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Encyclopedia Britannica

Volume 9, Part 1: Extraction to Gambrinus

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Fixed Assets
Fixed Assets, Also Known As Capital Assets, Are Assets (q.v.) Of A Lasting Nature Which Are Acquired For The Purpose Of Carrying On A Business And Which Are Intended As A Permanent Investment. Such Assets As Land, Buildings, Machinery And Equip Ment, Furniture And Fixtures, Patterns, Drawings And Durable Tools ...

Fixed Price
Fixed Price. A Term Sometimes Applied To A Price Fixed And Maintained By Mutual Agreement Between Wholesale Produc Ers And Retail Distributors. In A Majority Of Cases Such Fixed Prices Are Arranged By Big Producing Firms As A Condition Of Supply For Retailing, I.e., The Producer Binds The Retailer Not ...

Fixtures
Fixtures, In Law, Chattels Which Have Been So Fixed Or Attached To Land (as It Is Expressed In English Law, "so Annexed To The Freehold"), As To Become, In Contemplation Of Law, A Part Of It. All Systems Of Law Make A Marked Distinction, For Certain Pur Poses, Between Immovables ...

Fjord Or Fiord
Fjord Or Fiord (fyawrd) Is The Name Given To A Narrow Arm Of The Sea Which Runs Far Inland And With More Or Less Pre Cipitous Sides. The Term Is Of Norwegian Origin And Is The Name Given To The Characteristic Sea Lochs Of The Coast-line Of That Coun Try. ...

Flaccus
Flaccus, A Cognomen In The Plebeian Gens Fulvia, One Of The Most Illustrious In Ancient Rome. Cicero And Pliny State That The Family Came From Tusculum, Where Some Were Still Living In The Middle Of The 1st Century B.c. Of The Fulvii Flacci The Most Important Were The Following : ...

Flag
Flag (or "flagge," A Common Teutonic Word In This Sense, But Apparently First Recorded In English), A Piece Of Bunting Or Similar Material, Admitting Of Various Shapes And Colours, And Waved In The Wind From A Staff Or Cord For Use In Display As A Standard, Ensign Or Signal. ...

Flagellants
Flagellants, In Religion, The Name Given To Those Who Scourge Themselves, Or Are Scourged, By Way Of Discipline Or Pen Ance (lat. Flagellare, To Whip). Voluntary Flagellation, As A Form Of Exalted Devotion, Occurs In Almost All Religions. According To Herodotus, It Was The Custom Of The Ancient Egyptians To ...

Flagellata
Flagellata, Single-celled Animals (protozoa) Character Ized By The Possession Of Flagella—delicate, Hair-like, Protoplasmic Processes Which Serve As Organs Of Locomotion (functioning Simi Larly To An Oar Or To The Propeller Of An Aeroplane). For Further Particulars See Protozoa. ...

Flagellum
Flagellum, An Organ Attached To Various Small Animals For The Purpose Of Locomotion. It Consists Of A Long Slender Fila Ment, Anterior In Progression, Which Causes The Body To Be Drawn Along By An Undu Lating Movement. These Vibratile Proc Esses Come From A Distinct Basal Granula, May Be Either ...

Flageolet
Flageolet, In Music, A Kind Of Fli2te-h-bec With A New Fingering, Invented In France At The End Of The 16th Century, And In Vogue In England From The End Of The 17th To The Beginning Of The 19th Cen Tury. The Flageolet Differed From The Recorder In That It Had ...

Flagstaff
Flagstaff, A City Of Northern Arizona, U.s.a., At The Foot Of The San Francisco Peaks, 6,896ft. Above Sea-level; The County Seat Of Coconino County. It Is On The National Old Trails Highway And Also Number 89, And On The Main Line Of The Santa Fe Railway; And Has A Municipal ...

Flail
Flail, A Farm Hand-implement Formerly Used For Threshing Corn. It Consists Of A Short Thick Club Called A "swingle" Or "swipple" Attached By A Rope Or Leather Thong To A Wooden Handle In Such A Manner As To Enable It To Swing Freely. The "flail" Was A Weapon Used For ...

