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Volume 4, Part 2: Brain to Casting

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Pedro Calderon De La
Calderon De La Barca, Pedro Spanish Dramatist And Poet, Was Born At Madrid On Jan. 17, 16co. He Was Educated At The Jesuit College In Madrid With A View To Accepting A Family Living; Abandoning This Project, He Studied Law At Salamanca, And Competed With Success At The Literary Fetes ...

Peire Cardenal
Cardenal, Peire (c. 1205-1305), French Troubadour, Was Born At Puy-en-velay Of Good Family, And Unlike Other Trouba Dours Seems To Have Received A Fair Education, As He Was Intended For The Church. The National Disorders, Which Led Him To Flee From Narbonne And Toulouse To Escape The Armies Of Simon ...

Pereskia
Pereskia Differs From The Rest In Having Woody Stems And Leaf-bearing Branches, The Leaves Being Somewhat Fleshy, But Otherwise Of The Ordinary Laminate Character. One Species, The Barbadoes Gooseberry, Climbs Like The Blackberry (rubes) By Recurved Thorns; The Others Are Spiny Shrubs. The Flowers Are Subpaniculate, White Or Yellowish. They ...

Peter Camper
Camper, Peter , Dutch Anatomist And Nat Uralist, Was Born At Leiden On May 11, 1722. He Was Educated At The University There, And In 1746 Graduated In Philosophy And Medicine. He Was Successively Professor At Franeker (175o), Amsterdam ('755) And Groningen (1763) . In 1787 He Was Nominated To ...

Peter Canisius
Canisius, Peter, Also Kannees, Kanys (1521-1597), Jesuit Scholar, Was Born In Nijmwegen, Holland, On May 8, 1521. He Was Educated At Cologne, And Of Ter Becoming A Jesuit In Taught Successively At The Universities Of Cologne, Ingolstadt And Vienna. Perhaps More Than Any Of His Contemporaries, Canisius Delayed The Advance ...

Peter Cartwright
Cartwright, Peter (1785-1872), Methodist Episco Pal Preacher Of The United States, Was Born On Sept. I, 1785, In Amherst County, Virginia. His Father, A Veteran Of The War Of Independence, In 1790 Took His Family To Kentucky. Here Peter Cartwright Grew Up Amid The Rude Surroundings Of The Frontier, Received ...

Philip Hermogenes Calderon
Calderon, Philip Hermogenes English Painter, Born At Poitiers, Only Son Of The Rev. Juan Cald Eron, A Native Of La Mancha. He Was Educated From His 12th Year In London, Where His Father Was Professor Of Spanish Litera Ture At King's College. He Began His Artistic Studies In 185o At ...

Piero Capponi
Capponi, Piero (1447-1496), Florentine Statesman And Soldier, Was Employed As Ambassador By Lorenzo De' Medici. Af Ter Lorenzo's Death In 1492, Capponi Became A Leader Of The Anti-medicean Party. He Later Became Chief Of The Republic, In Which Capacity He Conducted The Negotiations With Charles Viii. Of France With Conspicuous ...

Pierre Jean George Cabanis
Cabanis, Pierre Jean George French Physiologist, Was Born At Cosnac (correze), And Was The Son Of Jean Baptiste Cabanis (1723-86), A Lawyer And Agronomist. In I 78g His Observations Sur Les Hopitaux Procured Him An Appoint Ment As Administrator Of Hospitals In Paris, And In 1795 He Became Professor Of ...

Pierre Joseph Cambon
Cambon, Pierre Joseph (1756-182o), French Revo Lutionary And Financier, Was Born At Montpellier. As A Member Of The Legislative Assembly, He Quickly Attracted Public Attention By His Able And Sagacious Speeches. An Opponent Of Marat, Dan Ton And Dumouriez, Cambon Nevertheless Voted In Favour Of Louis Xvi.'s Execution. He Opposed ...

Pierre Paul Cambon
Cambon, Pierre Paul French Diplo Matist, Was Born On Jan. 20, 1843, And Educated At The Lycee Louis-le-grand And The Ecole De Droit. He Was Called To The Parisian Bar, And Became Private Secretary To Jules Ferry During The Commune. Thiers Subsequently Appointed Him To Adminis Trative Posts In The ...

