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Encyclopedia Brittanica

Volume 5, Part 1: Cast-Iron to Cole

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Cheese Industry In The
Cheese Industry In The United States There Are No Definite Records Of When Or Where Cheese Was First Made In The United States, But It Was Probably Very Early In The Development Of Colonial Agriculture. Cheese-making Was Well Tablished In European Countries When The New Settlers Came To America, And ...

Cheese
Cheese, A Food Product Made From The Milk Of Many Differ Ent Kinds Of Animals : It Is The Earliest Form Of Dairy Manufactur Ing. In General Cheese Consists Of The Essential Food Nutrients Of The Milk, Which Have Been Collected Into A Coagulum Or Curd, Either By Natural Souring ...

Cheetah Cheeta
Cheeta, Cheetah, Chita Or Hunting-leopard (cynae Lurus Jubatus), A Member Of The Family Felidae, Distinguished By Its Claws Being Only Partially Retractile (see Carnivora). The Cheeta Attains A Length Of 3 To 4 Ft.; It Is Of A Pale Fulvous Colour, Marked With Numerous Spots Of Black On The Upper ...

Chef
Chef, In French, A Chief Or Head Person ; In English-speaking Usage, The Head-cook In A Club Or Large Private Establishment, Or The Head Of The Kitchen Department In A Large Hotel Or Commercial Catering Organization. In General A Chef Is Responsible For The Conduct And Operation Of The Food ...

Chefoo
Chefoo, A Treaty Port On The Rocky North Coast Of The Shantung Peninsula In North-east China (37° 33' N., 121° 22' E) . The Port Is Naturally Sheltered By Outlying Islands And In Recent Years These Have Been Linked Up By Breakwaters To Form A Fully Protected Harbour. The Port ...

Chehalis
Chehalis, A City Of Washington, U.s.a., 25m. S. By W. Of Olympia, 4m. S. Of Centralia (q.v.) ; The County Seat Of Lewis County. It Is On Federal Highway 99, And Is Served By The Four Trans-continental Railways Which Serve Centralia, And Also By The Cowlitz, Chehalis And Cascade Railway. ...

Chekiang
Chekiang, The Smallest But One Of The Most Famous And Densely Peopled Provinces Of China, With An Area Of 36,68o Sq.m. And A Population Of 22 Millions. It Is The Most Northerly Of The Coastal Provinces Of South China And Is Situated Where The South West To North-east Ridges, So ...

Chellean
Chellean, The Name Given By The French Anthropologist G. De Mortillet To The First Epoch Of The Quaternary Period When The Earliest Human Remains Are Discoverable. The Word Is Derived From The French Town Chelles In The Department Of Seine-et Marne. The Chellean Epoch Was Interglacial, Warm And Humid As ...

Chelm
Chelm (russian Kholm), A Town Of Poland, In The Province Of Lublin, 45m. By Rail E.s.e. Of The City Of Lublin. It Was Founded In 1223 By Prince Daniel Of Volhynia. Here The Russian Government Suppressed The Uniate Church In The 19th Century. ...

Chelmno
Chelmno (german Kulm), A Small Town Of Poland, In The Province Of Pomorze (pomerania), 1m. E. Of The Vistula. It Is Surrounded By 13th Century Walls, And Contains Some Interesting Churches, Two Roman Catholic And Two Protestant, And A Mediae Val Town-hall. There Are Large Oil Mills And An Important ...

Chelmsford
Chelmsford, Market Town And Municipal Borough, And The County Town Of Essex, England, 3o M. E.n.e. From London By The L.n.e.r. Pop. (1931) 26,537. It Lies In The Chelmer Valley At The Confluence Of The Cann, And Has Communication By River With Maldon And The Blackwater Estuary 11 M. East. ...

Chelmsford_2
Chelmsford, A Town Of Middlesex County, Massachusetts, U.s.a., In The North-eastern Part Of The State, Adjoining The City Of Lowell. It Lies On Both Sides Of The Concord River, And Is Served By The New York, New Haven And Hartford Railroad. The Popula Tion In 1930 Was 7,022 Federal Census. ...

Chelsea Hospital
Chelsea Hospital. The Royal Hospital, Chelsea, To Give The Institution Its Full Title, Was Founded By Charles Ii. Tradition Has It That Nell Gwynne Moved The King To Build The Hospital, But It Is Probable That The Idea Originated With Sir Stephen Fox, Who Had Been A Paymaster General To ...

