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Encyclopedia Britannica

Volume 9, Part 1: Extraction to Gambrinus

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Milling Processes
Milling Processes Milling Processes May Be Conveniently Divided Into Two Stages, (i) The Cleaning And Conditioning Of Wheat And (2) The Separa Tion Of Husk From Kernel. Stated In These Terms, Milling May Appear To Be A Simple Process; Actually It Is A Complicated One And, Although Modern Milling Developments ...

Minnie Maddern Fiske
Fiske, Minnie Maddern (1865-1932), American Actress, Was Born In New Orleans, The Daughter Of Thomas Davey. As A Child She Played, Under Her Mother's Name Of Maddern, With Several Well-known Actors. In 1882 She First Appeared As A "star." In 1890 She Married Harrison Grey Fiske And Was Absent From ...

Misprision
Misprision.) The Question Whether A Particular Offence Is Felony Or Mis Demeanour Can Be Answered Only By Reference To The History Of The Offence And Not By Any Logical Test. For Instance, Killing A Horse In An Unlicensed Place Is Still Felony Under A Statute Of 1786. But Most Crimes ...

Mohammed Kasim Ferishta
Ferishta, Mohammed Kasim (c. 1611), Persian Historian, Was Born At Astrabad, On The Shores Of The Caspian Sea. In 1589 Ferishta Removed To Bijapur, Where He Spent The Remainder Of His Life Under The Immediate Protection Of The Shah Ibrahim Adil Ii., Who Engaged Him To Write A History Of ...

Musical Festivals
Festivals, Musical. In Various Forms Musical Fes Tivals Have Been Held For Some Centuries. No Doubt The Earliest Examples Owed Their Origin Mainly To The Difficulties Of Travel, Which Led The Musicians In A Wide Area To Concentrate Their Activ Ities Periodically At Some Convenient Centre. Inevitably, Too, Such Music-makings ...

Nal Combustion Engine
Nal Combustion Engine.) Such A Vehicle Is Usually Provided With A Body For Carrying Hose And May Be Equipped Also With Ladders, Pike Poles, Fire Axes, Crow Bars, Lanterns, Hand Fire Extinguishers, Nozzles, Chemical Fire Engines And Other Accessories. In The Larger Cities Fire-fighting Equipment May Also Include Ladder Trucks ...

Nathan Bedford Forrest
Forrest, Nathan Bedford Con Federate Cavalry General In The American Civil War, Was Born Near Chapel Hill (tenn.), On July 13, 1821. He Never Received Any Formal Education, But He Managed To Teach Himself With Very Fair Success, And Is Said To Have Been An Able Mathematician. He Was In ...

Nathan Field
Field, Nathan (1587-1633), Son Of The Puritan Rector Of Cripplegate, London, Was Baptized On Oct. 17, 1587. He Was A Schoolboy At St. Paul's Grammar School When He Became (1600) One Of The "children" Of The Chapel Royal, And He Remained Con Nected With That Company Or The Queen's Revels ...

Nathaniel Fiennes
Fiennes, Nathaniel (c. 1608-1669), English Poli Tician, Second Son Of William, First Viscount Saye And Sele, Was Educated At Winchester And At New College, Oxford, Where As Founder's Kin He Was Admitted A Perpetual Fellow In 1624. After Some Time Spent On The Continent, Where He Came Into Touch With ...

National Flags
National Flags British.—the Royal Standard Of Great Britain Now Bears The Arms Of England Quartered With Those Of Scotland And Ireland. From The Time Of Richard I. It Had Borne The Arms Of England Only, Until Edward Iii. Began To Set The Old Arms Of France In The First And ...

Naval Fleet
Fleet, Naval. "fleet" Usually Implies A Collection Of Ships In Company, Particularly One Consisting Of A Large Number Of Warships: Or It Is "the Collective Naval Force Of A Country" (webster). It Is Also Used In Connection With A Collection Of Fishing Vessels And In Sea Fishing It Is Used ...

Nazaire
Nazaire French Dramatist And Revolutionist, Was Born At Carcassonne. His Real Name Was Simply Fabre, The "d'eglantine" Being Added In Commemoration Of His Receiving The Golden Eglantine Of Clemence Isaure From The Academy Of The Floral Games At Toulouse. Of His Plays, Philinte, Ou La Suite Du Misanthrope (1790), Which ...

Nicholas Ferrar
Ferrar, Nicholas (1592-1637), English Theologian, Was Born In London In 1592 And Educated At Clare Hall, Cam Bridge, Graduating In 161o. In 1618 He Became Actively Connected With The Virginia Company. When, In 1623, It Was Deprived Of Its Patent He Entered Parliament, But, Soon Deciding To Devote Himself To ...