Flamborough Head
Flamborough Head, A Promontory On The Yorkshire Coast, England, Between The Filey And Bridlington Bays Of The North Sea. It Is A Lofty Chalk Headland. The Cliffs Of The Head Are Pierced With Caverns And Fringed With Rocks Of Fantastic Out Line. Sea-birds Breed Abundantly On The Cliffs. A Lighthouse ...

Flamboyant Style
Flamboyant Style, In Architecture, The Last Phase Of The Gothic In France, Characterized By The Dominance In Tracery Of The Line Of Double Curvature, Known As The "ogee Curve," Which Generates The Flame-like Forms That Give The Name Flamboyant To The Style. Flamboyant Forms Begin To Appear In The Late ...

Flame
Flame. From The Earliest Times The Phenomenon Of Flame Became Invested With A Peculiar Element Of Mystery, And Little Progress Was Made In Elucidating It Until A Late Stage In The History Of Human Knowledge. To People Unable To Discriminate Between Things Material And Immaterial, Flame Seemed To Be A ...

Flamen
Flamen, From Flare, "to Blow Up" The Altar Fire, A Roman Sacrificial Priest. The Flamens Were Subject To The Pontifex Maxi Mus And Were Consecrated To The Service Of Some Particular Deity. The Highest In Rank Were The Flamen Dialis, Flamen Martialis And Flamen Quirinalis, Who Were Always Patricians. When ...

Flamethrower
Flamethrower. This Weapon Was First Used By The Germans In The Winter Of 1914-15, And With Marked Success In The Bois D'avocourt (verdun) On Feb. 26, 1915 (ger. Flammen Wer F Er). The French Followed In Their Use. The British Used Them On The Somme And In The Zeebrugge Attack, ...

Flamingo
Flamingo, The Name Given To Birds Of The Genus Phoeni Copterus. The Common Flamingo, P. Roseus, Is In Both Sexes White In Colour, With A Rosy Tinge Above, The Wings Scarlet, Bordered With Black (as In All Species). The Legs Of All These Birds Are Very Long, The Feet Webbed, ...

Flanders
Flanders (flem. Vlaanderen), A Name Originally Applied Only To Bruges And Neighbourhood But In The 8th And 9th Cen Turies Extended To The Coast Region From Calais To The Scheldt. In The Middle Ages This Was Divided Into Two Parts, One Looking To Bruges, The Other To Ghent. The Name ...

Flannel
Flannel. A Woollen Stuff Of Various Degrees Of Weight And Fineness, Made Usually From Loosely Spun Yarn. The Origin Of The Word Is Uncertain, But In The I6th Century Flannel Was A Well Known Production Of Wales, And A Welsh Origin Has Been Sug Gested. The French Form Flanelle Was ...

Flannelette
Flannelette, A Descriptive Term Signifying A Particu Lar Style Of Finishing And Applied To An Important Class Of Cotton Fabrics Of Simple Texture, Which Have Either One Side Only Or, More Usually, Both Sides Formed With A Short Fleecy "nap" Or Fur. This Nap Is Developed After Weaving, By Submitting ...

Flare
Flare. The Term Flare In Pyrotechny Is Applied Either To Coloured Fire Composition Burnt In A Loose Heap, Or To A Similar Composition Charged Into A Rolled Paper Case, Thus Ensuring Longer And More Regular Burning. Flares Are Used In Pyrotechnic Displays For The Illumination Of The Surroundings And In ...

Flask
Flask, In Its Earliest Meaning, A Vessel, Made Of Wood Or Leather, For Carrying Liquor. The Principal Applications In Current Usage Are (i) To A Vessel Of Metal Or Wood, Formerly Of Horn, ! Used For Carrying Gunpowder; (2) To A Long-necked, Round-bodied Glass Vessel, Usually Covered With Plaited Straw ...

Flat
Flat. The Word Is Generally Applied By British Usage To A Self-contained Residence Or Separate Dwelling (in Scots Law, The Term Flatted House Is Still Used), Consisting Of A Suite Of Rooms Which Form A Portion, Usually On A Single Floor, Of A Large Build Ing, Called The Tenement House, ...

Flatfish
Flatfish Is The Name Of The Fishes Of The Order Heteroso Mata, Which Differ From All Other Fishes In Having Both Eyes On One Side. They Live At The Bottom, With The Eyed Side Uppermost; This Is Coloured, Whereas The Blind Or Underside Is Normally White; But Exposure Of This ...