Chelsea
Chelsea, A Western Metropolitan Borough Of London, Eng Land, Bounded East By The City Of Westminster, North-west By Kensington, South-west By Fulham, And South By The River Thames. Pop. Its Chief Thoroughfare Is Sloane Street, Running South From Knightsbridge To Sloane Square. From Chelsea King's Road Leads West, A Commercial ...

Chelsea_2
Chelsea, A City Of Suffolk County, Massachusetts, U.s.a., On A Peninsula Between The Mystic And The Chelsea Rivers, Oppo Site The Charlestown And East Boston Districts Of The City Of Bos Ton, And Bounded On The North By The City Of Everett. It Has 3m. Of Water-front On Upper Boston ...

Cheltenham
Cheltenham, A Municipal And Parliamentary Borough And Watering-place Of Gloucestershire, England, With Railway Sta Tions On The L.m.s. And G.w. Railways. Pop. 49,385. The Town Is Well Situated In The Valley Of The Chelt, A Small Trib Utary Of The Severn, Under The High Line Of The Cotswold Hills To ...

Chelyabinsk
Chelyabinsk, A County And Town In The Uralsk Area Of The Russian S.f.s.r. The County Has An Area Of 27,68osq.km. Pop. (1926) 496,072, Entirely Rural Except For The Town Of Chel Yabinsk. It Is Dotted With Forest, Marsh And Lake, But 59.2% Is Under Cultivation (wheat, Oats, Rye, Millet, Peas, ...

Chelys
Chelys, The Common Lyre Of The Ancient Greeks (gr. Xays, Tortoise), Which Had A Convex Back Of Tortoise-shell Or Of Wood Shaped Like The Shell. According To Tradition Hermes Was Attracted By Sounds Of Music While Walking On The Banks Of The Nile, And Found That They Proceeded From The ...

Chemical Action
Chemical Action Is Said To Occur Whenever The Prop Erties Of A Substance Are So Completely Altered That We Are Entitled To Regard The Product As A New And Distinct Substance. In The Burn Ing Of Coal, For Example, A Combustible, Black Solid Is Chemically Changed By Union With The ...

Chemical Articles
Chemical Articles. The Main Article Chemistry Includes A General Survey Of The History Of Chemistry, And Also Deals Comprehensively With The Various Branches Of This Science; Viz., Inorganic, Organic, Physical And Analytical Chemistry. These And Their Practical Applications Are Treated In Fuller Detail In The Chemistry Articles Appearing In This ...

Chemical Combination
Chemical Combination Berthollet, The Most Distinguished Of Lavoisier's Colleagues, Was One Of The Group Who Drew Up The New System Of Chemical Nomenclature. He Considered He Had A Decisive Proof That Chlorine Contained Oxygen When He Had Shown That A Solution Of The Gas In Water Gave Off Oxygen When ...

Chemical Engineering
Chemical Engineering. The Branch Of Engineer Ing Which Relates To The "design, Construction, Erection And Opera Tion Of Industrial Plants In Which Matter Undergoes A Change Of State Or Composition." This Definition, Due To The Institution Of Chemical Engineers, Is Rather Broad But Logical. A Chemical En Gineer Should Possess ...

Chemical Equilibrium
Chemical Equilibrium Law Of Mass Action.—we Have Referred To The Observation Of Berthollet That The Concentration Of The Reactants Is Often Sufficient To Determine Whether A Given Reaction Or Its Reverse Will Take Place. In This Way We May Explain Why It So Often Happens That A Chemical Change Fails ...

Chemical Reaction Velocity
Chemical Reaction Velocity The Variation In The Speed Of Chemical Change And Its Depend Ence On The Nature Of The Reacting Substances Is Illustrated On The One Hand By The Almost Instantaneous Change (explosive Re Action) Which Transforms A Stick Of Dynamite Into Gaseous Prod Ucts, And On The Other, ...

Chemical Societies
Chemical Societies. For Pharmaceutical Societies, See Medical Societies. British Isles, London, Chemical Soc. (1841, Inc. 1848), Memoirs (1843, Etc.), Quart. Bourn. Etc.); Inst. Of Chem. (1877, Inc. 1885), Journ. And Proc. (1877, Etc.); Soc. Of Chem. Industry (1881, Inc. 1907), Journ.; Soc. Of Public Analysts (1874), The Analyst (1876, Etc.) ...