Pietro I Carnesecchi
Carnesecchi, Pietro (i 508-1567), Italian Humanist, Was The Son Of A Florentine Merchant, Who Enjoyed The Patronage Of The Medici. At The Age Of 25 He Held Several Rich Livings, Had Been Notary And Protonotary To The Curia, And Was First Secretary To The Pope. He Accepted Luther's Doctrine Of ...

Playing Cards
Cards, Playing. As Is The Case With All Very Ancient Pastimes, The Origin Of Playing-cards Is Obscure; The Widely Taken View Is That They Come From Asia. In The Chinese Dictionary, Ching-tsze-tung (1678), It Is Said That Cards Were Invented In The Reign Of Seun-ho, A.d. Ii 20, For The ...

Plutarco Elias Calles
Calles, Plutarco Elias ), Mexican Statesman And Military Leader, President Of Mexico In 1924-28, Born At Guaymas, Sonora, Sept. 25, 1877. Little Is Known Of His Early Life, However, It Is Certain That Almost To Manhood He Lived The Life Of The Poorer Class. He Attended The School Of His ...

Polidoro Caldara Da Or
Caravaggio, Polidoro Caldara Da Or , A Celebrated Painter Of Frieze And Other Decora Tions In The Vatican. Polidoro's Works, As Well As Those Of His Master, Maturino Of Florence, Have Mostly Perished, But Are Well Known By The Fine Etchings Of P. S. Bartoli, C. Alberti, Etc. On The ...

Proposed Levy On War
Proposed Levy On War Wealth Af Ter The War The Discussion Took A Specific Direction, Viz., It Proposed To Confine The Levy To "war Fortunes." It Was Realised That A Capital Levy Would Tax Two Fortunes Of £20,000 Identically, Although One Might Have Been Reduced From L50,000 Owing To The ...

Protection Against Air Observation
Protection Against Air Observation The Purpose Of Camouflage Is To Render Objects Indistinguish Able Or Unrecognizable By Means Of Imitation Or Disguise. Con Cealment In The Limited Sense Of "hiding From View" Is Not The Primary Aim. The Ideal Is Non-interference With The Natural Or Normal Aspect Of The Locality ...

Protection Against Direct Observation
Protection Against Direct Observation The Concealment Of Observation Posts, Machine-gun Nests, Etc., Is Comparatively Simple, Being Merely An Adaptation Of The Craft Of Theatrical Property-making. Natural Features May Be Selected, In Places From Which Good Observation Can Be Obtained, And These Must Be Copied Exactly. At Night, The Real Is ...

Quintus Fufius Calenus
Calenus, Quintus Fufius, Roman General. As Tribune Of The People In 61 B.c., He Helped To Secure The Acquittal Of Clodius When Charged With Having Profaned The Mysteries Of Bona Dea (cicero, Ad. Att. I. 16). In S9 Calenus Was Praetor, And Brought Forward A Law That The Senators, Knights, ...

Quintus Servilius Caepio
Caepio, Quintus Servilius, Roman General, Consul 106 B.c. During His Year Of Office He Brought Forward A Law By Which The Jurymen Were Again To Be Chosen From The Senators Instead Of The Equites (tacitus, Ann. Xii. 6o; But See Mommsen, Romisches Staatsrecht, Iii. 531, 2.). As Governor Of Gallia ...

R C Carton
Carton, R. C. (1853-1928), English Playwright, Whose Real Name Was Richard Claude Critchett, Was Born In London, The Son Of A Well-known Ophthalmic Surgeon. He Began To Play In The Provinces At The Age Of 22, Making His First Real Hit In 1888 At St. James's Hall In A Play ...

Ramon Cabrera
Cabrera, Ramon (18o6-1877), Carlist General, Was Born At Tortosa, Province Of Tarragona, Spain, On Dec. 27, 1806. He Took Minor Orders, But The Bishop Refused To Ordain Him As A Priest, Telling Him That The Army, Not The Church, Was His Vocation. Cabrera Took Part In Carlist Conspiracies On The ...

Ramon De Campoamor Y
Campoamor Y Campoosorio, Ramon De 0819-1900, Spanish Poet, Born At Navia (asturias) . Abandon Ing His First Intention Of Entering The Jesuit Order, He Studied Medicine At Madrid, Found An Opening In Politics As A Supporter Of The Moderate Party, And Became Governor Of Castellon De La Plana, Of Alicante ...

Randolph Caldecott
Caldecott, Randolph (1846-1886), English Artist And Illustrator, Was Born At Chester On March 22, 1846, And Died In Florida On Feb. 12, 1886. He Was A Prolific And Original Illustrator, Gifted With A Genial Humorous Faculty, And He Succeeded Also, Though In Less Degree, As A Painter And Sculptor. ...