Flathead
Flathead. This Name Has Been Ap Plied To A Variety Of Tribes In North-western And South-eastern North America Who Practised Frontal And Occipital Compression Of Infants' Heads, Resulting In Permanent Deformation Of The Skull, Especially A Low Forehead And Posterior Breadth. The Proc Ess Was Not Injurious, Did Not Affect ...

Flatworm
Flatworm, A General Name For Members Of The Phylum Platyhelminthes (q.v.), Including The Flukes (see Trematodes), Tapeworms (q.v.) And Certain Free-living Forms. (see Turbel ...

Flavian I
Flavian I. (c. 320–c. 404), Bishop Or Patriarch Of Antioch, Was Probably Born In Antioch. He Supported The Catholic Faith Against The Arian Leontius, Who Had Succeeded Eustathius As Bishop Of Antioch. When Meletius Was Appointed Bishop Of An Tioch In 361 He Raised Flavian To The Priesthood, And On ...

Flavian Ii
Flavian Ii. (d. 518), Bishop Or Patriarch Of Antioch, Was Chosen By The Emperor Anastasius I. To Succeed Palladius, Most Probably In 498. He Endeavoured To Please Both Parties By A Middle Course In Reference To The Chalcedon (q.v.) Decrees, But After Great Hesitation Accepted The Henoticon, Or Decree Of ...

Flavigny
Flavigny, A Town Of Eastern France, In The Department Of Cote-d Or, Stands On A Hill Above The River Ozerain, 33 M. W.n.w. Of Dijon By Road. Pop. (1931) 511. The 8th Century Abbey Has Been Rebuilt As A Factory For The Manufacture Of Anise, An Indus Try Connected With ...

Flavin
Flavin, The Commercial Name For An Extract Or Preparation Of Quercitron Bark (q.v.), Which Is Used As A Yellow Dye In Place Of The Ground And Powdered Bark. ...

Flavourings
Flavourings. Flavouring Agents, With The Exception Of Common Salt, Are Obtained From Vegetables And May Be From Any Part Of The Plant, That Is, Leaf, Stem, Root Or Fruit. Though Useful In Helping To Make Certain Foods Palatable And Hence Easier To Digest, Condiments Have No Food Value And Should ...

Flax
Flax. The Terms Flax And Lint Are Employed At Once To Denote The Fibre So Called, And The Plant From Which It Is Prepared. The Flax Plant (linum Usitatissimum) Belongs To The Natural Order Lin Aceae, And, Like Most Plants Which Have Been Long Under Cultiva Tion, It Possesses Numerous ...

Flea
Flea, A Name Given To Insects Forming The Scientific Order Siphonaptera (or Aphaniptera) And Typically Applied To The Human Flea (pulex Irritans). Fleas Live As Ecto-parasites On The Bodies Of Mammals And Birds, Where They Feed By Sucking The Blood. They Are Remarkable For Their Powers Of Leaping, And About ...

Fleche
Fleche, An Architectural Term Which, In France, Signifies Any Spire, But In English Usage Is Limited To Those Small, Slender Spires Which Are Placed On The Ridge Of A Roof Of A Church And Not Upon A Tower. The Fleche Is Usually Built Of A Wood Frame Work Covered With ...

Fleet Auxiliary Vessels
Fleet Auxiliary Vessels. In Addition To The Fighting Units—battleships, Cruisers, Destroyers, Etc.—which Go To Make Up A Fleet, A Modern Navy, In War Time, Requires An Array Of Auxiliary Vessels And Small Craft. The World War Produced Many Varieties Of Such Auxiliaries; Some For Service With The Main Forces, But ...

Fleet Prison
Fleet Prison, An Historic London Prison, Formerly Sit Uated On The East Side Of Farringdon Street, And Deriving Its Name From The Fleet Stream. It Became Prominent From Being Used As A Place Of Reception For Persons Committed By The Star Chamber, And, Afterwards, For Debtors, And Persons Imprisoned For ...

Fleetwood
Fleetwood, A Seaport And Watering-place In The Fylde Parliamentary Division Of Lancashire, England, At The Mouth Of The Wyre, 2 29/ M. N.w. By N. From London, At The Terminus Of A Branch From Preston Of The L.m.s. Railway. Pop. Of Urban District (1931) 22,983. It Dates Its Rise From ...