Chemical Warfare
Chemical Warfare. The Use Of Irritant And Poison Ous Substances To Diminish The Resistance Of An Opponent Is Prob Ably As Old As Organized Warfare. Thucydides Describes Two Instances Of The Use Of Burning Sulphur And Pitch In Sieges In The Peloponnesian War, And Throughout Classical Times And The Middle ...

Chemist
Chemist, One Who, For Pleasure Or Profit, Concerns Himself With The Acquisition Of Information Relating To The Composition Of Bodies And The Changes Of Composition Which They Undergo. The Chemist Traces His Evolution From The Greek Philosophers, Who Speculated Without Experiment As To The Constitution Of Mat Ter, Through The ...

Chemistry
Chemistry: Analytical) . 3o. Drying Oven. The Hole At The Top Carries A Cork Through Which A Thermometer Is In Serted. Material To Be Dried Is Placed (in A Suitable Con Tainer) On The Tray. The Holes In The Tray Allow The Sterns Of Funnels (holding Filter Paper) To Be ...

Chemistry_2
Chemistry. The Science That Is Concerned With The Com Position Of Bodies And With The Changes Of Composition They Undergo. Analytical Chemistry Deals With The Methods Of Separa Tion Of Purer Substances From Mixtures, Of Elements From Com Pounds, And With Their Estimation ; Synthetic Chemistry Treats Of The Methods ...

Chemnitz
Chemnitz, A Town Of Germany, In The Land Of Saxony, The Capital Of A Governmental District, 5o M. W.s.w. Of Dresden And 51 S.s.e. Of Leipzig. Pop. (1933) 350,657. Chemnitz (kaminizi) Was Originally A Settlement Of The Sorbian Wends And Became A Market Town In I143. Its Municipal Consti Tution ...

Chenab
Chenab, One Of The "five Rivers" Of The Punjab, India (the Greek Acesines). It Rises In The Snowy Himalayan Ranges Of Kash Mir, Enters British Territory In The Sialkot District, And Flows Through The Plains Of The Punjab, Forming The Boundary Between The Rechna And The Jech Doabs. Finally It ...

Chengtu
Chengtu, The Administra Tive Centre Of The Province Of Szechwan And The Regional Capi Tal Of West China, Situated 3o° 40' N., 104° E. In The North West Corner Of The Red Basin Of Szechwan There Lies A Smooth Plain Some 70 Miles By 4o, Whose Even Surface Contrasts Strongly ...

Chenille
Chenille, A Twisted Velvet Cord, Woven So That The Short Outer Threads Stand Out At Right Angles To The Central Cord, Thus Giving A Resemblance To A Caterpillar. Chenille Is Used As A Trim Ming For Dress And Furniture. The Word Is French And Means A Hairy Caterpillar. ...

Chenonceaux
Chenonceaux, A Village Of Central France, In The De Partment Of Indre-et-loire, On The Right Bank Of The Cher, 20 M. E. By S. Of Tours On The Orleans Railway. Pop. (1931) 162. Chenonceaux Owes Its Interest To Its Château, A Building In The Renaissance Style On The River Cher. ...

Chenopodium Or Goose Foot
Chenopodium Or Goose-foot, A Genus Of Erect Or Some Times Prostrate Herbs Of The Family Chenopodiaceae, Comprising Some 6o Species, Natives Of Temperate Regions, Some Of Which Have Cosmopolitan Distribution As Weeds. Of The Nine Species Found In Great Britain Practically All Are Naturalized In The United States And Canada. ...

Cheops
Cheops, In Herodotus, The Name Of The King Who Built The Great Pyramid In Egypt. Following On A Period Of Good Rule And Prosperity Under Rhampsinitus, Cheops Closed The Temples, Abol Ished The Sacrifices And Made All The Egyptians Labour For His Monument, Working In Relays Of 1 Oo,000 Men ...

Chepstow
Chepstow, Market Town And River-port Of Monmouth Shire, England, On The Wye, 2m. Above Its Junction With The Severn, And On The G.w.r. Pop. Of Urban District (193i) As The Key To The Passage Of The Wye, Chepstow (estrighorel, Striguzl) Was The Site Successively Of British, Roman And Saxon Fortifications. ...

