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Encyclopedia Britannica

Volume 9, Part 1: Extraction to Gambrinus

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Forres
Forres, Royal Burgh, Moray, Scotland. Pop. (1931) 4,169. Forres (gaelic, Far Uis, "near Water") Is On The Findhorn, Which Is Crossed By A Suspension Bridge About A Mile To The West, I M. W. Of Elgin By The L.m.s.r., And 6 M. By Road From Findhorn, Its Port, Due North. ...

Forst
Forst (originally Forsta Or Forste), A Town Of Germany, In The Prussian Province Of Brandenburg, On The Neisse, 44 M. S. Of Frankfort-on-oder. Pop. (1933) 37,768. Founded In The 13th Century, Forst Became Part Of Electoral Saxony In 1740. It Was Ceded To Prussia In 1815. The Chief Industry Of ...

Forster
Forster, Francois , French Engraver, Was Born At Locle In Neufchatel On Aug. 22, 1790. In 1805 He Was Ap Prenticed To An Engraver In Paris, And At The Same Time He Studied Painting And Engraving In The Ecole Des Beaux-arts. He Obtained In 1814 The First "grand Prix De ...

Fort Ancient
Fort Ancient, Prehistoric Indian Defensive Work On The Miami River In Warren County, Ohio, Stands On A Headland (26o 28o Ft.) Projecting From A Plateau, And Is Now Included In A State Park. The Total Area Is Estimated At Too Acres, And Its Solid Content At 3,000,00o Cu. Feet. The ...

Fort Atkinson
Fort Atkinson, A City Of Jefferson County, Wisconsin, U.s.a., On The Rock River, 57m. S.w. Of Milwaukee. It Is Served , By The Chicago And North Western Railroad. The Population Wae In 1920; 1930 It Was 5,793. There Are Six Creameries In The Immediate Vicinity, And The City Has A ...

Fort Augustus
Fort Augustus, Village, Inverness-shire, Scotland. Pop. (1921) 665. It Is Delightfully Situated At The South-western Ex Tremity Of Loch Ness, About 3o M. S.w. Of Inverness, On The Rivers Oich And Tarff And The Caledonian Canal. A Branch Line Connects With Spean Bridge On The L.n.e.r. Via Invergarry. The Fort, ...

Fort Collins
Fort Collins, A City Of Colorado, U.s.a., 65m. N. Of Denver And 6m. E. Of The Foothills Of The Rocky Mountains, On The Cache La Poudre River, At An Altitude Of 4,994f T. ; The Seat Of The State Agricultural College, And The County Seat Of Larimer County. It Is ...

Fort Dodge
Fort Dodge, A City Of Iowa, U.s.a., On The Picturesque Des Moines River, 85m. N. By W. Of Des Moines; The County Seat Of Webster County. It Is On Federal Highway 20, And Is Served By The Chicago Great Western, The Fort Dodge, Des Moines And Southern, The Illinois Central, ...

Fort Edward
Fort Edward, A Village Of Washington County, New York, U.s.a., On The Hudson River And The Champlain Barge Canal, 55m. N. Of Albany. It Is Served By The Delaware And Hudson Railway. The Population Was 3,85o In 1930. The Indians Called This "the Great Carrying Place," As It Was The ...

Fortaleza
Fortaleza (usually Called Ceara By Foreigners), A City And Port Of Brazil And The Capital Of The State Of Ceara, On A Crescent-shaped Indentation Of The Coast-line Immediately W. Of Cape Mucuripe Or Mocoripe, 71 M. From The Mouth Of The Ceara River, In Lat. 3° 42' S., Long. 38° ...

Forte
Forte (it.), Loud, A Familiar Direction In Musical Scores, Usually In The Abbreviated Form F ; Increasing Degrees Of Loudness Being Indicated By Ff (fortissimo) And F F F (fortissimo Possibile), While Mf (mezzoforte) Signifies A More Moderate Degree Of Force. ...

Forth
Forth, River And Firth Of East Scotland. It Is Formed By Two Head Streams, Duchray Water And Avondhu, Or Laggan As It Is Called After It Leaves Loch Ard, Both Rising North-east Of Ben Lomond In Stirlingshire, And Uniting 1 M. West Of Aberfoyle. From This Point Till It Receives ...

Fourth Book Ezra
Ezra, Fourth Book (or Apocalypse) Of. This Is The Most Profound And Touching Of The Jewish Apocalypses. It Stands In The Relation Of A Sister Work To The Apocalypse Of Baruch, But Though The Relation Is So Close, They Have Many Points Of Divergence. Thus, Whereas The Former Represents The ...

