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Encyclopedia Brittanica

Volume 5, Part 1: Cast-Iron to Cole

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Cedar
Cedar, A Name Applied To Several Coniferous Trees Of The Pine Family (see Gymnosperms). ...

Cedartown
Cedartown, A City Of Georgia, U.s.a., 52m. West-north West Of Atlanta, Served By The Central Of Georgia And The Seaboard Air Line Railways; The County Seat Of Polk County. The Popu Lation In 1920 Was Negroes), And Had Increased To 8,124 In 193o By The Federal Census. There Are Important ...

Cedula
Cedula, The Spanish Form Of The English Word Schedule (q.v.), Of Which "cedule" Is An Obsolete Variant; In Modern Financial Usage It Refers More Specifically To Certain Securities Issued By The South American Governments. ...

Cefalu
Cefalu (anc. Cephaloedium), A Seaport And Episcopal See Of The Province Of Palermo, Sicily, 42 M. E. Of Palermo By Rail. Pop. (1931) 9,763 (town), 1o,610 (commune). The Ancient Town Is Named From The Headland (gr. Ke.oax7'7, Head) Upon Which It Stood (1,233 Ft.) ; Its Fortifications Extended To The ...

Cehegin
Cehegin, A Town Of South-eastern Spain, In The Province Of Murcia, On The Right Bank Of The River Arcos, A Small Tributary Of The Segura. Pop. (193o) 15,043. Cehegin Is The Market For Local Wine, Olive Oil And Hemp, And For Marble And A Little Iron From The Neighbouring Hills. ...

Ceiling
Ceiling, The Overhead Surface Or Surfaces Covering A Room; The Under Side Of A Floor Or A Roof ; Often Used As A Surface Built To Hide The Floor And Roof Construction ; The Term Is Also Em Ployed, Technically, For Any Finished Boarding Or Sheathing, And Especially For A ...

Celaenae
Celaenae, An Ancient City Of Phrygia, Situated On The Great Trade Route To The East. It Was The Starting Point Of The March Of Cyrus (401 B.e.) With The 1o,000 Against Artaxerxes. Its Acropolis Long Held Out Against Alexander In 333 And Surren Dered To Him At Last By Arrangement. ...

Celandine
Celandine (chelidonium Majus), A Common British Plant, A Member Of The Poppy Family (papaveraceae), An Erect Branched Herb From 1 To 2 Ft. High With A Yellow Juice, Much Divided Leaves And Yellow Flowers Nearly An Inch Across, Suc Ceeded By A Narrow, Thin Pod Opening By A Pair Of ...

Celano
Celano, A Town Of The Abruzzi, Italy, Province Of Aquila, 73m. E. Of Rome By Rail. Pop. (1931) 7,041 (town) ; 10,854 (commune). It Is On A Hill Above The Lago Fucino, And Is Domi Nated By A Square Castle, With Round Towers At The Angles, Erected In Its Present ...

Celebes
Celebes (1), One Of The Four Great Sunda Islands In The Dutch East Indies. It Extends From I° 45' N. To 37' S. And From 118° 49' E. To 125° 5' E. From The Backbone Of The Island, Which Runs North And South, Three Long Peninsulas Project North-east, East And ...

Celery
Celery (apium Graveolens), A Biennial Plant (f Am. Umbel Liferae) Which, In Its Wild State, Occurs In England By The Sides Of Ditches And In Marshy Places, Especially Near The Sea, Producing A Furrowed Stalk And Compound Leaves With Wedge-shaped Leaflets, The Whole Plant Having A Coarse, Rank Taste And ...

Celestial Mechanics
Celestial Mechanics. That Branch Of Astronomy Known As Celestial Mechanics Dates Its Origin From 1687, The Year In Which Sir Isaac Newton's Epoch-making Work Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica Was Given To The World. Law Of Gravitation.—bef Ore This Date, Kepler's Three Laws Epitomized The Mechanics Of The Planetary System; The ...

Celestial Sphere
Celestial Sphere, The Imaginary Sphere Of Indefinite Radius On Which The Positions Of The Fixed Stars Are Defined By Their Directions Relative To An Observer At Its Centre. The Earth's Axis Meets The Celestial Sphere In Two Points, The Celestial Poles. (see Astronomy: Spherical.) ...