Cheque Or Check
Cheque Or Check. A Cheque, In The Simple Definition Of The English Law, "is A Bill Of Exchange Drawn On A Banker Payable On Demand." It Has Proved In Practice To Be A Credit Instrument Of Astonishing Usefulness. No One Could Have Foreseen That The Cheque Would Become The Chief ...

Chequers
Chequers. Chequers Court, Near Princes Risborough, Buckinghamshire, Became An Official Residence Of British Prime Ministers In 1921 Through The Generosity Of Its Owners, Lord And Lady Lee Of Fareham. The Estate Is About 1,5ooac. In Extent. Here Caractacus Had A Stronghold, Of Which The Earthworks Are Still Visible. "radulphus," Clerk ...

Cher
Cher, A Department Of Central France, Embracing The Eastern Part Of The Ancient Province Of Berry, And Parts Of Bourbonnais, Nivernais And Orleanais, Bounded North By The Department Of Loiret, West By Loir-et-cher And Indre, South By Allier And Creuse, And East By Nievre. Pop. (1931) 293,918. Area 2,819 Square ...

Cherat
Cherat, A Hill Cantonment And Sanatorium In The Peshawar District Of The North-west Frontier Province, India, 34m. S.e. Of Peshawar. It Is Situated At An Elevation Of 4,500 Feet. It Was First Used In 1861, And Since Then Has Been Employed During The Hot Weather As A Health Station For ...

Cherbourg
Cherbourg, A Naval Station, Fortified Town And Seaport Of North-western France, Capital Of An Arrondissement In The De Partment Of Manche, On The English Channel, 232 M. W.n.w. Of Paris On The Ouest-etat Railway. Pop. (1931) 32,587. Cherbourg Is Situated At The Mouth Of The Divette, On A Small Bay ...

Cherchel
Cherchel, A Seaport Of Algeria, In The Arrondissement And Department Of Algiers, 55 M. W. Of The Capital. Pop. 6,540. It Is The Centre Of An Agricultural And Vine-growing District, But Is Com Mercially Of No Great Importance. The Town Is Chiefly Noteworthy For The Extensive Ruins Of Former Cities ...

Cherepovetz
Cherepovetz, A Town And Province In The Leningrad Area (q.v.) Of The Russian Socialist Federal Soviet Republic. The Area Of The Province Is 47,623sq.km., And The Population (1926) 607,735, Mainly Rural. The Soil Is Mainly Of The Podzolized Bog Type Favourable To Tree Growth (see Russia, Soils) And 76% Of ...

Cheribon
Cheribon (tjerebon), A Residency Of The Island Of Java, Dutch East Indies, Bounded South By East Preanger And Ban Yumas Residencies, North-west And West By Indramayu Residency, North By The Java Sea, And East By The Residency Of Pekalongan: It Is Included In The Government Of West Java. Pop. (1930) ...

Cherimoya Or Cherimoyer
Cherimoya Or Cherimoyer (anon Cherimola), A Sub-tropical Fruit Of The Custard-apple Family (anonaceae), Sometimes Called Peruvian Custard-apple. It Is Probably Native To The Mountains Of Ecuador And Peru Whence Several Centuries Ago It Spread By Cultivation To Mexico, Central America And The West Indies; Later To The Hawaiian Islands, Mediterranean ...

Cherkasy
Cherkasy, A Town In The Shevchen (cherkassk) Area Of The Ukrainian S.s.r., 49° 25' N., 32° 3' E. Pop. (1926) 38,563. It Is Situated Near The Right Bank Of The Dnieper, At The South Eastern Termination Of A Patch Of Forest. It Has A Radio-station And Is On The North ...

Chernigov
Chernigov, A Town And County In The Ukrainian S.s.r. The County Has An Area Of 10,685 Sq.km., And Is Much Smaller Than The Former Chernigov Government. The Dnieper River Forms Its Western Boundary; Its Eastern Boundary Reaches Long. 32° E. In The North, But Towards The South Is Further West ...

Cherokee
Cherokee (cher'o-ke). This Tribe, Of Iroquoian Lineage, Is One Of The Largest In The United States. They Inhabited The Southern Alleghanies, Where The Carolinas, Georgia, Alabama, And Tennessee Adjoin. Their Name Seems To Be Of Muskogi Origin And To Mean "cave People." Encountered By De Soto In 154o, They First ...