Nicholas Filipescu
Filipescu, Nicholas (1862-1916), Rumanian Politi Cian, Was Born At Bucharest And Studied In Paris And Geneva. He Entered The Chamber Of Deputies In 1885 As A Member Of The Con Servative Party, To Which His Interests, As A Rich Landowner, At Tached Him. In 1910 He Became The Leader Of ...

Nicola Fabrizi
Fabrizi, Nicola (1804-1885), Italian Patriot, Was Born At Modena On April 4, 1804. He Took Part In The Modena Insur Rection Of 1831, And Attempted To Succour Ancona, But Was Ar Rested At Sea And Taken To Toulon, Whence He Proceeded To Mar Seilles. Afterwards He Organized With Mazzini The ...

Nicolas Camille Flammarion
Flammarion, Nicolas Camille French Astronomer, Was Born At Montigny-le-roi, Haute Marne, On Feb. 25, 1842. He Studied Theology At Langre And Paris But Was Attracted To Astronomy, And At The Age Of 16 He Wrote A Manuscript Of Soo Pages Cosmologie Universelle; This Was The Foundation Of One Of His ...

Niels Ryberg Finsen
Finsen, Niels Ryberg Danish Physician And Originator Of The Finsen Lamp For Treatment Of Skin Diseases, Was Born On Dec. 15, 186o, At Thorshavn, In The Faeroe Islands. His Parents Were Icelandic, And The Boy Spent His Early Years At School In Reykjavik. The Contrasts In The Light And Darkness ...

Nitrogenous Fertilizers
Nitrogenous Fertilizers In Natural Conditions A Nitrate, Probably Calcium Nitrate, Is The Source From Which Plants Derive Their Nitrogen, But The Changes In The Soil Are Such That Sodium Or Potassium Nitrates Are Equally Serviceable. Further, Ammonia Is Rapidly Oxidized To Nitrate In The Soil; Hence Ammonium Salts, Or Any ...

North Foreland
Foreland, North And South, Two Chalk Head Lands In Kent, England, On The Strait Of Dover. The North Fore Land Forms The North-east Corner Of The Isle Of Thanet, And South Foreland Is 3 M. N.e. Of Dover. Both Form Bold Cliffs, With One Lighthouse On The North Foreland (50 ...

Nosperms
Nosperms). Pollination.—when The Pollen-sacs Are Ripe, The Anther Dehisces And The Pollen Is Shed. In Order That Fertilization May Be Effected, The Pollen Must Be Conveyed To The Stigma Of The Pistil. This Pollination (q.v.) Is Promoted In Various Ways, The Whole Form And Structure Of The Flower Being Adapted ...

Occidental Flower Pain
Occidental Flower Pain 1 !n U In The West, As Has Been Said, The Earliest Painted Flowers Are Only To Be Found As Symbols Or As Decoration. The Blue Water-lily Of The Nile, Symbolizing A Full Harvest, Is Constantly Found In The Painted Decoration Of The Egyptians. Flowers Repeatedly Appear ...

Octave Feuillet
Feuillet, Octave French Novelist And Dramatist, Was Born At Saint-lo, Manche, On Aug. I1, 1821. He Was Educated At The Lycee Louis-le-grand, Paris, And Was In Tended For The Diplomatic Profession. He Became A Novelist Much Against The Will Of A Nervous And Irritable Father, Who Cut Off His Allowance ...

Or Fictions
Fictions, Or Legal Fictions, In Law, The Term Used For False Averments, The Truth Of Which Is Not Permitted To Be Called In Question. English Law As Well As Roman Law Abounds In Fictions. Sometimes They Are Merely The Condensed Expression Of A Rule Of Law—e.g., The Fiction Of English ...

Organic Manures
Organic Manures The Older Kinds Of Manure, Which Are Still The Most Important On The Farm, Are Of Animal And Vegetable Origin And Contain Much Combustible Organic Matter : They Are Therefore Called "organic" To Distinguish Them From The Inorganic Salts Or "artificial Fer Tilizers." Far The Most Important Is ...

Otto Flugel
Flugel, Otto (1842-1921), German Philosopher, Was Born On June 16, 1842, At Liitzen, And Educated At Schulpforta And Halle. He Became Pastor At Wansleben, Near Halle. While In His Theological Speculations Fliigel Finds A Place For Revelation, In His Philosophy He Is A Strong Herbartian And Opponent Of Monism. With ...