Celestine I
Celestine I., Pope From 422 T O 432. After His Triumph Over The Dissensions Caused By The Faction Of Eulalius (see Boniface I.) His Episcopate Was Peaceful. He Instructed Cyril, Bishop Of Alexandria, To Inquire Into The Doctrines Of Nestorius. To Extir Pate Pelagianism, He Sent To Britain A Deacon, ...

Celestine Ii
Celestine Ii., Pope In 1143-1144. Guido Del Castello, Born Of Noble Tuscan Family, Able And Learned, Studied Under Abelard And Became A Cardinal Priest. He Was Pope From Sept. 26, 1143 To March 8, 1144. He Removed The Interdict Which Innocent Ii. Had Employed Against Louis Vii. Of France. See ...

Celestine Iii
Celestine Iii. (giacinto Bobo), Pope From I191 To I198, Once Cardinal Deacon Of Santa Maria In Cosmedin, Became Pope On March 3o, I191. Henry Vi. Of Germany Forced The Pontiff To Crown Him Emperor, And Three Years Later Took Possession Of The Norman Kingdom Of Sicily; He Refused Tribute And ...

Celestine Iv
Celestine Iv. (godfrey Castiglione), Pope In 1241, Nephew Of Urban Iii. (1185-87), Was Archpriest And Chancellor At Milan, Before He Joined The Cistercians. In 1227 Gregory Ix. Created Him Cardinal Priest, And In 1233 Cardinal Bishop Of Sabina. Elected To Succeed Gregory On Oct. 25, 1241, He Died On Nov. ...

Celestine Or Celestite
Celestine Or Celestite, A Name Applied To Native Strontium Sulphate (srso,), Having Been Suggested By The Celestial Blue Colour Which It Occasionally Presents. It Is Usually Colourless, Or Has Only A Delicate Shade Of Blue. It Crystallizes In The Ortho Rhombic System, Being Isomorphous With Barytes (q.v.). The Cleavage Is ...

Celestine V
Celestine V. (st. Peter Celestine), Pope In 1294, Was Born Of Poor Parents At Isernia About 1215, And Became A Benedictine. Living As A Hermit He Attracted Other Ascetics Whom He Organized Into A Congregation Of The Benedictines Which Was Later Called The Celestines (q.v.). His Opuscula (naples, 1640) Are ...

Celestines
Celestines, A Religious Order Founded About 126o By Peter Of Morrone, Afterwards Pope Celestine V. (1294). It Was An Attempt To Unite The Eremitical And Cenobitical Modes Of Life. Peter's First Disciples Lived As Hermits On Mount Majella In The Abruzzi. The Benedictine Rule Was Taken As The Basis Of ...

Celibacy
Celibacy (lat. Caelibatus, From Caelebs, Unmarried), The State Of Being Unmarried, A Term Now Commonly Used In The Sense Of Complete Abstinence From Marriage ; It Originally Included The State Of Widowhood Also, And Anyone Was Strictly A Caelebs Who Had No Existing Spouse. From The Point Of View Of ...

Celina
Celina, An Incorporated Village In Western Ohio, U.s.a., On Grand Reservoir (or Lake St. Marys) ; The County Seat Of Mer 'this More Or Less Regular Sale Of Licences By Bishops And Arch Deacons Flourished From The Days Of Gregory Vii. To The 16th Century ; See Index To Lea, ...

Cell
Cell, Originally A Small Detached Room In A Building (lat Cella, A Small Room), Particularly A Small Monastic House (set Abbey) . Also Used For The Small Sleeping Apartments Of The Monks Or The Small Dwelling Of A Hermit. This Use Still Survives In The Small Separate Chambers In A ...

Cella
Cella, In Architecture, The Latin Name For The Enclosed Por Tion Of A Roman Temple, Corre Sponding With The Naos Of The Greek Temple, Or Any Similar Structure, Whether Of A Temple Or Other Building. ...

Cellaret
Cellaret (i.e., Little Lar), Strictly That Portion Of A Sideboard Which Is Used For Holding Bottles And Decanters. Times It Is A Drawer, Divided Into Compartments Lined With Zinc, And Sometimes A Cupboard, But Still An Integral Part Of The Board. In The Latter Part Of The 18th Century, When ...