Cherokee_2
Cherokee, A City Of North-western Iowa, U.s.a., On The West Bank Of The Little Sioux River, 6om. E.n.e. Of Sioux City; The County Seat Of Cherokee County. It Is A Division Point On The Illinois Central Railroad. The Population In 1930 Was 6,443. Cherokee Is The Trade Centre For A ...

Cheroot
Cheroot, A Cigar Made From Tobacco Grown In Southern India And The Philippine Islands. The Quality Of Cheroots Varies A Great Deal, But A Good Example Is Esteemed For Its Delicate Flavour. A Cheroot Differs From Other Cigars In Having Both Ends Cut Square, Instead Of One Being Pointed, And ...

Cherrapunji
Cherrapunji, A Village In The Khasi Hills District Of Assam. It Is Notable As Having The Heaviest Known Rainfall In The World. Its Annual Average Is 429in., But The Fall Varies Greatly; 905in. Were Registered In 1861 (366in. Falling In July), And Only 283in. In 1873. This Excessive Rainfall Is ...

Cherry Valley
Cherry Valley, A Village Of Otsego County, New York, U.s.a., In A Township Of The Same Name, 68 M. N.w. Of Albany. Pop. (192o) 728; (1930) Of The Township (192o) 1,400; (193o) 1,326. It Is Served By The Delaware & Hudson Railway. Cherry Valley Is In The Centre Of A ...

Cherry
Cherry. As A Cultivated Fruit-tree The Cherry Is Generally Supposed To Be Of Asiatic Origin, Whence, According To Pliny, It Was Brought To Italy By Lucullus After His Defeat Of Mithridates, King Of Pontus, 68 B.c. As With Most Plants Which Have Been Long And Extensively Cultivated, It Is A ...

Cherryvale
Cherryvale, A City Of Montgomery County, In South Eastern Kansas, U.s.a., Served By The Frisco, The Santa Fe And The Union Traction (electric) Railways. The Population In 193o Federal Census Was 4,251. It Is Surrounded By Rich Farmland, Lying Over Deposits Of Gas And Oil. Its Industries Include A Zinc ...

Chersiphron
Chersiphron, A Cretan Architect, The Traditional Builder (with His Son Metagenes) Of The Great Ionic Temple Of Artemis At Ephesus In The 6th Century B.c. Remains Of This Temple Were Found By J. T. Wood And Brought To The British Museum. A Fragmentary Inscription Supports The Statement Of Herodotus That ...

Cherso
Cherso, One Of The Three Major Islands Of The Quarnero Group, Which Lies Off The East Coast Of The Peninsula Of Istria. With The Adjacent Island Of Lussin It Was Transferred To Italy In The Settlement After The World War And Is Included In Venezia Giulia, While Veglia, The Third ...

Chersonesus Or Cherronesus Chersonese
Chersonese, Chersonesus Or Cherronesus, A Word Equivalent To "peninsula" (gr. Xepcos, Dry, And Vijaos, Island). In Ancient Geography The Chersonesus Thracica, Cher Sonesus Taurica Or Scythica, And Chersonesus Cimbrica Correspond To The Peninsulas Of The Dardanelles, The Crimea And Jutland; And The Golden Chersonese Is Usually Identified With The Peninsula ...

Chert
Chert, In Geology, A Rock Consisting Mainly Of Silica In A Finely Granular Or Chalcedonic Form, Closely Allied To Flint (q.v.). Cherts Are Probably Formed In Several Different Ways; For Example, By Solution And Re-deposition Of The Silica Contained In The Spicules Of Sponges And Other Siliceous Organisms In Sedimentary ...

Chertsey
Chertsey, Urban District Of Surrey, England, 2 2 M. S.w. Of London By The S.r. Pop. (193j) 17,13o. It Is Pleasantly Situ Ated On The Right Bank Of The Thames, Which Is Crossed By A Bridge Of Seven Arches, Built Of Purbeck Stone In 1785. The First Religious Settlement In ...

Cherubim
Cherubim Are Winged Creatures Associated In The Old Testament With The Deity. The Name, Plural Of The Hebrew Kerub, Has No Hebrew Etymology, And Was Taken Over, With The Conception, From Older Sources. Similar Creatures Are Found In Other Oriental Religions. The Cherubim Who Guard Paradise (gen. Iii. 24) Are ...

Cherusci
Cherusci, An Ancient German Tribe Occupying The Basin Of The Weser To The North Of The Chatti (q.v.). Together With The Other Tribes Of Western Germany They Submitted To The Romans In 11-9 B.c., But In A.d. 9 Arminius, One Of Their Princes, Rose In Revolt, And Defeated And Slew ...