Franc Ois Alphonse Forel
Forel, Franc Ois Alphonse Swiss Geographer, Was Born At Morges On Lake Geneva, On Feb. 2, 1841. He Was Trained For And Practised The Medical Profession, But His Life-interest Was Found In The Lake On Whose Shore He Lived. The Fruits Of His Studies Were Embodied In Le Leman (3 ...

Francesco Ferruccio Or Ferrucci
Ferruccio Or Ferrucci, Francesco 1530), Florentine Captain. He Served In The Bande Nere In Various Parts Of Italy, Earning A Reputation As A Daring Fighter And Some What Of A Swashbuckler. When Pope Clement Vii. And The Emperor Charles V. Decided To Reinstate The Medici In Florence, They Made War ...

Francesco Or Philelphus Filelfo
Filelfo, Francesco Or Philelphus (1398 1481), Italian Humanist, Was Born On July 25, 1398, At Tolentino, In The March Of Ancona. He Studied At Padua And In 1417 Was Invited To Teach Eloquence And Moral Philosophy At Venice. In 1419 He Became Secretary To The Venetian Consul-general (baylo) In Constantinople. ...

Francis Fawkes
Fawkes, Francis (1720-1777), English Poet And Divine, Born At Warmsworth, Near Doncaster, Where His Father Was Rector, And Baptized On April 4, 172o. After Studying At Jesus College, Cambridge, He Took Orders, And Finally Was Made One Of The Chap Lains To The Princess Of Wales. His First Publication Is ...

Francis Forde
Forde, Francis (d. 1770), British Soldier, First Appears On The Army List In 1746 As Captain In The 39th Foot, The First Regiment Of The King's Service To Serve In India. Forde Became Major In 1755, But Resigned His Commission At The Invitation Of Clive, To Become Second In Command ...

Francisco De Figueroa
Figueroa, Francisco De Spanish Poet, Of Whose Life Little Is Known, Was Born At Alcala. Although Figueroa Ordered That His Poems Should Be Burnt At His Death, The Order Does Not Seem To Have Been Carried Out For Luis Tri Baldos De Toledo In 1625 Edited Over 6o Of Figueroa's ...

Francisco Ferrer Y Guardia
Ferrer Y Guardia, Francisco Spanish Educationist, Was Born At Abella, And Was Originally A Railwayman. After The Collapse Of The Spanish Republic He Went To Paris In 1886 And Became Converted To Socialism. About 1899 A Legacy Enabled Him To Return To Spain And Propagate His Views. He Was Especially ...

Francois De Salignac De
Fenelon, Francois De Salignac De La Mothe (1651-1715), French Writer And Archbishop Of Cam Brai, Was Born At The Chateau Of Fenelon In Perigord On Aug. 6, 1651. His Father, Pons, Comte De Fenelon, Was A Country Gentle Man Of Ancient Lineage, Large Family And Small Estate. He Was Educated ...

Francois Joseph Fetis
Fetis, Francois Joseph (1784-1871), Belgian Com Poser And Writer On Music, Was Born In Mons On March And Died In Brussels On March 26, 1871. He Was Trained As A Musician By His Father, Who Followed The Same Calling. His Talent For Composition Manifested Itself At The Age Of Seven, ...

Frans Floris
Floris, Frans, Or More Correctly Frans De Vriendt, Called Floris (1520-1570), Flemish Painter. Son Of A Stone Cutter, Cornelis De Vriendt, Who Died At Antwerp In 1538, He Began Life As A Student Of Sculpture, But Afterwards Gave Up Carving For Painting. At The Age Of 20 He Went To ...

Frederic Alfred Pierre Falloux
Falloux, Frederic Alfred Pierre, Comte De (181 I-1886), French Politician And Author, Was Born At Angers On May I1, 181i. His Father Had Been Ennobled By Charles X., And Falloux Began His Career As A Legitimist And Clerical Journalist Under The Influence Of Mme. Swetchine. In 1846 He Entered The ...

Frederic William Farrar
Farrar, Frederic William ), English Divine, Was Born On Aug. 7, 1831, In The Fort Of Bombay, Where His Father, Afterwards Vicar Of Sidcup, Kent, Was A Missionary. His Early Education Was Received In King William's College, Castle Town, Isle Of Man, A School Whose External Surroundings Are Repro Duced ...