Flensburg
Flensburg (danish, Flensborg), A Seaport In The Prussian Province Of Schleswig-holstein, At The Head Of The Flensburg Fjord, 20 M. N.w. From Schleswig, At The Junction Of The Main Line Altona-vamdrup (denmark). Pop. Flensburg Was Probably Founded In The 12th Century. It Attained Municipal Privileges In 1284, Was Frequently Pillaged ...

Flers
Flers, A Manufacturing Town Of North-western France, In The Arrondissement Of Domfront, And Department Of The Orne, On The Vere, 41 M. S. Of Caen On The Railway To Laval. Pop. (1931) 10,946. There Is A Restored Château Of The 15th Century. Flers Has A Tribunal Of Commerce And A ...

Fleta
Fleta, A Treatise On The Common Law Of England Written About The Year 1290. It Is Little Better Than An Ill-arranged Epit Ome Of Bracton. The Author Also Borrowed Some Information On Husbandry From Walter Of Henley. He Is Supposed To Have Writ Ten It During His Confinement In The ...

Fleurus
Fleurus, A Village Of Belgium, In The Province Of Henne Gau, 5m. N.e. Of Charleroi, Famous As The Scene Of Several Battles. The First Of These Was Fought On Aug. 19-29, 1622, Be Tween The Forces Of Count Mansfeld And Christian Of Brunswick And The Spaniards Under Cordovas, The Latter ...

Fleury Abraham Joseph Benard
Fleury (abraham Joseph Benard) (i 750-1822), French Actor, Was Born At Chartres On Oct. 26, 175o, And Began His Stage Apprenticeship At Nancy, Where His Father Was An Actor At The Court Of King Stanislaus. He Came To Paris In 1778, And Almost Immediately Was Made Societaire At The Comedie ...

Flicker
Flicker, The Name Given In North America To Large, Ant Eating Woodpeckers Of The Genus Colaptes. Both Sexes Have A Red Band On The Nape. The Golden-winged Flicker (c. Auratus) Has The Under Surface Of Wings And Tail Bright, Golden Yellow ; It Is Found In The South Atlantic States, ...

Flier
Flier, A Purchase Of Stock That Is Known By The Buyer To Be Of A Highly Speculative Nature, And By Which He Hopes To Make A Quick Turnover At A Profit, Though Realizing That There Is Also A Great Possibility Of Loss. Taking A Flier Is Essentially A Gamble And ...

Flight Natural
Flight (natural). The Flight Of Birds Has Been From Time Immemorial A Riddle As Well As A Source Of Inspiration. The Author Of The Proverbs Of Solomon Describes "the Way Of An Eagle In The Air" As "too Wonderful" For Him; And For Many Cen Turies The Paradox That A ...

Flinders Bars
Flinder's Bars, Vertical Bars Of Soft Iron Placed In Front Of Or Behind A Ship's Compass To Compensate The Disturbing Mag Netic Effects Due To The Vertical Soft Iron Parts Of The Ship. Other Effects Due To Soft And Hard Iron In Horizontal And Vertical Direc Tions Are Also Eliminated ...

Flinsberg
Flinsberg, A Village Of Germany, In The Prussian Province Of Silesia, On The Queis, At The Foot Of The Iserkamm, 1,725 F T. Above The Sea, South Of Friedeberg, The Terminus Station Of The Railway From Greiffenberg. Pop. (1933) 2,843. It Has Some Manu Factures Of Wooden Wares. Flinsberg Is ...

Flint Or Flintshire
Flint Or Flintshire (sir Gallestr), A County Of North Wale3, The Smallest In Wales, Bounded North By The Irish Sea And The Dee Estuary, North-east By The Dee, East By Cheshire, And South-west By Denbighshire. Area, 163,707 Acres. Pop. (1931), 112,849. Included In Flint Is The Detached Hundred Of Maelor, ...

Flint
Flint, A Municipal Borough And County Town In Wales, On The Dee Estuary, 1 1 2 M. N.w. Of Chester By Rail. Pop. (1931), 7,635. Flint Castle Was Built On An Isolated Rock By The River Side By Edward I., Who Made The Little Settlement That Grew Beneath The Castle ...