Raphael Casabianca
Casabianca, Raphael, Comte De (1738-1825), French General, Was Descended From A Noble Corsican Family, And In 1793 Was Appointed Lieutenant-general In Corsica In Place Of Pascale Paoli, Who Was Outlawed For Intrigues With England. Af Ter The 18th Brumaire He Entered The Senate And Was Made Count Of The Empire ...

Reginald John Campbell
Campbell, Reginald John ), British Divine, Son Of A United Free Methodist Minister Of Scottish Descent, Was Born In London, And Educated At Schools In Bolton And Nottingham, Where His Father Successively Removed, And In Belfast, The Home Of His Grandfather. He Was Already Married When In 1891 He Went ...

Relations Applicable To Interpolation
Relations Applicable To Interpolation Ii. For Interpolation, Where U Is A Continuously Varying Func Tion Of X, And Values Of U Are Tabulated At Intervals H In X, The Relations Between Differences Of The U's And Differential Coefficients Of U Are Important. The Values Of X For Which U Is ...

Rene Auguste Caillie Or
Caillie Or Caille, Rene Auguste French Explorer, Was Born At Mauze, Poitou, On Sept. 19, 1799, The Son Of A Baker. His First Voyage, Made At The Age Of 16, Was To Senegal And Guadeloupe. In 1818 He Went From Senegal To Bondu With Supplies For A British Expedition. In ...

Richard Cameron
Cameron, Richard (1648?-168o), Founder Of A Scot Tish Religious Sect Of Cameronians, Which Formed The Nucleus Of The Regiment Of This Name In The British Army, Was Born At Falk Land, Fife. He Was The Schoolmaster Of His Native Village And Then Chaplain And Tutor In The House Of A ...

Richard Carew
Carew, Richard English Poet And Anti Quary, Was Born On July 17 1555, At Antony House, East Antony, Cornwall. At The Age Of I I, He Entered Christ Church, Oxford, And When Only 14 Was Chosen To Carry On An Extempore Debate With Sir Philip Sidney, In Presence Of The ...

Richard Carlile
Carlile, Richard (179o-1843), English Reformer And Freethinker, Was Born On Dec. 8, 179o, At Ashburton, Devonshire, The Son Of A Shoemaker. He Was Educated In The Village School And, After Apprenticeship To A Tinman, Obtained Occupation, In 1813, In London As A Journeyman Tinman. Influenced By Paine's Rights Of Man, ...

Richard Christopher Carrington
Carrington, Richard Christopher (1826 1875), English Astronomer, Son Of A Brewer At Brentford, Was Born In London On May 26, 1826, And Educated At Trinity Col Lege, Cambridge. He Was Astronomical Observer In The University Of Durham (1849-52), And In 1853 Established An Observatory Of His Own At Redhill. Here ...

Richard Doyly Carte
Carte, Richard D'oyly (1844-1901), English Im Presario, Was Born In Soho, London, On May 3, 1844, The Son Of A Flautist, Who Was A Partner In The Firm Of Rudall, Carte And Co., Instrument Makers. Young Carte Matriculated At University College, London, In 1861, And Then Entered His Father's Business, ...

Richard Owen Cambridge
Cambridge, Richard Owen English Poet, Was Born In London On Feb. 14, 1717, And Died At Twicken Ham On Sept. 17, 1802. He Was Educated At Eton And At St. John's College, Oxford, And Went Into Residence At Lincoln's Inn In 1737. Four Years Later He Married, And Went To ...

Rise Of Caricature
Rise Of Caricature Early Italian School.—in Bologna Caricatura Was The Natural Result Of Its Artistic And Popular "atmosphere." So At Least Says Count Malaguzzi-valeri In A Recent Brochure, And He Quotes With ' Approval The Opinion Of Ludovico Frati (from An Article In La Villa Cittadina, Nov. 1919) That When ...

Robert Cambert
Cambert, Robert (1628-1677), French Musician, Was Born In Paris In 1628 And Is Remembered As One Of The First Corn Posers Of Opera In France, At First In Conjunction With The Abbe Pierre Perrin And Afterwards On His Own Account. In 1669 Perrin Received A Patent For The Founding Of ...