Celle
Celle, A Town Of Germany, In The Prussian Province Of Hanover, On The Left Bank Of The Navigable Aller, Near Its Junc Tion With The Fuse And The Lachte, 23 M. N.e. Of Hanover. Pop. 27,715. Founded In 1292, The Town Was The Residence Of The Dukes Of Liineburg-celle, A ...

Celluloid
Celluloid. This Artificial Substance, Known Also As Arti Ficial Ivory And Xylonite, Is A Compressed, Solid Solution Of Nitrated Cellulose In Camphor Or A Camphor Substitute. It Is Colourless Or Slightly Yellow, Transparent In Thin Sheets, And Capable Of Being Stained With The Most Delicate Colours, Which Permeate Its Entire ...

Cellulose
Cellulose. The Main Ingredient Of The Membranous Cell Walls Of Plants, Which In The More Advanced Stages Of Develop Ment Assume Elongated Shapes And Become Tubular And Fibrous. In The Plant Structure Cellulose Is Always Accompanied By Other Substances In Intimate Association, As Incrustants, From Which It Can Be Freed ...

Celsus
Celsus (c. A.d. 178), An Eclectic Platonist And Opponent Of Christianity Known Mainly Through The Reputation Of His Work, The True Word (or Account; Ax R1ot S Xh Yos), Brought To Light In 248 By Origen Who In His Against Celsus Quotes, Paraphrases And Reproduces About Nine-tenths Of It. On ...

Celt Or Kelt
Celt Or Kelt, The Generic Name Of An Ancient People, The Bulk Of Whom Inhabited The Central And Western Parts Of Europe. (for The Sense Of A Primitive Stone Tool, See The Separate Article, Celt.) Much Confusion Has Arisen From The Inaccurate Use Of The Terms "celt" And "celtic." It ...

Celt
Celt (kelt, Also Selt), As Once Used By British And French Archaeologists, Described The Hatchets, Adzes Or Chisels Of Chipped Or Shaped Stone Used By Primitive Man. The Word Is Variously Derived From The Welsh Cellt, A Flintstone (the Material Of Which The Weapons Are Chiefly Made, Though Celts Of ...

Celtiberia
Celtiberia, A Term Used By Greek And Roman Writers To Denote Sometimes The Whole North-east Of Spain, And Some Times The North-east Part Of The Central Plateau. The Latter Was The Correct Use. The Celtiberi Were The Most War-like People In Spain, And For A Long Time Offered A Stubborn ...

Celtic Languages
Celtic Languages. The Celtic Languages Form One Group Of The Indo-european Family Of Languages, Intermediate Between The Italic And Teutonic Groups, But Distinguished From These And Other Branches Of The Family By Certain Well-marked Characteristics, The Most Notable Of Which Are The Loss Of Initial And Inter-vocalic P, And The ...

Celtium
Celtium Is The Name Given By G. Urbain And A. Dauvillier To The Element Of Atomic Number 72, For Which The Former Ob Tained Some Evidence From X-ray Spectra In 1911. Their Claim To Have Discovered This Element Was, However, Disputed By D. Coster And G. Hevesy (19 23) Who ...

Cembal Damore Or Cembal
Cembal D'amore Or Cembal D'amour, A Key Board Instrument Invented By The Famous Organ And Clavier Maker, Gottfried Silbermann, Who Was Later So Prominently Iden Tified With The Earlier Pianofortes. It Was A Kind Of Clavichord With Strings Of Double The Usual Length, And Its Other Mechanism Modified To Correspond, ...

Cembalo Or Cimbalo
Cembalo Or Cimbalo, The Italian Names For A Dulcimer (cf. Cymbal) ; Whence, In Due Course, Clavicembalo For A Piano Forte, Otherwise A Keyed Dulcimer. Hence, Too, The Frequent Use Of "cembalo" In Earlier Days In The Case Of Pianoforte Music, The Word As Used In Such Cases Being Merely ...

Cement
Cement. The Word "cement" Apparently Was First Used Of A Mixture Of Broken Stone, Tiles, Etc., With Some Binding Ma Terial, And Later It Was Used Of A Material Capable Of Adhering To, And Uniting Into A Cohesive Mass, Portions Of Substances Not In Themselves Adhesive. The Use Of Cementing ...