Flints
Flints. The Term "flints" Is Popularly Used To Denote Implements Made By Men Of The Stone Age, Since In Europe Flint And Flinty Materials Were Frequently Used For That Purpose. Flint Is A Hydrated Silica Containing A Varying Amount Of Water Loosely Held In Combination. When Pure It Is Translucent, ...

Flint_2
Flint, A City Of Michigan, U.s.a., On The Flint River, Tom. N.w. Of Detroit; The County Seat Of Genesee County, The Third City Of The State In Size And The Second In Value Of Manufactures, And The Second Of The World In Production Of Automobiles. It Is On Federal Highways ...

Flint_3
Flint (a Word Common In Teutonic And Scandinavian Lan Guages, Possibly Cognate With The Gr. Irxivoos, A Tile), In Petrology A Black, Grey Or Brown Form Of Hydrated Silica Which Has An Almost Vitreous Lustre, And When Pure Appears Structureless To The Unaided Eye. When Unaltered By Weathering, It Is, ...

Float
Float, The Action Of Moving On The Surface Of Water, Or Through The Air. The Word Is Used Of A Wave, Or The Flood Of The Tide, River, Backwater Or Stream, And Of Any Object Floating In Water, As A Mass Of Ice Or Weeds; A Movable Landing-stage, A Flat-bottomed ...

Floating Debt
Floating Debt. This Term Is Usually Applied To That Form Of National Debt Which Consists Of Very Short Term Obliga Tions, Such As Treasury Bills And Loans From The State Or Central Bank (see National Debt) In Great Britain And On The Conti Nent, And As Treasury Notes And Certificates ...

Flock I A
Flock. I. (a Word Found In O.e. And O.norw., From Which Come The Danish And Swedish Words, And Not In Other Teutonic Languages), Originally A Company Of People, Now Mainly, Except In Figurative Usages, Of Certain Animals When Gathered Together For Feeding Or Moving From Place To Place. For Birds ...

Flodden Or Flodden Field
Flodden Or Flodden Field, Near The Village Of Branxton, In Northumberland, England (tom. N.w. Of Woolen), The Scene Of A Famous Battle F Ought On Sept. 9, 1513, Between The English And The Scots. On Aug. 22 A Great Scottish Army Under King James Iv. Had Crossed The Border. For ...

Flodoard
Flodoard (894-966), French Chronicler, Was Born At Epernay, And Educated At Reims In The Cathedral School Which Had Been Established By Archbishop Fulcon (822-90o). As Canon Of Reims, And Favourite Of The Archbishops Herivaeus (d. 922) And Seulfus (d. 925), He Occupied While Still Young An Important Position At The ...

Floe
Floe, A Sheet Of Floating Ice Detached From The Main Body Of Polar Ice, And Of Less Extent Than The Field Of "pack" Ice, Which Is A Compacted Mass Of Greater Depth Drifting Frequently Under The Influence Of Deep Currents, While The Floe Is Driven By The Wind. ...

Flogging
Flogging Has Been One Of The Most Universally Utilized Methods Of Punishing Public Crimes, As Well As A Means Of Pre Serving Family, Domestic, Military And Academic Discipline. In The Mosaic Code Flogging Was Prescribed As Punishment For Crime. Down To About 1800 Imprisonment Was Not Common As A Mode ...

Flood Plain
Flood Plain, The Land-form Term For A Plain Made Of Sediment Deposited By A River. When The Gradient Of A River Becomes Very Slight, It Is Unable To Carry All The Material Brought Downstream And Consequently The Lower Valley Becomes Filled With Alluvial Deposits; In Times Of Flood The River ...

Flood
Flood, An Overflow Of Water; An Expanse Of Water Sub Merging Land; A Deluge, Hence "the Flood" (see Deluge, The). In The Sense Of "flowing Water," The Word Is Applied To The Inflow Of The Tide, As Opposed To "ebb" (o.e. Flod). ...

Floor Cloth
Floor-cloth, A Generic Term Applied To A Variety Of Ma Terials Used In Place Of Carpets For Covering Floors, And Known By Such Trade Names As Kamptulicon, Oil-cloth, Linoleum, Corticine, Cork-carpet, Etc. Kamptulicon Was Patented In 1844 By E. Gallo Way, But Did Not Attract Much Attention Till About 1862. ...