Owen Feltham
Feltham, Owen (d. 1668), English Moralist, Was The Son Of Thomas Feltham Or Felltham Of Mutford, Suffolk. The Date Of His Birth Is Given Variously As 1602 And 1609. He Is Famous Chiefly As The Author Of A Volume Entitled Resolves, Divine, Moral And Political, Containing One Hundred Short And ...

Paolo Ferrari
Ferrari, Paolo (1822-1889), Italian Dramatist, Was Born At Modena On April 5, 182 2. In 1852 He Made His Reputation As A Playwright With Goldoni E Le Sue Sedici Commedie. Among Numerous Later Plays His Comedy Parini E La Satire (1857) Had Great Success. Ferrari May Be Regarded As A ...

Paul De Foix
Foix, Paul De (1528-1584), French Prelate And Diplo Matist, Was Ambassador To England From 1561 To 1565. He Was Then Sent To Venice, And Returned A Short Time Afterwards To England To Negotiate A Marriage Between Queen Elizabeth And The Duke Of Anjou. He Fulfilled Several Important Missions During The ...

Paul Ferrier
Ferrier, Paul (1843-192o), French Dramatist, Was Born At Montpellier On March 29, 1843, And He Died At Nouan-le Fuzelier On Sept. 11, 1920. One Of Ferrier's Greatest Triumphs Was The Production With Fabrice Carre Of Josephine Vendee Par Ses Soeurs (1886), An Opera Bouffe With Music By Victor Roger. His ...

Paul Fleming
Fleming, Paul (1609-164o), German Poet, Was Born At Hartenstein In The Saxon Erzgebirge, On Oct. 5, 2609, The Son Of The Village Pastor. He Studied At Leipzig Until Driven Away By The Troubles Of The Thirty Years' War. He Was Attached By Duke Frederick Of Holstein-gottorp To An Embassy (1634-39) ...

Paul Henri Corentin Feval
Feval, Paul Henri Corentin French Novelist And Dramatist, Was Born At Rennes In Brittany, And Much Of His Best Work Deals With The History Of His Native Province. He Was Educated For The Bar, But After His First Brief He Went To Paris And Began To Write. The Mysteres De ...

Paul Johann Anselm Feuerbach
Feuerbach, Paul Johann Anselm, Ritter Von (1775-1833), German Jurist And Writer On Criminal Law, Was Born At Hainichen Near Jena On Nov. 14, 1775, And Brought Up At Frankfort On Main. At 16 He Ran Away From Home To Study At Jena. In Spite Of Poor Health And Desperate Poverty, ...

Paul Leicester Ford
Ford, Paul Leicester American Author, Was Born In Brooklyn, N.y., On March 23, 1865, The Son Of Gordon Lester And Emily (fowler) Ford. His Delicate Health Led To His Being Privately Educated, His Tastes Being Formed Largely By Long Hours Spent In His Father's Library, Then One Of The Finest ...

Peter Forskal
Forskal, Peter (1736-1763) , Swedish Traveller And Naturalist, Was Born At Helsingf Ors, And Studied At Gottingen. On Being Required To Leave Sweden Because Of His Penees Sur La Liberte Civile (1759), He Was Recommended By Linnaeus To Fred Erick V. Of Denmark, Who Appointed Him To Carsten Niebuhr's Expedition ...

Peter Wilhelm Forchhammer
Forchhammer, Peter Wilhelm German Classical Archaeologist, Was Born At Husum, Schleswig On Oct. 23, 1801 And Was Educated At Lubeck And The University Of Kiel, With Which He Was Connected For Nearly 65 Years. In 1830-34 And 1838-40 He Travelled In Italy, Greece, Asia Minor And Egypt. In 1843 He ...

Philipp Emanuel Von Fellenberg
Fellenberg, Philipp Emanuel Von 1844 ), Swiss Educationist, Was Born On June 27, 1771 At Bern, In Switzerland. He Purchased In 1799 The Estate Of Hofwyl, Near Bern, Intending To Make Agriculture The Basis Of A New System Which He Had Projected, For Elevating The Lower And Rightly Train Ing ...

Phineas Fletcher
Fletcher, Phineas (1582-1650), English Poet, Elder Son Of Dr. Giles Fletcher, And Brother Of Giles The Younger, No Ticed Above, Was Born At Cranbrook, Kent, And Baptized On April 8, 1582. He Was Educated At Eton And King's College, Cambridge. His Pastoral Drama, Sicelides Or Piscatory (pr. 1631) Was Written ...