Cementation
Cementation, A Metallurgical Term Which Describes Processes By Which One Substance Is, By Exposure To Great Heat In A Furnace, Caused To Interpenetrate And Change The Character Of Another. Although A High Temperature Is Employed, The Process Is Not One Of Melting Materials Together, But Of Combining Them Through Contact ...

Cemetery
Cemetery, Literally A Sleeping-place, The Name Applied By The Early Christians To The Places Set Apart For The Burial Of Their Dead. These Were Generally Extra-mural And Unconnected With Churches, The Practice Of Interment In Churches Or Church Yards Being Unknown In The First Centuries Of The Christian Era. The ...

Cenacle
Cenacle, The Term Applied To The Eating-room Of A Roman House In Which The Supper (cena) Or Latest Meal Was Taken. It Was Sometimes Placed In An Upper Storey. The Last Supper In The New Testament Was Taken In The Cenacle, In The "large Upper Room" Cited In St. Mark ...

Cenobites
Cenobites, Monks Who Lived Together In A Convent Or Com Munity Under A Rule And A Superior—in Contrast To Hermits Or Anchorets Who Live In Isolation (from Gr. «ocvos, Common, And F3ios, Life) . See Monasticism. ...

Cenomani
Cenomani (ken-b-mah'ne), A Branch Of The Aulerci In Gallia Celtica, Whose Territory Corresponded Generally To Maine (department Of Sarthe). Their Chief Town Was Vindinum, After Wards Civitas Cenomanorum (whence Le Mans). They Assisted Vercingetorix In The Great Rising (52 B.c.) With A Force Of 5,000 Men. Under Augustus They Formed ...

Cenotaph
Cenotaph, A Monument Or Tablet To The Memory Of A Per Son Whose Body Is Buried Elsewhere (gr. Kevos, Empty, Taos Tomb). The Custom Arose From The Erection Of Monuments To Those Whose Bodies Could Not Be Recovered, As In The Case Of Drowning. The Term Is Often Used Of ...

Censor I
Censor. I. In Ancient Rome, The Title Of The Two Roman Officials Who Presided Over The Census (from Lat. Censere, Assess, Estimate), The Registration Of Individual Citizens For The Purpose Of Determining The Duties Which They Owed To The Community. This Idea Of "discretionary Power" Was Never Entirely Lost; Although ...

Censorinus
Censorinus, Roman Grammarian And Writer, Flourished During The 3rd Century A.d. He Was The Author Of A Lost Work De Accentibus And Of An Extant Treatise De Die Natali, Written In 238, Dedicated To His Patron As A Birthday Gift And Dealing With The Natural History Of Man, The Influence ...

Censorship
Censorship In Modern Practice May Be Generally Defined As Action Taken By Any Governing Authority To Prevent The Dis Semination Of False Statements, Inconvenient Facts Or Displeasing Opinions Among The Governed (for Derivation And History See Censor Above) . ...

Census Method And Practice
Census Method And Practice Within The Essential Framework Of The Census System—house To-house Visitation Coupled With Enquiries—diversities In National Practice Are For The Most Part Of Little Moment. But In One Case, At Any Rate, A Question Of Method Is Also A Question Of Principle. Populations Are Represented In Some ...

Census
Census. In Modern Usage, Primarily Denotes The Periodical Survey Of The Number And Condition Of The People—more Fully Described As "census Of Population" Where Necessary To Distinguish It From The Census Of Production, Census Of Agriculture And Similar Institutions. ...

Cent
Cent. A Small Copper Or Bronze Coin. In The United States And Canada, It Is The One-hundredth Part Of A Dollar, Approxi Mately Equivalent To A British Halfpenny. In Holland The Guilder Is Divided Into One Hundred Cents. ...

Centaurea
Centaurea, In Botany, A Genus Of The Family Compositae, Containing About 600 Species, Almost All Natives Of The Old World, With The Principal Centre In The Mediterranean Region. The Plants Are Herbs With Entire Or Cut, Often Spiny-toothed, Leaves, And Ovoid Or Globose Involucres Surrounding A Number Of Tubular, Oblique ...

