyrotechnic Mixtures Developed, And Eventually, When The Principle Of The Gun ...

Firm
Firm, Originally Dense Or Close ; Hence Steady, Unchanging Or Fixed. From A Late Latin Use Of Firmare, To Confirm By Signature, Firma Occurs In Many Romanic Languages For A Signature, And The English "firm" Was Thus Used Till The 18th Century. From A Transferred Use Came The Meaning Of ...

Firmament
Firmament, The Sky, The Heavens. In The Vulgate The Word Firmamentum, Which Means In Classical Latin A Strengthen Ing Or Support (firmare, To Make Firm Or Strong) Was Used As The Equivalent Of Vrephoma (arep€6av, To Make Firm Or Solid) In The Septuagint, Which Translates The Heb. Reiqiya`. The Hebrew ...

Firman
Firman, An Edict Of An Oriental Sovereign, Used Specially To Designate Decrees, Grants, Passports, Etc., Issued By The Sultan Of Turkey And Signed By One Of His Ministers. (the Word Is An Adaptation Of The Per. F Ermdn, A Mandate Or Patent.) A Decree Bearing The Sultan's Sign-manual And Drawn ...

Firminy
Firminy, A Town Of Central France In The Department Of Loire, 8 M. S.w. Of St. Etienne By Rail. Pop. (1931) 18,167. It Has Important Coal Mines Known Since The . I 4th Century And Exten Sive Manufactures Of Iron And Steel Goods. ...

First Aid To The
First Aid To The Injured. First Aid Refers To Measures To Be Taken Immediately After An Accident Not With Any Idea Of Cure But In Order To Prevent Death By Prompt Action, Or In Less Dangerous Cases To Prevent Further Harm Being Done, And Put The Victim In The Best ...

First Bank Of Japan
First Bank Of Japan. The Japanese Name Of Which This Is The Convenient English Equivalent Is Dai Ichi Ginko Ka Bushiki Kaisha (the Number 1 Bank Joint Stock Company). It Was Founded In July 1873, And Was The First Private Bank In Japan. In 1872 The Japanese Government Had Promulgated ...

First Of June
First Of June. The Battle Of The Glorious First Of June Was So Named Because It Was Fought At A Point Over 400m. From The Mainland And Reached A Decision On June 1, 1794. It Arose Out Of An Attempt By The British To Intercept, And By The French To ...

First Period Of Electrical
First Period Of Electrical Discoveries But Faraday's Chemical Work Was Soon Overshadowed By His Electrical Discoveries. The First Experiment Which He Has Recorded Was The Construction Of A Voltaic Pile With Seven Halfpence, Seven Disks Of Sheet Zinc, And Six Pieces Of Paper Moistened With Salt Wa Ter. With This ...

Firuzabad
Firuzabad, A Town Of Persia, In The Province Of Fars, 7 2 M. S. Of Shiraz, In 28° 51', At An Altitude Of 4,18o F T., In A Fertile Plain, 15 M. Long By Seven, Well Watered By A River Which Flows Through It From North To South. Pop. About ...

Firuzkuh
Firuzkuh, A Small Province Of Persia, With A Population Of About 5,000. Its Chief Place Is A Village Of The Same Name Situ Ated In A Valley Of The Elburz, About 90 M. E. Of Teheran, At An Elevation Of Over 5,000 Ft. And In 3 5 ° 45' N. ...

Fiscal Year
Fiscal Year, Any 12-month Period, Which May Or May Not Coincide With The Calendar Year, Determined Upon By A Busi Ness Or Government As The Annual Period At The End Of Which Books Are Closed And The Financial Condition Ascertained. The Fiscal Year Of The British Government Closes On April ...

Fish Cookery
Fish Cookery. The Term Fish Includes Many Water Ani Mals Which Are Classed As "sea Food" (e.g., Crabs, Shrimps, Lobsters, Turtles, Oysters, Frogs, Etc.), Besides Fish Proper. Fish Is Sold Whole, Dressed, Salted, Dried, Tinned Or Alive. It Is Generally A Cheap And Wholesome Source Of Nitrogenous Food Though Compared ...

Fish Curing
Fish Curing, An Operation, Or Series Of Operations, The Object Of Which Is The Preservation Of The Flesh Of Fish By Salting, Drying, Pickling, Or Smoking. Though Preservation By Various Means In Periods Of Plenty Against Periods When Fish Could Not Be Caught Has Been Practised Tby Man Since Earliest ...

Fish Louse
Fish-louse, The Name Applied To Small Crustaceans Of The Order Copepoda (q.v.), External Parasites Of Fishes, Whales And Other Marine Animals. ...

Fish
Fish, That Class Of Vertebrate Animals Which Lives Exclusively In Water, Breathes Through Gills, And Whose Limbs Take The Form Of Fins (see Fishes And Pisciculture) . The Article Fish Eries Deals With The Subject From The Economic Point Of View, And Angling With The Sport Of Fishing. The Constellation ...

Fisher
Fisher (mustela Pennanti), A North American Member Of The Weasel Family Black In Colour, Reaching A Total Length Of About 42 Inches, And Producing Valuable Fur. The Fisher Is Also Called Pennant's Marten, And, By Trappers, Black Cat. (see ...