Frederick Field
Field, Frederick (18oi-1885), English Divine And Bib Lical Scholar, Was Born In London And Educated At Christ's Hospital And Trinity College, Cambridge, Where He Obtained A Fellowship In 1824. He Published An Emended And Annotated Text Of Chrysos Tom's Homiliae In Matthaeum (cambridge, 1839), And Some Years Later Contributed To ...

Frederick William Faber
Faber, Frederick William (1814-1863), British Hymn-writer And Theologian, Was Born On June 28, 1814 At Calverley, Yorkshire. Educated At Harrow And At Balliol College, Oxford, He Was Elected Fellow Of University College In 1837. Meanwhile He Had Given Up Calvinistic Views, And Had Become An Enthusiastic Follower Of John Henry ...

Fredrik Axel Fersen
Fersen, Fredrik Axel, Count Von , Swedish Politician, Entered The Swedish Life Guards In And From To 1748 Was In The French Service (royal-suedois), Where He Rose To The Rank Of Brigadier. At The Diet Of 1755-56 He Was Elected Landtmarskalk, Or Marshal Of The Diet, And From Henceforth, Till ...

Freiherr Friedrich Ferdinand Adolf
Flotow, Freiherr Friedrich Ferdinand Adolf Von (1812-1883), German Operatic Composer, Was Born On His Father's Estate At Teutendorf, Mecklenburg, On April 27, 1812. His First Real Success Was In Paris With Le Nau F Rage De La Meduse At The Renaissance Theatre In 1838. Greater Suc Cess, However, Attended His ...

Friedrich August Von Finck
Finck, Friedrich August Von Prussian Soldier, Was Born At Strelitz On Nov. 25, 1718. He Had Been A Soldier Of Fortune In Austria And In Russia Until In 1742 He Became Aide-de-camp To Frederick The Great Of Prussia. After The Battle Of Kolin (june 18, 1757) He Was Made Colonel, ...

Friedrich Christoph Forster
Forster, Friedrich Christoph German Historian And Poet, Was The Second Son Of Karl Christoph Forster (1751-1811), And A Brother Of The Painter, Ernest Joachim Forster (1800-85). Born At Miinchengosserstadt On The Saale On Sept. 24, 1791, He Studied Theology At Jena, Afterwards Devoting Some Time To Archaeology And The History ...

Friedrich Wilhelm Forster
Forster, Friedrich Wilhelm ), Ger Man Psychologist And Educationalist, Was Born In Berlin On June 2, 1869, And Educated In Berlin And Freiburg. After Some Years Spent In The Study And Practice Of Education, Especially Among Poverty-stricken Or Criminal Classes, He Began To Teach At Zurich University, And To Issue ...

Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit
Fahrenheit, Gabriel Daniel Ger Man Physicist, Was Born At Danzig On May 14, 1686. For The Most Part He Lived In England And Holland, Devoting Himself To The Study Of Physics And Making A Living, Apparently, By The Manufacture Of Meteorological Instruments. He Was The Author Of Important Improvements In ...

Gabriel Faure
Faure, Gabriel ( 1845-1924 ), French Musical Com Poser, Was Born At Pamiers (ariege) On May 13, 1845. He Studied At The School Of Sacred Music Directed By Niedermeyer, First Under Dietsch, And Subsequently Under Saint-saens. He Became "maitre De Chapelle" At The Church Of The Madeleine In 1877, And ...

Gabriello Fallopius Or Fallopio
Fallopius Or Fallopio, Gabriello (15 1562), Italian Anatomist, Was Born At Modena, Where He Became A Canon Of The Cathedral. He Studied Medicine At Ferrara And Be Came Teacher Of Anatomy In That City, And Later At Pisa And Padua, Where He Worked With Vesalius. He Died On Oct. 9, ...

Gaetano Filangieri
Filangieri, Gaetano (1752-1788), Italian Lawyer, Was Born At Naples On Aug. 18, 1752, And Died At Vico Equense On July 21, 1788. He Wrote La Scienza Della Legislazione (vols. I. And Ii., 1780; Vol. Iii., 1783; Vols. Iv.—vi., 1785), A Book Which Had Great Influence Throughout Europe. Filangieri Was An ...

Gaius Flaminius
Flaminius, Gaius, Roman Statesman And General, Of Plebeian Family. During His Tribuneship (232 B.c.) , In Spite Of The Determined Opposition Of The Senate And His Own Father, He Carried A Measure For Distributing Among The Plebeians The Alter Gallicus Picenus, An Extensive Tract Of Newly-acquired Territory To The South ...