Centaurs
Centaurs (gr. Kevravpoi), In Greek Mythology, A Race Of Beings Part Horse, Part Man, Dwelling In The Mountains Of Thes Saly And Arcadia. The Centaurs Are Usually Said To Be The Off Spring Of Ixion And Nephele. They Are Best Known For Their Fight With The Lapithae, Caused By Their ...

Centaurus
Centaurus (the "centaur"), In Astronomy, A Southern Constellation (invisible In Northern Lands) Rich In Bright Stars And Globular Clusters. The Two Stars A, (3 Are Known As The Southern Pointers Since They Point To The Southern Cross. One Of These, A Centauri, Is The Third Brightest Star In The Sky, ...

Centaury
Centaury (erythraea Centaurium), An Annual Herb Of The Family Gentianaceae, With An Erect, Smooth Stem, Usually Branched Above, And A Terminal Inflorescence With Numerous Small Red Or Pink Regular Flowers With A Funnel-shaped Corolla. The Plant Occurs In Dry Pastures And On Sandy Coasts In Great Britain And Has Become ...

Centenary
Centenary, The Celebration Of An Event After A Hundred Years. The Word "centennial" (from Lat. Centennis, From Cen Turn, And Annus, A Year), Though Usually An Adjective As In "the Centennial State," The Name Given To Colorado On Its Admission To Statehood In 1876, Is Also Used As A Synonym ...

Centering
Centering, A Term Applied To The Erection Of Temporary Woodwork To Support Arches, Etc., While They Are Setting. Thus, In The Case Of An Arch, The Carpenter Forms A "turning-piece" Shaped To Take The Bricks Or Masonry, And Properly Tied And Braced. This Is Strutted In Position, When The Arch ...

Centerville
Centerville, A City Of Southern Iowa, U.s.a., 9om. N.w. Of Keokuk; The County Seat Of Appanoose County. It Is Served By The Burlington, The Rock Island And The Iowa Southern Utili Ties Railways. The Population In 193o Federal Census Was 8,147. Large Quantities Of Coal And Of Pure Gypsum Are ...

Centime
Centime. The One-hundredth Part Of A Franc, The Monetary Unit Of France, Belgium, And Switzerland, Is Termed A Centime. It Is From Lat. Centum, Hundred. In Italy The Hundredth Part Of The Lira Is Called A Centesimo; In Spain The Hundredth Part Of The Peseta Is Called A Centimo. (see ...

Centipede
Centipede, An Animal With A Distinct Head, One Pair Of Feelers (antennae) And A Long Segmented Body, Each Typical Seg Ment' Of Which Is Provided With A Single Pair Of Walking Legs. The Centipedes Form In The Phylum Arthropoda (q.v.), The Dis Tinct Class Chilopoda In Which Well Defined Subdivisions ...

Cento
Cento, A Composition Made Up By Collecting Passages From Various Works. The Byzantine Greeks Manufactured Several Out Of The Poems Of Homer, Among Which May Be Mentioned The Life Of Christ By The Famous Empress Eudoxia, And A Version Of The Biblical History Of Eden And The Fall. The Romans ...

Central America
Central America, Geographically That Portion Of The American Continent Lying Between The Isthmus Of Tehuantepec In Mexico, And The Isthmus Of Panama, Or Darien, In The Republic Of Panama; Politically, The Five Republics Of Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Salvador And Guatemala, And The British Crown Colony Of Belize, Or British ...

Central Bank
Central Bank. By A Central Bank Is Meant An Institu Tion Upon Which Has Been Conferred, By Law Or Custom, The Re Sponsibility For The Smooth Running Of The Credit And Currency System Of A Particular Area. Since This Task Means In Practice That All The Other Banks And Organizations ...

Central Electricity Board
Central Electricity Board. In 1925 A Com Mittee, Under Lord Weir, Was Appointed By The British Govern Ment To Review The National Problem Of The Supply Of Electrical Energy And To Report On Future Policy. Subsequently A Bill, Framed On The Main Lines Of The Committee's Recommendations, Was Passed Into ...

Central Falls
Central Falls, A City Of Providence County, Rhode Island, U.s.a., On The Blackstone River, 5m. N. Of Providence; Served By The New York, New Haven And Hartford Railroad. The Population In 1920 Was 24,174 Of Whom 9,456 Were Foreign-born White; In 1930 It Was 25,898. The River Furnishes Water-power For ...