Floor Traders
Floor Traders, Members Of A (especially The New York) Stock Exchange Who Buy And Sell Securities For Their Own Account And Who Do Not Conduct Transactions For Clients. They Are To Be Distinguished From The Commission Brokers Whose Ex Clusive Function Is To Trade For The Accounts Of Clients. Floor ...

Floor
Floor, The Lower Horizontal Surface Of A Room; Used, Also, Almost Interchangeably With Storey (q.v.), To Designate The Dif Ferent Levels Or Planes Of Rooms, One Above The Other, As Ground Floor, First Floor, Etc. Floors Were, At First, Simply Of Tamped Earth (beaten Down), Covered With Textiles Or Skins; ...

Flora
Flora, Italian Goddess Of Flowers, Later Identified With The Greek Chloris. Her Festival At Rome, The Floralia, Instituted 238 B.c. By Order Of The Sibylline Books And At First Held Irregularly, Became Annual After '73 B.c. It Lasted Six Days (april 28—may 3), The First Day Being The Anniversary Of ...

Floral Envelopes
Floral Envelopes Calyx.—the Sepals Are Sometimes Free Or Separate From Each Other, At Other Times United To A Greater Or Less Extent; In The Former Case, The Calyx Is Polysepalous, In The Latter Gamosepalous Or Monose Palous. The Divisions Of The Calyx Are Usually Entire, But Occasionally Are Cut (rose) ...

Flore And Blanchefleur
Flore And Blanchefleur, A Romance. This Tale, Generally Supposed To Be Of Oriental Origin, Relates The Passionate Devotion Of Two Children, And Their Success In Overcoming All The Obstacles Put In The Way Of Their Love. The Romance Appears In Differing Versions In French, English, German, Swedish, Icelandic, Italian, Spanish, ...

Floreal
Floreal. The Name Given To The Eighth Month Of The Year Introduced Into The French Republican Calendar In 1793. It Extended From April 20 To May 19. See Calendar. ...

Florence Of Worcester
Florence Of Worcester (d. 1118), English Chron Icler, Was A Monk Of Worcester, Who Died, As We Learn From His Continuator, On July 7, '1'8. Beyond This Fact Nothing Is Known Of His Life. He Compiled A Chronicle Called Chronicon Ex Chronicis Which Begins With The Creation And Ends In ...

Florence
Florence And Medici. ) Bibliography.--f. Sassetti, Vita Di Francesco Ferrucci, Written In The Bibliography.--f. Sassetti, Vita Di Francesco Ferrucci, Written In The Century And Published In The Archivio Storico, Vol. Iv. Pt. Ii. (flor Ence, 1853), With An Introduction By C. Monzani; E. Aloisi, La Bat Taglia Di Gavinana (bologna, ...

Florence_2
Florence (ital. Firenze, Lat. Florentia), Formerly The Capital Of Tuscany, Now The Capital Of A Province Of The Kingdom Of Italy, And The Eighth Largest City In The Country. It Is Situated 46' N., 1 I° 14' E., On Both Banks Of The River Arno, Which Here Flows Through A ...

Florence_3
Florence, A City Of North-western Alabama, U.s.a., On The North Bank Of The Tennessee River, In The Muscle Shoals Dis Trict ; The County Seat Of Lauderdale County. It Is On The Lee And The Jackson Highways And Is Served By The Louisville And Nash Ville And The Southern Railways, ...

Florence_4
Florence, A City Of Fremont County, Colorado, U.s.a., On The Arkansas River, 33m. W.n.w. Of Pueblo, At An Altitude Of 5,187 Feet. It Is On Federal Highway 5o, And On The State Highway Running North Through Phantom Canyon And South To The San Isabel National Forest; And Is Served By ...

Florence_5
Florence, A City Of North-eastern South Carolina, U.s.a., In The Pee Dee Section Of The Coastal Plain ; County Seat Of Flor Ence County. It Is On Federal Highways 17, 76 And 6o1; Has A Municipal Airport (144ac.) ; And Is Served By The Atlantic Coast Line And The Seaboard ...