Gaius Flavius Fimbria
Fimbria, Gaius Flavius (d. 84 B.c.), Roman Soldier, Partisan Of Marius. He Was Sent To Asia In 86 B.c. As Legate To L. Valerius Flaccus, But Quarrelled With Him And Was Dismissed. Taking Advantage Of The Absence Of Flaccus At Chalcedon Frimbia Revolted And Slew Flaccus At Nicomedia. He Then ...

Gaius Luscinus Fabricius
Fabricius, Gaius Luscinus (i.e. "the Roman General, Was The First Member Of The Fabrician Gens Who Settled In Rome. He Migrated To Rome From Aletrium (livy Ix. 43). In 285 He Was One Of The Ambassadors Sent To The Tarentines To Dissuade Them From Making War On The Romans. In ...

Gaucelm Faidit
Faidit, Gaucelm (d. C. 122o), French Troubadour, Was Born At Uzerche. He Married Guillelma Monja, And On Account Of His Dissolute Life Fell Into Great Need From Which He Was Re Lieved By Richard, Coeur De Lion. His Later Passion For Marie De Ventadour, Who Persuaded Him To Go On ...

Gaudenzio Ferrari
Ferrari, Gaudenzio (c. 1480-1546), Italian Painter Of The Lombard School, Was Born At Valduggia, Piedmont, Then In The Duchy Of Milan. His Mother Was A Member Of The Vincio Family Of Varallo, And Her Name Is Used In The Signatures Of His Early Works. Lomazzo, Who Must Have Been A ...

Geoffrey Fitz Peter
Fitz Peter, Geoffrey (d. 1213), Earl Of Essex And Chief Justiciar Of England, Was A Sheriff, A Justice Itinerant And A Justice Of The Forest Under Henry Ii. During Richard's Absence On Crusade He Was One Of The Five Justices Of The King's Court Who Stood Next In Authority To ...

Geoffroi Jacques Flach
Flach, Geoffroi Jacques French Jurist And Historian, Was Born At Strasbourg. After The War Of 1870 He Settled In Paris. In 1884 He Succeeded Edouard Laboulaye At The College De France In The Chair Of Comparative Legislation. His Great Work, Les Origines De L'ancienne France, Was Pro Duced Slowly. Its ...

Georg Fabricius
Fabricius, Georg (1516–i 571), German Poet, His Torian, And Archaeologist, Was Born At Chemnitz In Upper Saxony On April 23, 1516, And Educated At Leipzig. While Travelling In Italy He Studied The Antiquities Of Rome. He Published The Results In His Roma (1550), In Which The Correspondence Between Every Discoverable ...

Georg Forster
Forster, Georg , German Traveller And Author, Was Born At Nassenhuben, A Small Village Near Danzig, On Nov. His Father, Johann Reinhold Forster, Was Com Missioned In 1765 By The Empress Catherine To Inspect The Ger Man Colonies In The Province Of Saratov; Later He Went To Eng Land, Where ...

George Farquhar
Farquhar, George (1677-1707), British Dramatist, Son Of William Farquhar, A Clergyman, Was Born In Londonderry, Ireland, In 1677. He Was Educated At Trinity College, Dublin. He Became An Actor On The Dublin Stage, But In A Fencing Scene In Dryden's Indian Emperor He Forgot To Exchange His Sword For A ...

George Finlay
Finlay, George (1799-1875), British Historian, Was Born Of Scottish Parents At Faversham, Kent, On Dec. 21, 1799. He Studied For The Law In Glasgow, And About 1821 Went To Gottingen. In 1823 He Went To Greece, Being Interested In The Struggle For Greek Independence, And Spent 14 Months Studying The ...

George Francis Fitzgerald
Fitzgerald, George Francis (1851-1901), Irish Physicist, Was Born At Dublin On Aug. 3, 1851. He Studied At Trinity College, Dublin, Becoming A Fellow In 1877. In 1879 He Became Tutor And In 1881 Erasmus Smith Professor Of Natural Philosophy At Trinity College, Dublin. He Retained This Post Until He Died ...

George Manville Fenn
Fenn, George Manville (1831-1909), English Au Thor, Known As The Writer Of A Number Of Boys' Books Of Consid Erable Popularity. His Journalistic Work Included Many Contribu Tions To Chambers' Journal And Cassel's Magazine, Of Which He Became Editor In 1870. He Was Also The Author Of Several Novels And ...