Phosphatic Fertilizers
Phosphatic Fertilizers Four Substances Are In Common Use As Phosphate Fertilizers, Namely, Superphosphate, Called Acid Phosphate In The United States; Basic Slag; Mineral Phosphate; And Bones. ...

Pierre Fermat
Fermat, Pierre (1601-1665), French Mathematician, Was Born On Aug. 17, 1601, At Beaumont-de-lomagne Near Mon Tauban. In His Youth, With Pascal, He Made Discoveries About The Properties Of Numbers, On Which He Later Built His Method Of Calculating Probabilities. His Book De Maximis Et Minimis Caused A Dispute With Descartes. ...

Pierre Flourens
Flourens, Pierre (1794-1867), French Physiologist, Was Born At Maureilhan, Near Beziers, On April 15, 1794. After Taking His M.d. At Montpellier, Flourens Began Physiological Research In Paris And In 1822 Published His Recherches Experi Mentales Sur Les Proprietes Et Les Fonctions Du Systeme Nerveux Dans Les Animaux Vertebras, In Which ...

Pierre Francois Leonard Fontaine
Fontaine, Pierre Francois Leonard 1853), French Architect, Was Born At Pontoise On Sept. 20, 1762, And Died In Paris On Oct. 1o, 1853. Several Of His Family Were Distinguished Architects. At The Age Of 16 He Assisted The Architect Andre In Hydraulic Works At L'isle-adam, And Was Allowed To Copy ...

Pierre Louis Charles De
Failly, Pierre Louis Charles De (1810-1892), French General, Was Born At Rozoy-sur-serre (aisne) On Jan. 21, 181o, And Entered The Army From St. Cyr In 1828. In The War Of 1859 De Failly Commanded A Division, And In 1867 He Defeated Garibaldi At Mentana, This Action Being The First In ...

Potassium Salts
Potassium Salts The Need For Potassium Salts In Plant Nutrition Was Recognized Long Ago By Agricultural Chemists. As Early As 1840 Liebig Had Insisted On The Fertilizing Value Of "salts Of The Alkalis," Without, However, Specifying Precisely Which Was The Most Important. Lawes And Gilbert From The Outset Included These ...

Progressive Aspect Of Arts
Progressive Aspect Of Arts And Crafts The Magic Or Primitive Instincts Of Fine Art Can Be Taken As Promotions Of Physical Advantage, In Han Dling A Weapon, Say, Or As Required For The Successful Covering Of A Hut. Then Secondly, As Adding To These Instinctive Joys The Design-value Of Taste. ...

Prospero Fontana
Fontana, Prospero (1512-1597), Italian Painter, Was Born In Bologna, And Became A Pupil Of Innocenzo Francucci Da Imola. He Afterwards Worked For Vasari And Perino Del Vaga In Genoa, Florence And Rome. He Has Left A Large Quantity Of Work In Bologna Where He Lived After 154o. A Representative Work ...

Psychology Of Feeling
Feeling, Psychology Of. The Word "feeling" Is As One Psychologist Has Remarked, A "psychological Maid Of All Work." A Thing "feels" Hot, Sharp, Brittle Or Clammy, While We Ourselves "feel" Tired, Hungry, Happy Or Irritable. Even In Psychol Ogy The Term Has Been Hard Worked In Many Directions. But In ...

Publius Annius Florus
Florus, Publius Annius, Roman Poet And Rhet Orician, Identified By Some Authorities With The Historian Florus (q.v.). The Introduction To A Dialogue Called Virgilius Orator An Poeta Is Extant, In Which The Author (whose Name Is Given As Publius Annius Florus) States That He Was Born In Africa, And At ...

Publius Nigidius Figulus
Figulus, Publius Nigidius (c. B.c.), Roman Savant, Next To Varro The Most Learned Roman Of The Age. He Was A Friend Of Cicero, To Whom He Gave His Support At The Time Of The Catilinarian Conspiracy (plutarch, Cicero, 2o; Cicero, Pro. Sulla, Xiv. 42). In 58 He Was Praetor, Sided ...

Pure Food
Food, Pure (see Adulteration) . It Is Only Within Recent Years That The Transfer Of The Manufacture Of Food From The Home To The Factory, And The Transportation Of Food For Greater And Greater Distances, Have Made It Necessary For Governments To Promote Systematically And Scientifically The Purity And Truthful ...