Robert Campin
Campin, Robert (1375-1444), A Painter Of The School Of Tournai, Formerly Known As The Maitre De Merode And The Maitre De Flemalle. Campin's Name Appears In The Records Of Tournai Between 1406 And 1444. It Is There Stated That He Was En Trusted With Decorative Work By The Town Council. ...

Robert Smith Candlish
Candlish, Robert Smith 73 ), Scottish Vine, Was Born At Edinburgh On March 23, 1806, And Spent His Early Years In Glasgow, Where He Graduated In 1823. After Short Assistant Pastorates At St. Andrew's, Glasgow, And Bonhill, Dum Bartonshire, He Obtained A Settled Charge As Minister Of The Im Portant ...

Rodrigo Calderon
Calderon, Rodrigo (d. 1621), Count Of Oliva And Marquess De Las Siete Inglesias, Spanish Favourite And Adven Turer, Was Born At Antwerp, The Son Of A Spanish Army Officer. In 1598 He Entered The Service Of The Duke Of Lerma As Secretary. He Was Created Count Of Oliva, A Knight ...

Roger David Casement
Casement, Roger David (1864-1916), British Con Sular Agent And Rebel, Was Born At Kingstown, Co. Dublin, On Sept. I, 1864. After Serving In The Niger Coast Protectorate He Entered The British Consular Service, And Was Appointed Consul At Lour Enco Marques, Then At Loanda And Then At Boma. He Carried ...

Roman
Roman The Roman Republican Calendar Was Of The Greek Type (see Above), But Rude And Primitive, Dating Probably From The Times Of The Etruscan Dynasty, But Showing Traces Of A Still Earlier Period. It Consisted Of Twelve Lunar Months, Martius, Aprilis, Maius, Junius, Quintilis, Sextilis, September, October, November, De Cember, ...

Romana
Romana). Bibliography.—all Works On Canon Law Contain A Treatise On The Bibliography.—all Works On Canon Law Contain A Treatise On The Cardinals. See Particularly, For The History, Thomassin, Vetus Et Nova Discipl., Tom. I., Lib. Ii., Cap. 113-115. For History And Law, Phillips, Kirchenrecht, Vol. Vi. ; Hinschius, System Des ...

Romanesque Architecture
Romanesque Architecture Origin And Development.—conditions In The Western Part Of The Roman Empire During The 5th, 6th And 7th Centuries Were Chaotic. The Invading Barbarians From The North Made Roman Provinces Their Highway, Occasionally, Like The Goths And Vandals, Passing On To Africa, But Usually Settling In The Districts Which ...

Roy Campbell
Campbell, Roy ), South African Poet, The Son Of Senator Campbell Of Natal, Was Educated At Oxford. After Roaming About At Sea And Wandering Through Italy, Campbell Pub Lished In 1924 His Poem, The Flaming Terrapin. With A Joyful Exuberance, The Poet, In Lyrical Narrative (which Combines Both Vision And ...

Rudolf Jakob Camerarius
Camerarius, Rudolf Jakob ,i__5-1721), Ger Man Botanist And Physician, Was Born In Tubingen On Feb. 12, 1665, And Died There On Sept. I 1, 17a 1. He Became Professor Of Medicine And Director Of The Botanical Gardens At Tubingen In 1687. He Is Chiefly Known For His Investigations On The ...

Saint Caesarius Of Arles
Caesarius Of Arles, Saint (c. Bishop Of Arles And Ecclesiastical Legislator, Was Born At Chalons, Bur Gundy. In 502 He Became Bishop Of Arles, A Town Which Was Then Of Great Commercial And Political Importance. He Convoked The Council Of Agde (5o6), Of Arles (524), Of Carpentras (527), Of Orange ...

Saint John Of Capistrano
Capistrano, Saint John Of Italian Theologian And Inquisitor, Was Born In Capistrano In The Abruzzi. He Became A Magistrate, But On The Death Of His Wife (1416) , Joined The Franciscans Where, Under The Direction Of Bernardino Of Sienna, He Defended The Ideal Of Strict Observance. He Was Charged With ...

Samuel Parkes Cadman
Cadman, Samuel Parkes (1864-1936), American Clergyman, Author And Lecturer, Was Born In Wellington, Shrop Shire, England, On Dec. 18, 1864. He Graduated With Honours From Richmond College, Surrey, In 1889. In 1890 He Went To The United States And In 1895 Was Appointed The Leader Of The For Ward Movement ...

Sculpture
Sculpture). ...