Florentium
Florentium, The Name Given To Element No. 61 By L. Rolla And L. Fernandes, Who Claim To Have Deposited A Paper Announcing Its Discovery With The Accademia Dei Lincei In June 1924. On The Other Hand, B. S. Hopkins Disputes This Claim (see J. Franklin Inst., 1927, 204, P. 1) ...

Flores
Flores, Capital Of The Guatemalan Province Of Peten, Located About 275m. N.n.e. Of Guatemala City. Population Esti Mated At 6,000, The Only Town Of Such Size In The Region. Its Exports Are Chicle (the Gum Of The Chicle-zapote Tree And The Basis Of Chewing-gum), Mahogany And Spanish Cedar. Flores Can ...

Flores_2
Flores, An Island Forming Part Of The Azores Archipelago. Pop. Area, 57 Sq.m. Flores And The Adjacent Island Of Corvo (pop. 673; Area, 7 Sq.m.) Constitute The Westernmost Group Of The Azores, From The Rest Of Which They Are Widely Severed. It Derives Its Name From The Abundance Of The ...

Flores_3
Flores, One Of The Lesser Sunda Islands, Of The Dutch East Indies. It Is The Last Large Island Of The Chain Which Extends Eastwards From Java, And Lies Between Celebes And Timor. Flores Has An Area Of 8,87o Sq. Miles, Is 224 Miles In Length, And 37 In Width. It ...

Florianopolis Suspension Bridge
Florianopolis Suspension Bridge. The Flo Rianopolis Bridge, Brazil, With A Main Span Of 1113ft. 9in., Is The Largest Bridge In South America And The Longest Eye-bar Suspen Sion Span In The World. It Was Constructed (5923-26) For The State Of Santa Catharina, Brazil, To Carry A Highway, Electric Rail Way ...

Florianopolis
Florianopolis (formerly Desterro, Nossa Senhora Do Desterro And Santa Catharina, And Still Popularly Known Under The Last Designation), A City And Port Of Brazil And The Capital Of The State Of Santa Catharina, On The Western Or Inside Shore Of A Large Island Of The Same Name, 485 M. S.s.w. ...

Florida
Florida, Called The "peninsula State" Because Of Its Pe Culiar Outline, Is The Most Southern State Of The United States And Is Situated Between 24° 3o' And 31° N., And 79° 48' And 87° 38' W. It Is Bounded On The North By Alabama And Georgia, On The East By ...

Floridor Josias De Soulas
Floridor [josias De Soulas, Sieur De Prinefosse] (d. C. 1671), French Actor, Was Born In Brie Early In The 17th Century, The Son Of A Gentleman Of German Family Who Had Moved To France. The Son Entered The French Army, But Left It For The Theatre, Where He Took The ...

Florin
Florin, The Name Of Several Coins Of The Continent Of Europe And Of Two Coins Struck In England At Different Times. The Word Comes Through The Fr. Florin From The Ital. Fiorino, Flower, Lat. Flos, Florem. Fiorino Was The Italian Name Of A Gold Coin Issued At Florence In 1252, ...

Florus
Florus, Roman Historian, Flourished In The Time Of Trajan And Hadrian. He Compiled, Chiefly From Livy, A Brief Sketch Of The History Of Rome From The Foundation Of The City To The Closing Of The Temple Of Janus By Augustus (25 B.c.). The Work, Which Is Called Epitome De T. ...

Flounder
Flounder, A Name Given Generally To Flat Fishes, Other Than Soles, And In England Particularly To Pleuronectes Flesus, Which Range From Northern Europe To The Mediterranean, And Often Enter Fresh Water. P. Stellatus Of The Pacific Coast Of North America Is A Related Species. In America The Name Is Given ...

Flour And Flour Manufacture
Flour And Flour Manufacture. Flour Is Defined As The Fine, Clean, Sound Product Made By Bolting Wheat Meal. The Word Is Used In A Less Definite Sense Of Other Cereals And Even Non-cereals Or Other Substances In A Finely Powdered State, Though In These Cases It Is Usual To Use ...