Geraldine Farrar
Farrar, Geraldine (1882— ), American Dramatic Soprano, Was Born At Melrose (mass.), On Feb. 28, 1882. Her Musical Education Was Received In Paris Under Trabedello And In Berlin Under Lilli Lehmann. When But 19 She Made Her Debut At The Royal Opera House, Berlin, As Marguerite In Faust, Oct. 1901, ...

Geza Fejervary
Fejervary, Geza, Freiherr Von (1833-1914), Hun Garian Statesman, And General, Was Born On March 15, 1833. He Began His Career In The Army, And Was Decorated For Gallantry At Solferino. In 1872 He Became State Secretary In The Hungarian Ministry Of National Defence (honved) And Minister Of National Defence In ...

Giles Farnaby
Farnaby, Giles, English Composer, Was Born In The Second Half Of The 16th Century, Probably At Truro, Where His Family Lived. He Began To Study Music In 158o, According To His Own Statement In His Supplicat (wood; Fasti, Ed. Bliss, I. 257) When He Was Taking The Degree Of Mus. ...

Giles Fletcher
Fletcher, Giles (c. 1548-1611), English Author, Son Of Richard Fletcher, Vicar Of Cranbrook, Kent, And Father Of The Poets Phineas And Giles Fletcher, Was Born In 1s48 Or 1549, And Educated At Eton And King's College, Cambridge. In 1580 He Married Joan Sheafe, Of Cranbrook. In 1585 He Sat In ...

Giles Fletcher_2
Fletcher, Giles (c. 1584-1623), Poet, Younger Son Of The Preceding, Was Educated At Westminster School And Trinity College, Cambridge. In 1603 He Contributed A Poem On The Death Of Queen Elizabeth To Sorrow's Joy. His Great Poem Of Christ's Victory Appeared In 161o, And In 1612 He Edited The Remains ...

Giovanni Florio
Florio, Giovanni English Writer, Was Born In London About 1553. He Was Of Tuscan Origin, His Parents Being Waldenses Who Had Taken Refuge In England From Persecu Tion. In 1578 He Published A Work Entitled First Fruits, Which Was Accompanied By A Perfect Induction To The Italian And Eng Lish ...

Giuseppe Ferrari
Ferrari, Giuseppe Italian Philosopher, Historian And Politician, Was Born At Milan On March 7, 1812, And Died In Rome On July 2, 1876. After Studying Law At Pavia, He Edited The Works Of Vico, Prefaced By An Appreciation (1835). He Then Went To France And, In 1839, Produced His Vico ...

Giuseppe Marco Fieschi
Fieschi, Giuseppe Marco (1790-1836), Corsican Adventurer, Was Born At Murata, Corsica On Dec. 13, 1790. He Served Under Murat, Then Returned To Corsica, Where He Was Con Demned To Ten Years' Imprisonment And Perpetual Surveillance By The Police For Theft And Forgery. He Eluded The Police, Obtained A Small Post ...

Glossary Of Important Football
Glossary Of Important Football Terms Attack, Running.—plays In Which The Carrier Of The Ball Attempts To Advance It By Running. Balanced Backs.—arrangement Of The Backs In Which One Back Stands Directly Behind The Centre With A Back On Each Side Of Him. Balanced Line.—arrangement Of The Line In Which The ...

Govert Flinck
Flinck, Govert (1615-166o), Dutch Painter, Born At Cleves In 1615, Was Sent To Study Art At Leuwarden, Where He Boarded In The House Of Lambert Jacobszon. Here Flinck Was Joined By Jacob Backer. Amongst The Neighbours Of Jacobszon At Leuwarden Were The Sons And Relations Of Rombert Ulenburg, Whose Daughter ...

Guglielmo Ferrero
Ferrero, Guglielmo ), Italian Journalist And Author, Was Born At Portici, Near Naples On July 31, 1871. At An Early Age He Joined The Staff Of The Radical Semi-republican Secolo Of Milan. He Travelled Abroad Considerably, And Made A Reputation By His Books L'europa Giovane (1897) And Il Mili Tarismo ...

Guillaume Farel
Farel, Guillaume (1489-1565), French Reformer, Was Born Of A Noble Family Near Gap, Dauphine. He Studied In Paris Under Jacobus Faber (stapulensis), On Whose Recommen Dation He Was Appointed Professor In The College Of Cardinal Lemoine. In 1521, On The Invitation Of Bishop Briconnet, He Went To Meaux, And Took ...