Sethus Calvisius
Calvisius, Sethus German Musician And Chronologer, Was Born At Gorschleben, In Thuringia, On Feb. 21, 1556, And Died At Leipzig, Where He Was Director Of The School Of Music, On Nov. 24, 1615. In His Opus Chronologicum (leipzig, 1605, 7th Ed. 1685) He Expounded A System Based On The Records ...

Ship Canals
Ship Canals Ship Canals, From An Engineering Point Of View, Chiefly Differ From Barge Canals In The Magnitude Of The Works They Involve, But There Is No Definite Line Of Distinction. For Instance, The So Called Marseille-rhone Ship Canal Has Approximately The Same Limiting Structural Dimensions As The New York ...

Showing The Swollen Roots
Showing The Swollen Roots Sareep And Other Sauces. From Which Store Starch The Bitter Cassava Roots Many This Starch Forms The Brazilian Arrow Different Food Preparations Are Root, And, When Dried, Is Known As Made In Brazil. The Roots Are Tapioca Preserved For Use By Being Cleaned, Sliced And Dried; ...

Simon Caboche
Caboche, Simon, Simon Lecoustellier, Called "caboche," A Skinner Of The Paris Boucherie. He Was Prominent In The Sedi Tious Disturbances Which Broke Out In Paris In April And May, 1413. When The Butchers Had Made Themselves Masters Of Paris, Caboche Became Bailiff (huissier D'armes) And Warden Of The Bridge Of ...

Simon Cameron
Cameron, Simon (1799-1889), American Politician, Was Born In Lancaster County, Pa., On March 8, 1799. Left An Orphan At The Age Of Nine, He Early Entered Journalism, And, In Banking And Railway Enterprises, Accumulated A Considerable Fortune. He Became Influential In Pennsylvania Politics, And In 1845-49 Served In The U.s. ...

Simone Cantarini
Cantarini, Simone ,1612-1648), Called Simone Da Pesaro, Painter And Etcher, Was Born At Oropezza Near Pesaro In 1612. He Was A Disciple Of Guido Reni And A Fellow-student Of Domenichino And Albano. His Pictures, Though Masterly And Spirited, Are Deficient In Originality, And Some Of His Works Have Been Mistaken ...

Sir Augustus Wall Callcott
Callcott, Sir Augustus Wall English Landscape Painter, Was Born At Kensington In 1779 And Died There In 1844. His First Study Was Music ; But By The Age Of 20 He Had Determined To Give Up Music, And Had Exhibited His First Painting At The Royal Academy. He Became R.a. ...

Sir Ernest Joseph Cassel
Cassel, Sir Ernest Joseph Anglo German Financier, Was Born At Cologne, On March 3, 1852, The Son Of A Small Banker In That City, And At The Age Of 16 Became A Clerk In The Banking Firm Of Elspacher. In 1870 He Went To Lon Don And Entered The Foreign ...

Sir Ewen Cameron Of
Cameron Of Lochiel, Sir Ewen Scottish Highland Chieftain, Passed Part Of His Youth With The Mar Quess Of Argyll At Inverary, Leaving His Guardian About 1647 To Succeed His Grandfather As Chief Of The Clan Cameron. In Lochiel Joined The Earl Of Glencairn In His Rising On Behalf Of Charles ...

Sir George Astley Callaghan
Callaghan, Sir George Astley British Admiral, Was Born In London On Dec. 21, 1852, The Son Of An Army Captain, And Entered The Navy In 1866. He Was Promoted Captain While On Service On The China Station In 1894, And Was Then (1894-97) Naval Adviser To The Inspector Of Fortifications ...

Sir George Carew
Carew, Sir George (d. 1612), English Diplomatist, Second Son Of Sir Thomas Carew Of Antony, Was Secretary To Sir Christopher Hatton, And Was Sent On An Embassy To Sweden And Poland In 1598. In The Reign Of James He Was Employed In Nego Tiating The Treaty Of Union With Scotland, ...

Sir George Carteret
Carteret, Sir George (c. 1610-168o), English Poli Tician, Born Between 5609 And 1617, On The Island Of Jersey, Was The Son Of Helier De Carteret Of St. Ouen. In 1639 He Was Made Comptroller Of The English Navy, And During The Civil War Was Active On The King's Side. Succeeding ...