Chervonetz
Chervonetz, The New Russian Monetary Unit, Instituted In 1922 As Part Of The New Economic Policy. The Old Pre-world War Rouble Had, Owing To Heavy War Expenditure, The Military Communist Era Of 1917-22 And To Post-war Heavy Budget Deficits (balanced Deliberately By Fresh Note Emissions), Depreciated To Vanishing Point. When ...

Chesapeake And Delaware Canal
Chesapeake And Delaware Canal, In The United States, Connects Chesapeake City, Md., And Delaware City, Del., And Provides A Water Route Directly Across Delaware And Maryland From Delaware Bay To Chesapeake Bay. It Is 14 M. Long, 90 Ft. Wide And 12 Ft. In Depth. The Cost Of Construction Was ...

Chesapeake And Ohio Canal
Chesapeake And Ohio Canal, In The United States, Connects Cumberland, Md., With Washington, D.c., And Is Used Largely For The Transportation Of Coal From The Cumber Land Region To The Potomac River. It Has 73 Locks, Gaining An Elevation Of 609 Feet. The Cost Of Construction With Improvements Was About ...

Chesapeake And Ohio Railway
Chesapeake And Ohio Railway Company Is A Modern Day Development Of George Washington's Plan For A Transportation System To Connect The Waters Of Chesapeake Bay With The Ohio And Mississippi Valleys. Much Of Its Line Is Laid On The Original Route Of George Washington's Canal Companies And Other Parts Parallel ...

Chesham
Chesham, An Urban District And Market Town Of Bucking Hamshire, England, 26m. W.n.w. Of London By The Met. And G.c.r. Pop. (1931) 8,809. It Is Pleasantly Situated In The Narrow Valley Of The River Chess, Flanked By Low Wooded Chalk Hills. The Church Of St. Mary, Which Has Some Ancient ...

Cheshire
Cheshire, A North-western County Of England, Bounded North By Lancashire, North-east By Yorkshire And Derbyshire, South-east By Staffordshire, South By Shropshire, West By Denbigh Shire And Flint, And North-west By The Irish Sea. Area, 1027-8 Sq. M. The Coast-line Is Formed By The Estuaries Of The Dee And The Mersey, ...

Cheshunt
Cheshunt, An Urban District Of Hertfordshire, England, On The Lea, 16m. N. Of London By The L.n.e.r. Pop. (1931) 14,651. Finds Indicate The Presence Of A Romano-british Settlement. There Was A Benedictine Nunnery Here In The 13th Century. A Mansion In The Vicinity, The Great House, Belonged To Cardinal Wolsey, ...

Chesil Bank As
Chesil Bank (a.s., Ceosol, Pebble Bank), A Remarkable Beach Of Shingle On The Coast Of Dorsetshire, England. It Is Sep Arated From The Mainland For 8m. By An Inlet Called The Fleet, Famous For Its Swannery, And Continues In All For 18m. South Eastward From Near Abbotsbury, Terminating At The ...

Chess
Chess, Once Known As "checkers," A Game Played With Certain "pieces" On A Special "board" Described Below. It Takes Its Name From The Persian Word Shah, A King, The Name Of One Of The Pieces Or Men Used In The Game. Chess Is The Most Cosmopolitan Of All Games, Invented ...

Chest
Chest, A Large Box Of Wood Or Metal With A Hinged Lid. The Term Is Used For Many Different Kinds Of Receptacles ; And In Anatomy Is Transferred To The Portion Of The Body Covered By The Ribs And Breastbone (see Respiratory System). Chests As Articles Of Furniture Are Of ...

Chester
Chester, County Borough, City, And The County Town Of Cheshire, England, 16 M. S. Of Liverpool. Pop. (1931) 41,438. It Lies In A Low Plain On The Dee, Principally On The North (right) Bank, 6 M. Above The Point At Which The River Opens Out Into Its Wide Shallow Estuary. ...

Chesterfield
Chesterfield, A Market Town And Municipal Borough In The Chesterfield Parliamentary Division Of Derbyshire, England, 24 M. N. By E. Of Derby By Rail. Pop. (1931) 64,146. It Is Doubtful Whether It Was A Roman Station. Chesterfield (cestre Feld) Owes Its Present Name To The Saxons. It Is Mentioned In ...