Gustav Leberecht Flugel
Flugel, Gustav Leberecht Ger Man Orientalist, Was Born At Bautzen On Feb. 18, 1802, And Died At Dresden On July 5, 1870. Fliige1's Chief Work Is An Edition Of The Bibliographical And Encyclopaedic Lexicon Of Haji Khalfa, With Latin Translation (7 Vols., London And Leipzig, His Works Include Also An ...

Gustav Theodor Fechner
Fechner, Gustav Theodor German Experimental Psychologist, Was Born On April 19, 18o1 At Gross Sarchen, Lower Lusatia, Where His Father Was Pastor. He Was Educated At Dresden And Leipzig, Where He Spent The Rest Of His Life. In 1834 He Was Appointed Professor Of Physics, But, Because Of An Affection ...

Gustave Charles Fagniez
Fagniez, Gustave Charles French Historian And Economist, Born In Paris, Oct. 6, 1842. His Etudes Sur L'industrie Et La Classe Industrielle A Paris Au X 111e Et Au X I V E Siecle (1877) Opened A New Field For Historical Study. He Also Wrote Documents Relatifs A L'histoire De L'industrie ...

Gustave Flaubert
Flaubert, Gustave (1821-1880), French Novelist, Was Born At Rouen On Dec. I2, 1821. His Father Was Resident Physician At The Rouen Hospital; His Mother Belonged To An Old Norman Family. He Was Educated In His Native City, And Went Up To Paris To Study Law In 184o. He Took No ...

Gustave Flourens
Flourens, Gustave (1838-1871), French Revolution Ary And One Of The Most Romantic Figures Of The Commune, Was Born On Aug. 4, Son Of Pierre Flourens (see Below) . Gustave Was Trained By His Father To Succeed Him, And Had A Brilliant Scientific Career Up Till His Father's Death In 1867, ...

Guy Fawkes
Fawkes, Guy (157o-16o6), English "gunpowder Plot" Conspirator, Son Of Edward Fawkes Of York, A Member Of A Good Yorkshire Family And Advocate Of The Archbishop Of York's Con Sistory Court, Was Baptized At St. Michael Le Belf Rey At York On April 16, 1570. His Parents Being Protestants, He Was ...

Gyorgy Fejer
Fejer, Gyorgy Hungarian Author, Was Born On April 23, 1766, At Keszthely (zala). He Studied Phil Osophy At Budapest And Theology At Pressburg, Obtaining In 1808 A Professorship Of Theology At Budapest University, Where In 1824 He Was Appointed Librarian. His Most Important Work, Codex Diplomaticus Hungariae Ecclesiasticus Ac Civilis ...

Hamilton Fish
Fish, Hamilton (1808-1893), American Statesman, Was Born In New York City On Aug. 3, 1808. His Father, Nicholas Fish (1758-1833), Served In The American Revolution. The Son Graduated At Columbia College In 1827, And In 1830 Was Admitted To The Bar, But Practised Only A Short Time. In 1843-45 He ...

Hans Axel Fersen
Fersen, Hans Axel, Count Von (1755-1810), Swe Dish Statesman, Was Educated At Home, And At The Military Schools Of Brunswick, Turin And Strasbourg. In R 779 He Entered The French Military Service (royal-baviere), Accompanied General Rochambeau To America As His Adjutant, Distinguished Himself During The War With England, Notably At ...

Hans Fitting
Fitting, Hans ), German Botanist, Was Born On April 23, 1877, At Halle. In 1907 He Became Professor At Strasbourg, In 1910 At Halle, In 1911 Director Of The Botanical Institute At Hamburg, And In 1912 At Bonn. Since His Journeys In 1907 Through Lower India, Ceylon And Egypt, And ...

Hans Ludvig Forssell
Forssell, Hans Ludvig Swedish His Torian And Political Writer, The Son Of Adolph Forssell, A Distin Guished Mathematician, Was Born At Gefle, Where His Father Was Professor, On Jan. 14, 1843. He Studied At Uppsala, And Had A Distinguished Career In The Civil Service, Becoming In 188o Presi Dent Of ...

Hawking In Modern England
Hawking In Modern England The Old Hawking Club.—the Survival Of Falconry In Eng Land Is Due Mainly To The Influence Of The Old Hawking Club. This Club Was Formed By A Few Gentlemen In 1864 And Continued In Being Until 1925 ; It Came To An End For Various Causes, ...

Heinrich Federer
Federer, Heinrich (1866-1928), A Prolific Swiss Nov Elist, Was Born At Brienz On Oct. 7, 1866, And Died At Zurich On April 29, 1928. Destined For The Priesthood, He Had To Give Up His Pastoral Duties On Account Of His Health, And Thenceforth Devoted Himself To Literary Work. He Is ...