Fisheries Of The British
Fisheries Of The British Empire Reference Has Been Made To Some Fisheries Of The British Empire. If A Chart Of The World Be Studied With Special Refer Ence To The Sea Areas Within The Depth Of Zoo Fathoms—that Being Roughly The Limit Of Depth Of The Fishing Grounds—it Will Be ...

Fisheries
Fisheries. This Term As Commonly Employed Embraces Every Method Of Pursuit And Capture, Whether For Profit Or For Sport, Of Aquatic Animals, From Whales And Seals, Which Are Warm-blooded Mammals, To The "tiddlers" Prized By Urchins. However, Neither Whaling Nor Sealing Comes Within The Scope Of This Article, Which Is ...

Fishes
Fishes, A Name That Has Generally Been Applied To All Those Vertebrate Animals That Live In Water, Swimming By Fins And Breathing By Gills. Most Modern Authorities Agree In Separating As A Distinct Class The Lampreys And Hagfishes, Which Have No Gill-arches And No Jaws. These Are Opposed As Cyclostomata ...

Fishguard
Fishguard (abergwaun), Market Town, Urban District And Packet Station, North Coast Of Pembrokeshire, Wales, Near The Mouth Of The River Gwaun. Pop. (1931) 2,963. The Present Town Is Perched High Above A Smaller Harbour-village On An Inlet On The South Side Of The Bay. The Importance Of Fishguard Is Due ...

Fistula
Fistula, A Term In Surgery Used To Designate An Abnormal Communication Leading Either From The Surface Of The Body To A Normal Cavity Or Canal, Or From One Normal Cavity Or Canal To Another. These Communications Are The Result Of Disease Or In Jury. They Receive Different Names According To ...

Fit I
Fit. (i) A Division Of A , Poem, A Canto, In This Sense Often Spelled "fytte." (2) A Sudden Attack Of Illness, Particularly One With Convulsive Paroxysms Accompanied By Unconsciousness, Especially An Attack Of Apoplexy Or Epilepsy. ...

Fitchburg
Fitchburg, A City Of Massachusetts, U.s.a., 48m. W.n.w. Of Boston, On The North Branch Of The Nashua River; One Of The County Seats Of Worcester County. It Is Served By The Boston And Maine And The New York, New Haven And Hartford Railways. The Population Was 41,029 In 1920 (32% ...

Fitchew
Fitchew, A Name Applied To The Ferret And Also To The Polecat (qq.v.). Earlier Forms Of The Word Are Ficheux, Fecheu And Fitcholl. ...

Fitter
Fitter. A Toolfitter Makes Or Fits Up Press Tools, Dies, Cutting Tools For Automatic Machines, And Parts Of Such Machines Closely Related To The Operation Of The Tools. A Pipe-fitter Attends To The Cutting, Bending, Screwing, Fitting In Place And Joint-making Of Iron, Steel, Copper Or Brass Pipes In Various ...

Fitzgerald
Fitzgerald, The Name Of An Historic Irish House, Which Descends From Walter, Son Of Other, Who At The Time Of The Domesday Survey (1086) Was Castellan Of Windsor And A Tenant In-chief In Five Counties. From His Eldest Son William, Known As "de Windsor," Descended The Windsors Of Stanwell, Of ...

Fitzgerald_2
Fitzgerald, A City Of Southern Georgia, U.s.a., 140m. W. By S. Of Savannah; The County Seat Of Ben Hill County. It Is Served By The Atlanta, Birmingham And Coast And The Seaboard Air Line Railways. The Population Was 6,870 In 1920 (36% Negroes) And Was 6,412 In 1930 By The ...

Fitzwilliam Museum
Fitzwilliam Museum, A Building Erected To House The Collection Of Music, Books, Paintings And Other Works Of Art, Be Queathed In 1816 By Richard, Viscount Fitzwilliam, To The Uni Versity Of Cambridge, England. Both The Collection And The Build Ings Have Been Greatly Enlarged By The Bequest Of Charles Brins ...

Fiuggi
Fiuggi, A Town Of Italy, Province Of Frosinone, Lazio, 5o M. S.e. Of Rome By Rail, 2,45o Ft. Above Sea Level. The Pop. Of The Commune In 1931 Was 3,871. The Town, Which Lies On A Hill, Was Known As Anticoli Di Campagna Till 1911, But Has Recently Taken The ...

Fiume
Fiume, Italian Port On The Gulf Of Quarnero, Adriatic Sea, In The Province Of Fiume, 4o M. S.e. Of Trieste. Pop. (1931) Town, 50,157; Commune, 52,928. Af Ter Being Taken By Charlemagne It Long Remained Under The Franks And Was Then Held By The Bishop Of Pola In Feudal Tenure ...

Five Nations
Five Nations: See Iroquois. Fives. A Ball Game Played By Two Or Four Players In A Court Fives. A Ball Game Played By Two Or Four Players In A Court Enclosed On Three Or Four Sides, The Ball Being Struck With The Hand Usually Protected By A Glove. Certain Forms ...