Central India
Central India, A Collection Of Indian States Forming A Separate Agency, Which Must Not Be Confounded With The Central Provinces. The Central India Agency Was Formed In 1854 And Consists Of Two Large Detached Tracts Of Country Which, With Jhansi As A Pivot, Spread Outwards East And West Into The ...

Central Provinces And Berar
Central Provinces And Berar. The Central Provinces Of India Were Formed In 1862, And Were Augmented In 1903 By The Hyderabad Assigned Districts Of Berar, Which Are Leased In Perpetuity To The British Government By The Nizam, At An Annual Rent Of 25 Lacs Of Rupees. In 1905 Most Of ...

Central Schools
Central Schools. The Central School In England Is A Development Of The Primary School. It Is The Successor Of The Higher Standard, Higher Grade And Higher Elementary Schools, All Of Them Being, Like The Central School, Growths At The Top Of The Elementary School. It Differs From Them, However, In ...

Centralia
Centralia, A City Of Southern Illinois, U.s.a., About 6om. E. Of Saint Louis, In Marion And Clinton Counties. It Is On Federal Highway 51, And Is Served By The Burlington, The Illinois Central And The Missouri-illinois Railways. The Population Was 12,491 In 5920, And Was 12,583 In 1930 By The ...

Centralia_2
Centralia, A City Of Lewis County, Washington, U.s.a., On The Pacific Highway, About Half-way Between Seattle And Port Land. It Is Served By Four Transcontinental Railways : The Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul And Pacific, The Great Northern, The North Ern Pacific And The Union Pacific. The Population Was 7,549 In ...

Centre Board Or Drop Keel
Centre-board Or Drop Keel, A Drop Board Or Iron Plate Employed In The Smaller Kind Of Sailing Boats In Place Of A Fixed Keel; It Is Housed In A Trunk Or Casing So As To Be Capable Of Being Lowered Through The Boat's Bottom When Required To Give Stability, Or ...

Centumviri
Centumviri, An Ancient Court Of Civil Jurisdiction At Rome. The Word Is Derived From Centum, Hundred, And Vir, Man. The Antiquity Of The Court Is Attested By The Symbol And Formula Used In Its Procedure, The Lance (pasta) As The Sign Of True Owner Ship, The Oath (sacramentum), The Ancient ...

Centurioe
Centurioe, A Town Of Sicily, Province Of Catania, 2,38oft. Above Sea-level, 7m. N. Of The Railway Station Of Catenanuova Centuripe, Which Is 28m. W. From Catania. It Was Formerly Called Centorbi (anc. Kevrbpi/ra) Or Centuripae. Pop. (1921) 13,883 (town) ; 15,96o (commune). Thucydides Called It A Sicel City; It Allied ...

Centurion
Centurion (lat. Centurio), In The Ancient Roman Army, An Officer In Command Of A Centuria, Originally A Body Of A Hun Dred Infantry, Later The Sixtieth Part Of The Normal Legion. There Were, Therefore, In The Legion Sixty Centurions, Who, Though Theo Retically Subordinate To The Six Military Tribunes, Were ...

Century
Century, The Name For A Unit (centuria) In The Roman Army, Originally Amounting To Ioo Men, And For One Of The Divi Sions Into Which The Roman People Was Separated For Voting Purposes (see Comitia). The Word Is Applied More Particularly To A Period Of Ioo Years. The "century-plant" Is ...

Ceos
Ceos, An Island In The Aegean Sea (gr. Kews Mod. Zea Or Tzia), 14 M. Off The Coast Of Attica, In The Group Of The Cyclades And The Eparchy Of Syra. Its Greatest Length Is About 15 M. And Its Breadth About 8 M. Mount Elias In The Centre Is ...

Cephalic Index
Cephalic Index, The Percentage Of Breadth To Length In Any Skull. The Longer Diameter Of A Skull, The Antero-posterior Diameter Is Taken As Ioo; If The Shorter Or Transverse Diameter Exceeds 8o The Skull Is Broad (brachycephalic), If Between 8o And 75, It Is Mesaticephalic, And If Below 75, Dolichocephalic ...

Cephalonia
Cephalonia, The Largest Of The Ionian Islands On The West Side Of The Greek Mainland (ital. Ce F Alonia, Ancient And Modern Official Greek Cephallenia, Ke4axarlvia). Pop. (192o) 71,186. Its Length Is 31 M. And Its Breadth Varies From About 20 M. In The Southern Portion To Less Than 3 ...