Purifying And Bleaching
Purifying And Bleaching Purifying.—in A Technical Sense Purifying Connotes Separa Tions Of The Granular Products Known As Semolinas And Middlings According To Compactness Of Particle. For This Purpose The Machines Known As Purifiers Have Been Designed And Built. Before Sorting By Compactness Of Particle Can Be Performed, Sorting By Size ...

Quintus Fabius Pictor
Fabius Pictor, Quintus, The Father Of Roman His Tory, Was Born About 2s4 B.c. He Took An Active Part In The Sub Jugation Of The Gauls In The North Of Italy (225), And After The Battle Of Cannae (216) Was Sent By The Romans To Consult The Delphic Oracle. He ...

Quintus Fulvius Flaccus
Quintus Fulvius Flaccus, Son Of The First Of The Family, Mar Cus, Who Was Consul With Appius Claudius Caudex In 264 B.c. He Especially Distinguished Himself During The Second Punic War. He Was Consul Four Times (237, 224, 212, 209), Censor (231) Pontifex Maximus (216), Praetor Urbanus (215). During His ...

Ralph Fitch
Fitch, Ralph (fl. 1583-1606), London Merchant, One Of The Earliest English Travellers And Traders In Mesopotamia, The Persian Gulf And Indian Ocean, India Proper, And Indo-china. In Jan. 1583 He Embarked In The "tiger" For Tripoli And Aleppo In Syria (see Shakespeare, Macbeth, Act I. Sc. 3), Together With J. ...

Ranulf Flambard
Flambard, Ranulf, Or Ralph (d. 1128), Bishop Of Durham And Chief Minister Of William Rufus, Was The Son Of A Norman Parish Priest. Migrating At An Early Age To England, The Young Ranulf Entered The Chancery Of William I. He Was Dis Liked By The Barons, Who Nicknamed Him Flambard ...

Raphael Fabretti
Fabretti, Raphael (1618-1700), Italian Antiquary, Was Born In 1618 At Urbino In Umbria. He Studied Law At Cagli And Urbino, Where He Took The Degree Of Doctor At The Age Of 18. He Was Treasurer And Auditor Of The Papal Legation In Spain, Where He Remained 13 Years. By Innocent ...

Raymond Or Redmond Fitzgerald
Fitzgerald, Raymond Or Redmond (d. C. 1182), Surnamed Le Gros, Was The Son Of William Fitzgerald And Brother Of Odo De Carew. He Was Sent By Strongbow To Ireland In 1170, And Had The Chief Share In The Capture Of Waterford And In The Successful Assault On Dublin. He Was ...

Refrigeration Canning
Canning, Refrigeration And Ice Manufacture. ...

Relation Of Feeling To
Relation Of Feeling To Other Mental Processes "bound" And "free" Feelings.—this Brings Us To The Diffi Cult Subject Of The Relation Between Feeling On The One Hand And Cognition And Conation On The Other. As Regards Cognition, Perhaps The Most Important Fact To Bear In Mind Is That There May ...

Rhijnvis Feith
Feith, Rhijnvis Dutch Poet, Was Born Of An Aristocratic Family At Zwolle, The Capital Of The Province Over Ijssel, On Feb. 7, 1753. He Was Educated At Harderwijk And At The University Of Leyden, Where He Took His Degree In 1770. In 178o, In His 27th Year, He Became Burgomaster ...

Richard Farrant
Farrant, Richard (d. 1580), Composer Of English Church Music, Became A Gentleman Of The Chapel Royal In The Reign Of Edward Vi., But Resigned His Post In 1564 On Being Ap Pointed Master Of The Children Of St. George's Chapel, Windsor. It Is Stated By Hawkins (history Of Music, Vol. ...

Richard Fitz Neal Or
Fitz Neal Or Fitz Nigel, Richard (d. 1198), Treasurer Of Henry Ii. And Richard I. Of England, And Bishop Of London. His Great Uncle Roger, Bishop Of Salisbury, Had Held The Office Of Treasurer Under Henry I. And His Father Nigel, Under Henry I. And Stephen. Richard, Who Was Born ...

Richard Flecknoe
Flecknoe, Richard (c. 1600–c. 1678), English Drama Tist And Poet, Was Probably Of English Birth. The Few Known Facts Of His Life Are Derived From His Relation Of Ten Years' Travels In Europe, Asia, Afirique, And America, Consisting Of Letters Written During His Travels. He Fled From The Civil War ...

Richard Fleming
Fleming, Richard (c. 1360-1431), Bishop Of Lincoln, And Founder Of Lincoln College, Oxford, Was Born In Yorkshire Of A Good Family, And Educated At University College, Oxford. He Was Made Prebendary Of York In 1406. Becoming An Ardent Wycliffite, He Incurred The Censure Of Archbishop Arundel. He Afterwards Became One ...