Heinrich Finck
Finck, Heinrich (d. 1527), German Musical Composer, Was Probably Born At Bamberg, But Nothing Is Certainly Known Either Of The Place Or Date Of His Birth. Between 1492 And 1506 He Was A Musician In, And Later Possibly Conductor Of, The Court Orchestra Of Successive Kings Of Poland At Warsaw. ...

Heinrich Leberecht Fleischer
Fleischer, Heinrich Leberecht German Orientalist, Was Born At Schandau, Saxony, On Feb. 21, 1801. He Was Professor Of Oriental Languages At Leipzig Univer Sity From 1836 Until His Death (feb. Io, 1888). His Most Impor Tant Works Were Editions Of Abulfeda's Historia Ante-islamica (1831-34), And Beidhawi's Commentary On The Koran ...

Helena Saville Faucit
Faucit, Helena Saville English Ac Tress, The Daughter Of John Saville Faucit, An Actor, Was Born In London. Her First London Appearance Was Made On Jan. 5, 1836, At Covent Garden As Julia In The Hunchback. Her Success In This Was So Definitely Confirmed By Her Subsequent Acting Of Juliet, ...

Henri Farman
Farman, Henri (1875— ), French Airman, The Son Of An English Journalist, Born In Paris, May 26, Was First A Bi Cycle Racer, A Painter, Later A Racing Motorist. With His Brother Maurice He Made A Successful Biplane; In 1908 He Made The First Aerial Voyage From Bouy To Reims, ...

Henri Fazy
Fazy, Henri (1842-1920), Swiss Statesman And Histo Rian, Great-nephew Of James Fazy, Was Born At Berne On Jan. 31, 1842. Fazy Was A Prominent Figure In Genevese Politics From 1868 Onwards. His Proposal To Separate Church And State In Geneva Was Rejected By The People In 188o, But Finally Accepted ...

Henry Fawcett
Fawcett, Henry (1833-1884), English Politician And Economist, Was Born At Salisbury On Aug. 25, 1833, The Son Of A Successful Business Man. He Was Educated At King's College School, London, And At Peterhouse And Trinity Hall, Cambridge. He Was Seventh Wrangler In 1856, And Was Elected To A Fellow Ship ...

Henry Fielding
Fielding, Henry English Novelist And Playwright, Was Born At Sharpham Park, Near Glastonbury, Somer Set, On April 22, 1707. The Family Removed Later To East Stour, Dorset. His Father, Lieut. Edmund Fielding, Was A Grandson Of The Earl Of Desmond, Who Belonged To The Younger Branch Of The Denbigh Family. ...

Henry Flood
Flood, Henry (1732-1791), Irish Statesman, Son Of Warden Flood, Chief Justice Of The King's Bench In Ireland, Was Educated At Trinity College, Dublin, And At Christ Church, Oxford. He Entered The Irish Parliament For Kilkenny In 1759, And Im Mediately Began The Creation Of An Opposition In That Corrupt Body ...

Henry Ford
Ford, Henry (1863– ), American Manufacturer, Was Born On A Farm Near Dearborn, Mich, 9m. W. Of Detroit, Of Wil Liam And Mary Litogot Ford. William Ford Was Of English De Scent; Born Near Cork, Ireland, Whence The Ford Family Emigrated To America In 1847, Settling Near Dearborn. Mary Litogot ...

Henry Theophilus Finck
Finck, Henry Theophilus Author And Music Critic, Was Born At Bethel, Mo., Sept. 22, 1854. At Harvard He Won Highest Honours In Philosophy, Next Becoming A Resident Graduate At Cambridge, 1877-78. He Secured A Harris Fellowship, And Studied Psychology In Berlin, Heidelberg, And Vienna, 1878-81, Then Intending To Become A ...

Herbert Albert Laurens Fisher
Fisher, Herbert Albert Laurens (1865 ), British Historian And Statesman, Was Born In London On March 21, 1865. He Was Educated At Winchester And New College, Oxford, Being Elected In 1888 To A Fellowship At The Latter College, Where He Lectured For Some Years. In 1911-12 He Was Appointed Chichele ...

Hermann Von Fehling
Fehling, Hermann Von German Chemist, Was Born At Lubeck On June 9, 181i. He Worked At Gies Sen With Liebig, With Whom He Elucidated The Composition Of Par Aldehyde And Metaldehyde. He Was Professor Of Chemistry At Stuttgart From 1839 Until His Death There On July 1, 1885. His Earlier ...