Sir Georges Etienne Cartier
Cartier, Sir Georges Etienne, Bart. (1814 1873), Canadian Statesman, Was Born In The Province Of Quebec On Sept. 6, 1814. Called To The Bar In 1835 He Gained A Large Practice. He Took Part In The Rebellion Of 1837, And Spent Some Time In Exile. In 1848 He Was Elected ...

Sir Harry Calvert
Calvert, Sir Harry, British General, Was Born In 1763 At Hampton, Near London. He Was Educated At Harrow, And In 1778 Entered The Army. In The Follow Ing Year He Served With His Regiment In America, Being Present At The Siege Of Charleston, And From 1781 To 1783 Was A ...

Sir Julius Caesar
Caesar, Sir Julius English Judge, De Scended From The Dukes De' Cesarini In Italy, Was Born Near Tottenham In Middlesex. He Was Educated At Magdalen Hall, Oxford, And Afterwards At The University Of Paris, Where In 1581 He Was Made A Doctor Of Civil Law. Two Years Later He Was ...

Sir Richard John Cartwright
Cartwright, Sir Richard John ), Canadian Statesman, Was Born In Kingston, Canada, On Dec. 4, 1835, Son Of An Army Chaplain. In 1863 He Entered The Canadian Parliament As A Conservative, But Soon After Federation In 1867 Quarrelled With His Party On The Question Of Their Financial Policy. By 1870 ...

Sir Robert Calder
Calder, Sir Robert, Bart. (1745—i818), British Ad Miral, Was Born At Elgin, In Scotland, On July 2, 1745 (o.s.), Of An Old Family, And At The Age Of 14 Entered The British Navy As Midshipman. In 1796 He Was Named Captain Of The Fleet By Sir John Jervis, And Took ...

Sir Thomas Henry Hall
Caine, Sir Thomas Henry Hall British Novelist And Dramatist, Was Born Of Mixed Manx And Cumberland Parentage At Runcorn, Cheshire, On May 14, He Was Educated With A View To Becoming An Architect, But Turned To Journalism, Becoming A Leader-writer On The Liverpool Mercury. He Went To London At The ...

Sir Thompson Capper
Capper, Sir Thompson (1863-1915), British Major General, Was Born At Lucknow On Oct. 20, 1863, The Son Of A Bengal Civil Servant. He Entered The Army In 1882, And Served In The Chitral (1895) , Sudan (1898-99) And South African (1 Goo 02) Campaigns. Capper Was One Of The Outstanding ...

Stanislao Cannizzaro
Cannizzaro, Stanislao (1826-1910), Italian Chem Ist, Was Born In Palermo On July 13, 1826. In 1845-46 He Acted As Assistant To Rafaelle Piria (1815-65), Known For His Work On Salicin, Who Was Then Professor Of Chemistry At Pisa And Subse Quently Occupied The Same Position At Turin. He Took Part ...

Summation Of Series
Summation Of Series 9. For Summation Of Series, And For Difference-equations Gen Erally, The Advancing-difference Notation Is Usually The More Suitable. There Are Two Useful Methods. (i.) Suppose We Want To Find The Value Of Such A Sum As . • • Let Us Denote This Sum By Then We ...

Symphorianus Campegnis
Campegnis, Symphorianus , French Physician, Received His Medical Training At Pavia, Practised At Lyons, And Became Physician To Charles Viii. And Louis Xii. As One Of The Early Humanists, He Aimed To Harmonize The Best Ele Ments In Greek And Arabian Medicine. Besides His History Of Medicine, Entitled De Claris ...

Synods Of Carthage
Carthage, Synods Of. During The 3rd, 4th And 5th Centuries The Town Of Carthage (q.v.) In Africa Served As The Meeting-place Of A Large Number Of Church Synods, Of Which, However, Only The Most Important Can Be Mentioned Here. I. In May 251 A Synod Assembled Under The Presidency Of ...

Technique And Materials Theory
Theory Of Design, Technique And Materials The Word Cartoon Will No Doubt Be Associated Mainly And Last Ingly With Such Drawings As Have A Political Or Social Significance And Which, Unlike The Ordinary Run Of Picture Comicalities, Stimu Late Thought On Public Affairs. ...

Thames Meuse Kiel
Thames; Meuse; Kiel, Etc. ...

The Abbasid Caliphs
The Abbasid Caliphs We Now Enter Upon The History Of The New Dynasty, Under Which The Power Of Islam Reached Its Highest Point. I. Abu'1-`abbas Inaugurated His Caliphate By A Harangue To The People Of Kufa, In Which He Announced The Era Of Concord And Happiness Which Was To Begin ...