Richard I Farmer
Farmer, Richard (i 797) , Shakespearian Corn Mentator, The Son Of A Maltster, Was Born At Leicester And Edu Cated At The Local Grammar School And At Emmanuel College, Cam Bridge. He Graduated In 1757, Became Classical Tutor, And In 1775 Master Of His College. In 1788 He Became A ...

Robert Bannatyne Finlay Finlay
Finlay, Robert Bannatyne Finlay, 1st Viscount (1842-1929), British Lawyer And Politician, Was Born At Edinburgh July I 1, 1842. He Was Educated At Edinburgh Academy And University, And Graduated In Medicine. In 1867 He Was Called To The Bar, In 1882 Becoming A Q.c. And A Bencher Of The Middle ...

Robert De La Marquis
Flers, Robert De La Marquis De (1872-1927), French Dramatist, Born At Pont L'eveque On Nov. 25, 1872, Died At Vittel On July 3o, 1927. His Literary Career Opened With A Volume Of Travel Sketches (vers L'orient, 1896) And A Series Of Critical Essays Notable For Their Delicacy Of Touch. He ...

Robert Fabyan
Fabyan, Robert (d. 1513), English Chronicler, Be Longed To An Essex Family, Members Of Which Had Been Connected With Trade In London. He Married Elizabeth Pake, By Whom He Had A Large Family. He Was A Member Of The Drapers' Company, And Served As Sheriff In 1493-94. In 1496 He ...

Robert Faesi
Faesi, Robert (1883– ), Swiss Poet, Dramatist, Story-writer And Literary Critic, Was Born At Zurich On April To, 1883, And Became Professor Of German Literature At The Uni Versity Of That Town. He Is One Of The Very Few Successful Play Wrights That Switzerland Can Boast, His Tragedies Odysseus And ...

Robert Ferguson
Ferguson, Robert (c. 1637-1714), British Conspirator And Pamphleteer, Called The "plotter," Was A Son Of William Ferguson (d. 1699) Of Badifurrow, Aberdeenshire. He Became Vicar Of Godmersham, Kent, From Which Living He Was Expelled By The Act Of Uniformity In 1662. In 168o He Wrote "a Letter To A Person ...

Robert Fergusson
Fergusson, Robert (1750-1774), Scottish Poet, Son Of Sir William Fergusson, Was Born In Edinburgh. He Was Edu Cated At Dundee Grammar School And St. Andrew's And Became A Copying Clerk In A Lawyer's Office In Edinburgh. In 1771 He Began To Contribute Poems To Ruddiman's Weekly Magazine. He Was A ...

Robert Fitz Stephen
Fitz Stephen, Robert (fl. I 150), Son Of Nesta, A Welsh Princess And Former Mistress Of Henry I., By Stephen, Constable Of Cardigan, Whom Robert Succeeded In That Office, Took Service With Dermot Of Leinster When That King Visited England (1167). In 1169 Robert Led The Vanguard Of Dermot's Anglo-welsh ...

Robert Fitzroy
Fitzroy, Robert (18o5-1865), English Vice-admiral, Hydrographer And Meteorologist, Was Born At Ampton Hall, Suf Folk, On July 5, I8o5, Being A Grandson On The Father's Side Of The Third Duke Of Grafton, And, On The Mother's, Of The First Marquis Of Londonderry. He Entered The Navy In 1819. After Service ...

Robert Fitzwalter
Fitzwalter, Robert (d. 1235), Leader Of The Baro Nial Opposition Against King John Of England, Served John In The Norman Wars, And Was Taken Prisoner By Philip Of France, And Forced To Pay A Heavy Ransom. He Was Implicated In The Baronial Conspiracy Of 1212. He Was Outlawed, But Returned ...

Robert Robertus De Fluctibus
Fludd Or Flud, Robert [robertus De Fluctibus] English Physician And Mystical Philosopher, Son Of Sir Thomas Fludd, Treasurer Of War To Queen Elizabeth In France And The Low Countries, Was Born At Milgate, Kent. After Study Ing At St. John's College, Oxford, He Travelled In Europe And Read The Works ...

Roberto Farinacci
Farinacci, Roberto (1892– ), Italian Politician, Was Born Oct. 16, 1892, At Isernia, In The Province Of Campo Basso. Educated At Cremona, He Entered The Railway Administra Tion, Becoming Station-master At Cremona. While Still A Very Young Man He Took To Politics, And On The Outbreak Of The World War ...