Chesterton
Chesterton, A Parish And Suburb In The North-east Of Cambridge Borough, Cambridgeshire, England, On The River Cam. Pop. (1921) 11,61i. The Church Of St. Andrew Is Decorated And Perpendicular, With Remains Of Frescoes. The Cambridge Univer Sity Boat Club And The Various College Boat Clubs Have Boat-houses Along The River. ...

Chester_2
Chester, A City Of Delaware County, Pennsylvania, U.s.a., On The Delaware River, 13m. S.w. Of Philadelphia. It Is On Fed Eral Highway 13, And Is Served By The Baltimore And Ohio, The Pennsylvania And The Reading Railways. The Population In 1920 Was 58,030, Of Whom 11,292 Were Foreign-born White And ...

Chester_3
Chester, A City Of South Carolina, U.s.a., In The Foot-hills Of The Blue Ridge Mountains, 65m. N.w. Of Columbia; The County Seat Of Chester County. It Is On Federal Highway 21, And Is Served By The Carolina And North-western, The Lancaster And Chester, The Seaboard Air Line, And The Southern ...

Chestnut
Chestnut. This Word Is Used For The Common Name Of Trees Of The Genus Castanea (family Fagaceae) Or The Edible Nuts Of These Trees. The Term "sweet Chestnut" Is Used To Distinguish It From "horse Chestnut," An Entirely Unrelated Plant But Hav Ing Fruit That Resembles The Edible Chestnut. There ...

Chevalier
Chevalier, Literally, A Horseman. In Feudal Times The Term Was Equivalent To Knight (see Knighthood And Chivalry), And Later It Was Also Employed In France For The Cadets Of Noble Families, Where It Is Still Used For The Lowest Rank Of Certain Orders, As Chevalier Of The Legion Of Hanover. ...

Chevaux De Frise
Chevaux-de-frise, A Military Obstacle, Originating Apparently In The Dutch War Of Independence, And Used To Close The Breach Of A Fortress, Streets (french For "friesland Horses"; The Dutch Vriesse Ruyters, "frisian Horsemen," And German Spanisclie Reiter, "spanish Horsemen"), Etc. It Was Formerly Of Ten Used In Field Operations As A ...

Cheve System
Cheve System. A Method Of Teaching Music To Children In Wide Use In France. It Is Somewhat Akin To The Tonic Sol-fa System, Being Based, Like That, On The Principle Of A Movable Tonic, As Opposed To The Older "fixed Do" Method, But Employs Numerals For The Written Signs Of ...

Chevet
Chevet, In Architecture, The Entire Eastern Termination Of A Church Choir (q.v.), A Term Used Especially For Churches With Apses (q.v.) ; Also An Ambulatory (q.v.) From Which A Series Of Radiating Chapels Open. It Is A Distinctly French Development, Appearing In A Highly Organized Form In Many 12th Century ...

Cheviot Cloth
Cheviot Cloth.. A Woollen Fabric Made Originally From The Wool Of The Well-known Breed Of Cheviot Sheep, And Now Made From Other Types Of Wool. Cheviot Wool Possesses Good Spinning Qualities, Owing To The Staple Being Of A Fine, Soft And Pliable Character. The True Cheviot Type Of Fabric Has ...

Cheviot Hills
Cheviot Hills, A Range Forming About 35 M. Of The Border Between England And Scotland. The Boundary Generally Follows The Line Of Greatest Elevation, But As The Slope Is More Gradual Southward Than Northward The Larger Part Of The Range Is In Northumberland, England, And The Lesser In Roxburghshire, Scotland. ...

Cheviot
Cheviot, An Incorporated Village Of Hamilton County, Ohio, U.s.a., 6m. W. By N. Of Cincinnati, On The Chesapeake And Ohio Railway. In 1910 The Population Was 1,930; In 1920, 4,108 (92% Native White) ; And In 1930 It Was 8,046 By The Federal Census. It Is Primarily A Residential Suburb. ...

Chevron
Chevron, Any Ornament Formed Of Two Slanting Lines Meeting At An Angle. In Heraldry It Is A Bent Bar. It Is Also One Of The Most Common Distinguishing Marks For Military And Naval Uniforms, Where It Is Placed On The Sleeves And Serves Either As A Mark Of Honour Or ...