The Austro German Attack
The Austro-german Attack Disposition Of Italian Forces.—cadorna Had Received Satis Factory Reports Concerning The Morale Of His Troops. He Had Enough Men, Though A Number Of His Units Were Below Strength; And He Had Enough Guns, In Spite Of The Withdrawal Of The Allied Batteries, Though He Would Have Been ...

The Cabinet
Cabinet, The. The Word "cabinet," Like Most British Constitutional Terms, Is Of Foreign Extraction, And Originally Sig Nified A Small Room (compare The 18th Century Use Of The Word "closet"). Hence Cabinet Counsel Came To Mean Secret Counsel And Cabinet Council The Body Of Persons That Gave Such Counsel. Thus ...

The Cahokia Mound
Cahokia Mound, The. The Largest Prehistoric Ameri Can Earthwork North Of Mexico, One Of A Group Formerly Number Ing 45 Considerable Mounds (not Including A Great Number Of Smaller Ones), Standing In Illinois, 6 M. East Of St. Louis, Mo. The Great Mound Is A Quadrangular Pyramid 998 By 721 ...

The Cathedral
The Cathedral History Of The Building.—the Old City Surrounds The Pre Cincts Of The Cathedral. The Romano-british Church Of Basilica Form, Occupied By St. Augustine, Was Largely Rebuilt By Archbishop Odo, C. 95o; After Other Hazards It Was Destroyed By Fire In 1067. Archbishop Lanfranc, Taking Up His Office In ...

The Early Period Constantine
The Early Period: Constantine To Justinian Of The Surviving Vestiges Of The 4th And 5th Centuries Not All, By Any Means, Are Byzantine, But In The 6th, The Triumph Of Byzantine Ideas Is Recorded In S. Sophia At Constantinople And In Numerous Well-known Monuments At Ravenna And Elsewhere. However, The ...

The First Four Caliphs
The First Four Caliphs After The Death Of Muhammad, Homage Was Paid To Abu Bakr, As His Successor. I. Reign Of Abu Bakr.—abu Bakr's First Task Was The Crush Ing Of The Revolt Of The Bedouins Who Were Compelled To Submit. But The Internal Consolidation Of Islam In Arabia Was ...

The Golden Calf
Calf, The Golden, An Object Of Worship Which Appears In Two (apparently) Different Connections In The Old Testament : (a) The Molten Image Whose Making By Aaron In The Absence Of Moses Is Described In Ex. Xxxii.; (b) An Idol Set Up By Jero Boam I. At Bethel And At ...

The Italian Retreat
The Italian Retreat By Evening Stein Was Pouring Troops Through The Breach Made By The Silesians, And Was Making Good Headway With The Austrian 5oth Division On Their Right, While The Alpenkorps, Berrer And Scotti Had In Several Places Gained The High Ridges Dominating The Head Of The Judrio Valley. ...

The Later Periods
The Later Periods After The Fantastic Creatures And Ornament Of The 8th And 9th Centuries, And Without Any Transition, Comes The Art, At Once Refined And Realistic, Of The Macedonian Revival. The Old Greek Taste For Representation Again Prevails. A Series Of Ivory Carvings, Manuscripts And Enamels, Which There Is ...

The Letter C
The Letter C. The Third Letter Of The Alphabet, Corresponds To Semitic ' Gimel, And Greek R. Gamma. Greek Forms Were R, (, A, <. From The Last Derived The Round Form C, Which Occurs At Corinth And In The Chalcidic Alphabet. Both < And C Are Found In The ...

The Levy In Other
The Levy In Other Countries There Have Been No First-class Experiments Abroad Illustrating All The Features Of The Levy As Proposed For The United Kingdom. In 1920 In Czechoslovakia A Levy Was Introduced Which Was To Bring In £63,000,000 Or About £5 Per Head Of The Population, With A Low ...

The Middle Period
The Middle Period: 8th And 9th Centuries The Obscure 7th Century Seems To Be A Period Of Transition. The Coins Of Justinian Ii. (d. 711) Are Designed In A New Flat Style. ...

The Modern Caste System
The Modern Caste System It Follows From The Definition Of Caste That The Homogeneity Of A Unit And Its Consciousness Of A Closer Alliance Between Its Members Than Exists Between It And Other Units, Finds Expression In Definite Social Rules Or Even In Outward And Visible Signs. The Exclusiveness Of ...