Roger Di Flor
Flor, Roger Di, A Military Adventurer Of The 13th-14th Century, Was The Second Son Of A Falconer In The Service Of The Emperor Frederick Ii., Who Fell At Tagliacozzo (1268), And When Eight Years Old Was Sent To Sea In A Galley Belonging To The Knights Templars. He Entered The ...

Roger Roger Fitzwilliam Fitz Osbern
Fitz-osbern, Roger [roger Fitzwilliam] (fl. Io7o), Succeeded To The Earldom Of Hereford And The English Estate Of William Fitz-osbern In Io71. In 1075, Disregarding William I.'s Prohibition, He Married His Sister Emma To Ralph Guader, Earl Of Norfolk, At The Famous Bridal Of Norwich, At Which The Two Earls Plotted ...

Rudolf Fittig
Fittig, Rudolf (1835-1910), German Chemist, Was Born At Hamburg On Dec. 6, 1835. He Studied Chemistry At Gottingen, Graduating As Ph.d. With A Thesis On Acetone In 1858. He Sub Sequently Held Several Appointments At Gottingen, Being Privat Docent (186o), And Extraordinary Professor (1870) ; In 1870 He Obtained The ...

Rugby Football
Football, Rugby. From The First There Were Two Dis Tinct Camps Among Football Players—those Who Preferred To Use Only Their Feet, And Those Who Used Both Hands And Feet—and, For Some Reason Which No One Seems To Know, The Rugby School Game Gained More Adherents Than Any Other Among Those ...

Rugby Overseas
Rugby Overseas France.—the Rugby Game Appears To Have Been Started In France In The '7os, But For Some Years Progress Was Very Slow. It Began To Make More Headway In The 'gos, And Had Become Firmly Enough Established By The Beginning Of The Present Century For France To Enter Into ...

Saint Fabian Fabianus
Fabian (fabianus), Saint (d. 25o), Pope And Martyr, Was Chosen Pope In Jan. 236. He Was Martyred During The Perse Cution Under Decius On Jan. 20, 250, And Was Buried In The Cata Comb Of Calixtus. He Is Said To Have Baptized The Emperor Philip And His Son, To Have ...

Saint Felix
Felix, Saint, Of Valois (i I 2 7-121 2) , One Of The Founders Of The Order Of Trinitarians Or Redemptionists, Was Born In The District Of Valois, France, On April 19, I 1 2 7. He Became A Hermit In The Forest Of Galeresse, Where He Remained Until I ...

Saint Fiacre
Fiacre, Saint (celt. Fiachra), An Anchorite Of The 7th Century, Of Noble Irish Descent. His Acta, Which Have Little His Torical Value, Relate That He Went To France And With The Permis Sion Of St. Faro, The Bishop Of Meaux, Built A Monastery At Pi O Dious (brodolium), The Modern ...

Saint Flavian
Flavian, Saint (d. 449) , Bishop Cf Constantinople And An Adherent Of The Antiochene School, Succeeded Proclus In 447. He Presided At The Council Which Deposed Eutyches (q.v.) In 448, But In The Following Year He Was Deposed By The Council Of Ephesus (the "robber Synod"), Which Reinstated Eutyches. Flavian's ...

Saint Florian
Florian, Saint, A Martyr Honoured In Upper Austria. In The 8th Century Puoche Was Mentioned As The Place Of His Tomb, And On The Site Was Built The Celebrated Monastery Of Canons Regular, St. Florian, Which Still Exists. His Acta, Devoid Of Historical Value, Are Based On The Acta Of ...

Saint Free Will Tination Augustine
Tination; Augustine, Saint; Free-will. In Islam Fate Is An Absolute Power, Known As Kismet, Or Nasib, Which Is Conceived As Inexorable And Transcending All The Physical Laws Of The Uni Verse. The Most Striking Feature Of The Oriental Fatalism Is Its Complete Indifference To Material Circumstances : Men Accept Pros ...

Saint Or Faelan Fillan
Fillan, Saint Or Faelan, The Name Of The Two Scot Tish Saints, Of Irish Origin, Whose Lives Are Of A Purely Legendary Character. The St. Fillan Whose Feast Is Kept On June 20 Had Churches Dedicated To Him At Ballyheyland, Queen's County, Ire Land, And At Loch Earn, Perthshire. The ...