Cephalopoda
Cephalopoda, A Group Of Highly Organized Invertebrate Animals Of Exclusively Marine Distribution Constituting A Class Of The Phylum Mollusca. Some 15o Genera Of Living Cephalopods Are Known, Of Which The Octopus, The Squid And The Cuttlefish (qq.v.) Are The Most Familiar Representatives. The Extinct Forms, However, Outnumber The Living, The ...

Cepheus
Cepheus, In Greek Mythology, The Father Of Andromeda (q.v.) ; In Astronomy, A Constellation Of The Northern Hemisphere. The Star 8 Cephei Is The Type Star Of A Class Of Variables Called Cepheids (see Star). It Was Discovered By Goodricke In 1785. The Period Is 5.37 Days And The Range ...

Cephisodotus
Cephisodotus, The Name Of A Near Relative, And Of The Son Of, Praxiteles, Both Sculptors Like Himself. The Former Must Have Flourished About 400 B.c. A Noted Work Of His Was Peace Bearing The Infant Wealth, Of Which A Copy Exists At Munich. Peace Is A Madonna-like Figure Of A ...

Ceram
Ceram, An Island Of The Dutch East Indies, In The Molucca Group. It Lies 3° S. And Between 127° 45' And 151° E., And Is Due East Of Buru, From Which It Is Divided By The Manipa Or Buru Strait, In Which Are The Islands Of Manipa, Kelang And Boano. ...

Ceramics Or Keramics
Ceramics Or Keramics, A General Term For The History And Art Of Making Pottery. (see Pottery And Porcelain.) ...

Cerargyrite
Cerargyrite, The Name Usually Applied By Mineralogists To Naturally-occurring Silver Chloride, Though Sometimes Taken To Include The Bromide And Iodide As Well, Or Mixtures Of Them. It Crystallizes Rarely In The Cubic System, But Usually Forms Horn Like Masses, Known To Miners As Horn-silver. It Is Very Soft, Being Easily ...

Ceratosaurus
Ceratosaurus, An Extinct Carnivorous Dinosaur Whose Remains Are Found In The Upper Jurassic Of Colorado. Like Its Relatives The Allosaurus And Tyrannosaurus (qq.v.), It Was Bipedal In Progression. The Single Species, C. Nasicornis, Reached A Length Of 20 Ft. And, As Its Name Implies, Was Distinguished By A Small Horn ...

Cerberus
Cerberus, In Greek Mythology, The Dog Who Guarded The Entrance To The Lower World. According To Hesiod (theog., He Was A 50-headed Monster, The Offspring Of Typhon And Echidna. He Was Variously Represented With One, Two, Or (usually) Three Heads, Often With The Tail Of A Snake Or With Snakes ...

Cerdonians
Cerdonians, A Gnostic Sect, Founded By Cerdo, A Syrian, Who Came To Rome About 137, But Concerning Whose History Little Is Known. Most Of What The Fathers Narrate Of Cerdo's Tenets Has Probably Been Transferred To Him From His Famous Pupil Marcion; Like Whom He Is Said To Have Rejected ...

Cereals In Diet
Cereals In Diet Wheat Is The Most Important Cereal And Supplies The Best Flour For Bread And Pastry-making; It Also Furnishes Semolina (see Flour; Bread; Pastry; Semolina). Rye Though Widely Used In Russia, Germany And France For Bread-making (pumpernickel) Is Less Suitable For Flour (see Rye). It Is, However, Widely ...

Cereals
Cereals. Barley And Wheat Are The Only Two Grain Foods That Philologically Deserve The Name Cereal. Oats, Maize, Rye And Perhaps Rice Were Discovered, Or At Least Took An Important Place, After The Word Cereal Was Coined. It Derives From The Very Pic Turesque Ceremonies, The Cerealia, By Which The ...

Ceremonial
Ceremonial. In The Military Sense The Prescribed Drill And Formations For Certain Specific Occasions Such As Parades, Reviews, Guard Duty, Funerals, Trooping The Colours And Lining Streets, As Distinct From Drill Applicable To Field Exercises. ...