Flour Beetle
Flour Beetle, A Minute Weevil Or Beetle Of The Tene Brionidae Which Infests Flour, Meal, Etc. The Eggs Develop Rapidly From Minute Larvae Into Beetles Which Feed On Flour And Other Cereals And Also Do Considerable Damage By Boring Holes Into Wood. See Coleoptera. ...

Flower Arranging
Flower Arranging In Japan Is An Old Art Of Com Posing Natural Flowers, Foliage Or Fruit-bearing Branches In A Vessel For The Decoration Of A Room. Its Important Position In The Home Was Established In The Middle Of The 15th Century, When The Tea-ceremony (q.v.) Became A Fashion, And So ...

Flower Farming
Flower Farming. Flower Growing For The Wholesale Market Has Become A Great Industry In Many Countries With The Development Of Wealthy Urban Populations Of Cultured Taste. England, The United States, France And Holland Have Important Flower Outputs. ...

Flower Painting
Flower Painting. Broadly Speaking, Flower Painting May Be Divided Into Two Big Classes: That Of The East, And That Of The West. In The East, Flower Painting Very Early Attained To A High State And Became An Individual, Extremely Beautiful Art In China Between The 7th And 17th Centuries. Japanese ...

Flower Pecker
Flower-pecker, The Name Given To The Members Of A Family (dicaeidiae) Of Small Old World Birds Which Usually Build Hanging Nests. Dicaeur Erythrorhynclius, The Smallest Bird In The Old World, Weighing Some 7 Or 8 Grams, Is Included In This Family. ...

Flower
Flower, A Term Popularly Used For The Blossom Of A Plant, And So By Analogy For The Finest Part Or Aspect Of Anything. Here It Is Dealt With Only Botanically. The Flower Is Characteristic Of The Highest Group Of Plants—the Flowering Plants (phanerogams) —and Is The Association Of More Or ...

Fluke
Fluke, A Name Given To Several Kinds Of Fish, Flat In Shape, Especially To The Common Flounder; Also To A Trematode Worm, Resembling A Flounder In Shape, Which, As A Parasite, Infects The Liver And Neighbouring Organs Of Certain Animals, Especially Sheep, And Causes Liver-rot. The Most Common Is Fasciola ...

Flume
Flume, A Word Formerly Used For A Stream, And Particularly For The Tail Of A Mill-race. It Is Used In America For A Very Nar Row Gorge Between Precipitous Rocks, With A Stream At The Bottom, But More Frequently Is Applied To An Artificial Channel Of Wood Or Other Material ...

Fluminimaggiore
Fluminimaggiore, A Town Of The Province Of Ca Gliari, Sardinia, 1 O M. By Road N. Of Iglesias, And 5 M. From The W. Coast. Pop. (1931) Town 3,684; Commune 6,095. It Is The Centre Of A Considerable Lead And Zinc Mining District. Three Miles To The South Are The ...

Fluoranthene
Fluoranthene, Known Also As Idryl, A Solid Hydrocar Bon Occurring With Phenanthrene, Pyrene, Diphenyl, Chrysene And Other Substances In "stupp" Fat (obtained In Working Up The Mer Cury Ores In Idria), And Also In The Higher Boiling Fractions Of The Coal Tar Distillate. Fluoranthene, C15h1o, Was Discovered By R. Fittig ...

Fluorescein
Fluorescein, So Called From The Fact That Its Dark-red Solutions In Caustic Alkalis, In Which It Dissolves Readily, Show A Brilliant Green Fluorescence, Especially When They Are Largely Diluted With Water. It Is A Yellow Amorphous Powder When Pre Cipitated From Water, In Which It Is Insoluble; From Alcohol It ...

Fluorescence And Phosphorescence
Fluorescence And Phosphorescence, Terms Applied To The Cases Of Emission Of Light, By Illuminated Sub Stances, In Which The Emitted Light Is Made Up Of Colours Not Present In The Illuminating Radiation. The Term Phosphorescence Is Often Used In General Sense To Denote The Emission Of Light By Living Organisms, ...

Fluorine
Fluorine, A Gaseous Chemical Element Of The Halogen Group Having A Greenish-yellow Colour And A Choking Smell (symbol F, Atomic Number 9, Atomic Weight 19.0o) . It Is Never Found In The Uncombined Condition, But In Combination With Calcium As Fluorspar It Is Widely Distributed ; It Is Also Found ...