Salvatore Farina
Farina, Salvatore (1846-1918), Italian Novelist, Was Born At Sorso, Sardinia, On Jan. 10, 1846, And After Studying Law At Turin And Pavia Settled In Milan. He Wrote Il Signor To (188o), Il Tesoro Di Donnina (1873), Amore A Cent' Occlii (1883), And Other Volumes. He Died Dec. 15, 1918. See ...

Samuel Foote
Foote, Samuel English Dramatist And Actor, Was Baptized At Truro On Jan. 27, 172o. His Father Was A Man Of Good Family. Foote Was Educated At The Collegiate School, Worcester, And At Worcester College, Oxford, But Left Oxford With Out Taking A Degree. He Was Designed For The Law, And ...

Second Period Of Electrical
Second Period Of Electrical Discoveries The First Period Of Faraday's Electrical Discoveries Lasted Ten Years. In He Found That He Required Rest, And It Was Not Till 1845 That He Entered On His Second Great Period Of Research, In Which He Discovered The Effect Of Magnetism On Polarized Light, And ...

Seigneur De
Seigneur De 7) , Marshal Of France And Historian, Was The Son Of Robert Ii. De La Marck, Duke Of Bouillon, Seigneur Of Sedan And Fleuranges, Whose Uncle Was William De La Marck, "the Wild Boar Of The Ardennes." At The Age Of Ten He Was Sent To The Court ...

Severino Fabriani
Fabriani, Severino (1792-1849), Italian Author And Teacher, Was Born At Spilamberto, Italy, On Jan. 7, 1792. In Con Sequence Of Complete Loss Of Voice He Resolved To Devote Himself To Teaching Deaf Mutes, And Founded A Small School Specially For Them. This School The Duke Of Modena Made Into An ...

Sextus Pompeius Festus
Festus, Sextus Pompeius, Roman Grammarian, Probably Flourished In The 2nd Century A.d. He Made An Epitome Of The Valuable Work De Verborum Significatu (of Which Only Frag Ments Remain), By M. Verrius Flaccus, A Freedman And Gramma Rian Who Flourished In The Reign Of Augustus. Festus Gives The Ety Mology ...

Simon Flexner
Flexner, Simon (1863— ) , American Pathologist, Was Born At Louisville (ky.), On March 25, 1863. After He Gradu Ated From The University Of Louisville In 1889 He Pursued His Studies Further At Johns Hopkins University And The Universities Of Strasbourg, Berlin And Prague, And At The Pasteur Institute, Paris. ...

Simon Forman
Forman, Simon (1552-1611), English Physician And Astrologer, Was Born At Quidham Near Wilton. He Studied At Magdalen College, Oxford, And In Holland, And Then Practised As A Physician In Philpot Lane, London ; But As He Possessed No Diploma, He Was Imprisoned More Than Once For Quackery And His Practice ...

Sir Anthony Fitzherbert
Fitzherbert, Sir Anthony English Judge, Was Born At Norbury, Derbyshire, And From 1523 Till Within A Short Time Of His Death In 1538 Was Justice Of The Court Of Com Mon Pleas. He Is The Author Of La Graunde Abridgement, A Digest Of Important Legal Cases Written In Old French, ...

Sir Charles Fellows
Fellows, Sir Charles (1799-186o), British Archaeo Logist, Was Born At Nottingham, Where His Family Had An Estate. In 1827 He Discovered The Modern Ascent Of Mont Blanc. He Trav Elled In Italy, Greece And The Levant, And Many Of His Sketches Were Used In Illustrating Childe Harold. In 1838 He ...

Sir Charles Harding Firth
Firth, Sir Charles Harding Brit Ish Historian, Was Born At Sheffield On March 16, 1857, And Was Educated At Clifton And Balliol College, Oxford. He Became A Fellow Of All Souls, Oxford, In 1901, And Regius Professor Of Modern History At Oxford In 1904. On His Retirement In 1925 He ...

Sir David Ferrier
Ferrier, Sir David (1843-1928), British Neurologist, Was Born On Jan. 13, 1843, At Aberdeen. He Was Educated At His Native Town, At Heidelberg, Where He Turned From The Study Of Philosophy To That Of Medicine, And At Edinburgh Where He Took His M.b. In 1868. Ferrier Was Successively Lecturer On ...

Sir Geoffrey Fenton
Fenton, Sir Geoffrey (c. 1539-1608), English Writer And Politician, Was The Son Of Henry Fenton, Of Notting Hamshire. He Was Brother Of Edward Fenton The Navigator. He Is Said To Have Visited Spain And Italy In His Youth ; Possibly He Went To Paris In Sir Thomas Hoby's Train In ...