Ceres
Ceres, Goddess Of The Growth Of Food-plants, Worshipped, Alone Or With The God Ceres, Over A Considerable Part Of Italy. (oscan Keri—; Probably Connected With Cre-are, Cre-sco;? "crea Tress") . Her Cult Was Early Overlaid By That Of Demeter, Who Was Widely Worshipped In Sicily And Magna Graecia, Cf. Demeter. ...

Cerignola
Cerignola, A Town Of Apulia, Italy, In The Province Of Foggia, 26m. S.e. By Rail From The Town Of Foggia. Pop. (1921), 36,01 7 (town) ; 38,591 (commune). It Was Rebuilt After A Great Earthquake In 1731. It Has A Considerable Agricultural Trade And Also Trade In Merino And Mattress-wool. ...

Cerigotto
Cerigotto, Called Locally Lius (anc. Aegilia Or Ogylos; Mod. Official Gr. Antikythera), An Island Of Greece, Between Cythera (cerigo) And Crete, About 20 M. From Each. The In Habitants Are Mainly Cretan Refugees, And In Favourable Seasons Export Wheat. It Was Long A Resort Of Pirates. Close To Its Coast ...

Cerinthus
Cerinthus (c. A.d. Ion), A Christian Heretic, Known To St. John. Hippolytus (hoer. Vii. 33) Credits Him With An Egyptian Training, But There Can Be No Truth In The Notice Given By Epiph Anius (hoer. Xxviii. 4) That Cerinthus Had Led The Judaizing Opposi Tion Against Paul At Jerusalem. According ...

Cerium
Cerium, The Commonest Metallic Element Belonging To The Rare Earth Group, Discovered In 5803 By Klaproth And Independ Ently By Berzelius And Hisinger. Cerium (symbol Ce, Atomic Number 58, Atomic Weight 140.2) Occurs Most Abundantly In The Minerals Monazite, Cerite And Allanite, Accompanied By The Other Members Of The Group. ...

Cerography
Cerography, The Art Of Painting In Wax; From The Gr. Kripos, Wax, And Ypa¢,elp, To Write. (see Encaustic Painting.) ...

Cerro De Pasco
Cerro De Pasco, A Mining Town Of Peru, Capital Of The Department Of Junin, 76' 16' W., Io° 43' S., 221 M. N.e. Of Lima By Rail, Via Oroya. Pop. (1926 Est.) 20,000, Altitude 14,167 Feet. In The Midst Of A Cold, Desolate Region Without Tree Or Shrub, Cerro De ...

Cerro Gordo
Cerro Gordo, A Mountain Pass, 60 M. N.w. Of Vera Cruz, Along The Naticnal Highway From The Coast To The Capital Of Mexico. At This Place, Maj.-gen. Winfield Scott. In His Ad Vance From The Gulf To Mexico City During The War Between The United States And Mexico (1846-48), Met ...

Certaldo
Certaldo, A Town Of Tuscany, Italy, In The Province Of Florence, 35m. S.s.w. By Rail And 18m. Direct From The Town Of Florence. Pop. (1931) Town, 9,532; Commune, 11,712. It Was The Home Of The Family Of Giovanni Boccaccio, Who Died And Was Buried Here In 1375. His House Of ...

Certificate Of Deposit
Certificate Of Deposit, A Written Receipt From A Bank Acknowledging The Deposit Therein Of A Certain Sum Of Money. Under Such Certificate, Money May Be Deposited Either On A Demand Basis Or A Time Basis, But In Either Case It Cannot Be Drawn Against By Cheque. To Withdraw Funds Deposited ...

Certificate Of Indebtedness
Certificate Of Indebtedness, A Term Used In The United States To Describe A Short-term Note Representing Floating Indebtedness. Corporations Frequently Borrow Large Sums For Short Periods, And As Evidence Of The Debt Give The Lenders These Certificates Of Indebtedness In Various Denominations. Where The Issuer Fails To Pay The Certificates ...

Certified Cheque
Certified Cheque, A Cheque Regularly Drawn Against A Depositor's Account In A Bank But Having Stamped Or Written On The Face The Word "certified" Or "accepted," Or The Phrase "good When Properly Indorsed," Or "good Through Clearing House," Or Some Other Expression Commonly Used, And The Signature Of A Bank ...