Hotels
Hotels.) Simultaneously The Character Of The Food Served Underwent Con Siderable Change. About 6o% Of The Patrons Of These Group Estab Lishments In The United States Are Women—who Are Light Eaters. Even Many American Men Eat Relatively Little Heavy Foods. There Fore, With This Consideration And The Institution Of Prohibition, ...

How To Fence
How To Fence Foil Fencing.—the Target Is Limited To The Bust, Which Is Di Vided By Four Imaginary Lines Varying According To The Position Of The Hand. There Are Two Prin Cipal Lines, One Vertical And One Horizontal, Which Cross Each Other At The Place Where The Foil Is Held. ...

How To Play American
How To Play American Football The Five Important Fundamentals Of Offence And Defence Are Line Play, Backfield Play, Tackling, Passing And Kicking. ...

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Falconer, Hugh (1808-1865), British Palaeontologist And Botanist, Was Born At Forres On Feb. 29, 1808. He Studied At Aberdeen And At Edinburgh, Where He Took His M.d. In 1829. Proceeding To Calcutta In 1830 As Assistant-surgeon On The Bengal Establishment Of The East India Company, He Soon Published His Description ...

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Fessler, Ignaz Aurelius (1756-1839), Hungarian Scholar, Was Born On May 18, 1756, At Zurany, Hungary. He Be Came A Capuchin, And Made Many Enemies By Exposing The Abuses Of The Monasteries To The Emperor, Joseph Ii., Who Ordered A Searching Examination In Consequence. He Held A Chair At Lemberg University ...

Immanuel Hermann Fichte
Fichte, Immanuel Hermann (originally Hart Mann) Von (1796-1879), German Philosopher, Son Of J. G. Fichte, Was Born At Jena On July 18, 1796. Having Held Educa Tional Posts At Saarbriicken And Dusseldorf, In 1836 He Became Professor Of Philosophy At Bonn And In 1842 At Tubingen. He Died At Stuttgart ...

Irving Fisher
Fisher, Irving (1867– ), American Economist, Was Born At Saugerties (n.y.), Feb. 27, 1867. He Studied At Yale, Berlin And Paris. At First He Taught Mathematics At Yale, But In 1895 Was Made Assistant Professor Of Political Economy And In 1898 Professor. He Was Editor Of The Yale Review, 1896-1q ...

Isaac Manasses De Pas
Feuquieres, Isaac Manasses De Pas, Marquis De (1590-1640), French Soldier And Diplomatist, Born At Saumur On June I, 159o, Served In The Valtelline (1626), At La Rochelle (1628-29), In Lorraine, And In Germany (1636-39). He Was Repeatedly Employed By Richelieu On Diplomatic Missions. He Renewed At Heilbronn (april 19, 1633), ...

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Italy Under The Fascist Government When Fascism Came Into Power (oct. 28, 1922), Signor Mus Solini, Although Rejecting Alliances With Other Parties, Accepted Their Collaboration, And Admitted Several Of Their Members Into His First Cabinet. Nationalism Was Absorbed By Fascism Early In 1923, But As The Opposition Became More Violent ...

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Florus, Iulius, Poet, Orator, And Jurist Of The Augustan Age. Horace Dedicated To Him Two Of His Epistles (i. 3; Ii. 2), From Which It Would Appear That He Composed Light Lyrics. The Statement Of Porphyrion, The Old Commentator On Horace, That Florus Himself Wrote Satires, Is Probably Erroneous, But ...

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Facciolati, Jacopo (1682-1769), Italian Philologist, Was Born At Torriglia, Near Padua, On Jan. 4, 1682. As Professor Of Logic, And Regent Of The Schools, Facciolati Was The Ornament Of The Paduan University For 45 Years. His Magnum Opus Is The Totius Latinitatis Lexicon, Which Was Ultimately Published At Car Dinal ...

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Farrell, James A. ), American Business Man, Was Born In New Haven (conn.), Feb. 15, 1863, And Was Educated In The Public Schools There. In 1889 He Married Cath Erine E. Mcdermott. At A Very Early Age He Was A Labourer In A Steel-wire Mill, In New Haven; A Little ...

James Bernard Fagan
Fagan, James Bernard , An Irish Play Wright And Producer Whose Works Include Shakespeare Versus Shaw, Produced (1905), An Adaptation Of Bella Donna (191i ), The Happy Island (1913), And So To Bed (1926) And The Greater Love (1927). He Studied Law At Trinity College, Oxford, And Was Attached For ...