The Modern Low Castes
The Modern Low Castes In The Punjab Himalayas The Hinduism Is Of A Primitive Type And Presumably Caste Is So Likewise. Here We Find The Dagi, Also Commonly Called Koli, And In The Higher Mountainous Regions Betus, While Those Who Have Taken To Any Specific Trade Are Styled Barhai, Carpenter, ...

The Recovery On The
The Recovery On The Piave New Italian Positions.—by Nov. 8 The Bulk Of The Iv. Army Was In Line. On Nov. 9 And 1 O The Last Covering Troops Of The Ii. And Iii. Armies Crossed The Piave From Pederobba To The Sea. The Line Chosen To Defend The Fortunes ...

The Umayyad Caliphs I
The Umayyad Caliphs I. Reign Of Mu`awiyah.—mu`awiyah Was A Born Ruler ; Syria Was The Best Administered Province Of The Whole Empire, And He Was Loved And Honoured By The Syrians. On The Murder Of `ali In 661, His Son Hasan Was Chosen Caliph, But He Recoiled Be Fore The ...

The World War And
The World War And After On The Outbreak Of The World War Canadian Opinion Was At Once Clear. To The Measure Of Her Strength Canada Was Ready, In An Hour Of Deadly Peril, To Fight Side By Side With Britain. Before Parliament Met, On Aug. 18, Mobilization Had Begun. One ...

Thomas Campbell
Campbell, Thomas Scottish Poet, Eighth Son Of Alexander Campbell, Was Born At Glasgow On July 27 77. His Father, Who Was A Cadet Of The Family Of Campbell Of Kirnan, Argyllshire, Belonged To A Glasgow Firm Trading In Virginia, And Lost His Money In Consequence Of The American War. Campbell ...

Thomas Campion
Campion, Thomas (1567-162o) English Poet And Musician, Was Born In London On Feb. 12, 1567, And Christened At St. Andrew's, Holborn. He Was The Son Of John Campion Of The Middle Temple, Who Was By Profession One Of The Cursitors Of The Chancery Court, The Clerks "of Course," Whose Duties ...

Thomas Carew
Carew, Thomas (b. 1595), English Poet, Was Born At West Wickham, Kent, The Son Of Sir Matthew Carew, Master In Chancery, And His Wife, Alice Ingpenny, Widow Of Sir John Rivers, Lord Mayor Of London. At The Age Of 13 He Matriculated At Merton College, Oxford. He Took His Degree ...

Thomas Carlyle
Carlyle, Thomas (1795-1881), British Essayist, Histo Rian And Philosopher, Born On Dec. 4, 1795, At Ecclefechan, In Annandale, Was The Eldest Of The Nine Children Of James Carlyle By His Second Wife, Margaret Aitken. The Father Was By Trade A Mason, And Then A Small Farmer. He Had Joined A ...

Thomas Carte
Carte, Thomas English Historian, Was Born At Dusmoon, Near Clifton. He Was Secretary To Atterbury, And Spent Some Time In Exile After Atterbury's Disgrace. His General History Of England (4 Vols. 1750, 1752 And 1755) Has Some Value As A Storehouse Of Facts. He Also Published A Life Of James, ...

Thomas Cartwright
Cartwright, Thomas (c. 1535-1603), English Puri Tan Divine, Studied Divinity At St. John's College, Cambridge; But On Mary's Accession He Had To Leave The University, And Found Occupation As Clerk To A Counsellor-at-law. On The Accession Of Elizabeth He Returned To Cambridge, And In 1569 He Was Appointed Lady Margaret ...

Thomas De Cantilupe
Cantilupe, Thomas De Saint And Prelate, Was A Son Of William De Cantilupe, The 2nd Baron (d. 1251), One Of King John's Ministers, And A Nephew Of Walter De Cantilupe, Bishop Of Worcester. He Was Educated At Paris And Orleans, Afterwards Becoming A Teacher Of Canon Law At Oxford And ...

Titus Calpurnius
Calpurnius, Titus, Roman Bucolic Poet, Surnamed Sicvlvs, Probably Flourished During The Reign Of Nero. Eleven Eclogues Have Reached Us Under His Name, Of Which The Last Four, From Metrical Considerations And Express Ms. Testimony, Are Now Generally Attributed To Nemesianus (q.v.) Who Lived In The Time Of The Emperor Carus ...