Chevrotain Or Mouse Deer
Chevrotain Or Mouse-deer, The Representatives Of The Family Tragulidae. These Tiny Animals Are Not True Deer, But Constitute A Special Section Of Artiodactyles Known As Tragulina (see Artiodactyla). The Typical Genus Tragulus, Which Is Asiatic, Contains The Smallest Representa Tives Of The Family, The Animals Having More Of The General ...

Cheyenne
Cheyenne. This Algonkin Tribe Of The Plains, In Minne Sota In The 57th Century, Drifted Gradually Westward Through South Dakota To Wyoming And Colorado, And Is Now On Reserva Tions In Montana And Oklahoma. Their Speech Is Much Closer Than Either Blackfoot Or Arapaho To The Central Algonkin Dialects, So ...

Cheyenne_2
Cheyenne (shi'en), The Capital Of Wyoming, U.s.a., And County Seat Of Laramie County ; Near The South-eastern Corner Of The State, On Rolling Plains East Of The Laramie Range, At An Alti Tude Of 6,058ft. It Is On Federal Highways 3o (the Lincoln), 85 And 185; Is Served By The ...

Chhatarpur
Chhatarpur, An Indian State In The Bundelkhand Agency Of Central India. Area 1,13o Sq.m. ; Pop. (1931) 161,267. The Chief, Whose Hereditary Title Is Raja, Is A Rajput Of The Pon War Clan, Whose Ancestor Dispossessed The Descendant Of Chhatar Sal, The Founder Of Bundelkhand Independence, Towards The End Of ...

Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh, A Division Of The Central Provinces Of India. Fifty Years Ago It Was The Most Remote And Isolated Quarter Of The Provinces, Being Shut Off By The Maikal Range From The Nagpur Division On The West And By Miles Of Hills And Forests In The Wilder States Bordering It ...

Chhindwara
Chhindwara, A Town And District In British India, In The Nerbudda Division Of The Central Provinces. The Town Is Situated On The Satpura Plateau About 2,000 Feet High. There Are Low Hills In The Neighbourhood And It Is A Pleasant Station With A Fairly Temperate Climate. The Extension Of The ...

Chiana
Chiana (anc. Clanis), A River Which Rises In The Apennines South Of Arezzo, Runs Through The Valley Of Chiusi, And After Re Ceiving The Paglia Just Below Orvieto, Falls Into The Tiber After A Course Of 6o Miles. In Roman Times It Often Caused Floods In The Valley Of Clusium. ...

Chiang Kai Shek
Chiang Kai-shek, Otherwise Chiang Chung-cheng (1886— ), Chinese General, A Native Of Ningpo, Province Of Chekiang. At An Early Age He Joined The Kuomintang And In 192o Became Head Of The Whampoa Military Academy, Then Lately Founded Under The Advice Of Michael Borodin, Unofficial Agent Of The Soviet Government. Under ...

Chiapas
Chiapas, A Pacific Coast State Of Southern Mexico On The Guatemalan Frontier, Bounded By The States Of Tabasco On The North And Vera Cruz And Oaxaca On The West. Pop. (1895) 318, 456,371; And (1930) 520,221, Largely Indians; Area, 27,222 Sq.m. Largely Forested. The Sierra Madre Crosses The Southern Part ...

Chiaroscuro
Chiaroscuro, The Disposition Of Light And Shade In A Painting (ital. Chiaro, Light, Oscuro Shade) ; The Term Is Applied To An Early Method Of Printing Wood-engravings From Several Blocks, And Also To A Picture In Black And White, Or Brown And White Only. It Has Also Come To Mean ...

Chiavari
Chiavari, A Town Near The Mouth Of The Entella, Liguria, Italy, Province Of Genoa, 24 M. S.e. By Rail From Genoa. Pop. (1921) 12,501, 14,739 (commune). It Is In A Fertile Plain Sur Rounded By Mountains Except On The South-west Where It Comes Down To The Sea. It Trades In ...

Chiavenna
Chiavenna (anc. Clavenna), A Town Of Lombardy, Italy, In The Province Of Sondrio, 17m. By Rail North Of Colico, Which Lies At The North End Of The Lake Of Como. Pop. (1921) 3,201 (town) ; 4,699 (commune). It Is On The Right Bank Of The Mera, At The Mouth Of ...

Chibchan
Chibchan, An Important Linguistic Stock Of South Amer Ican And Central American Indians. The Tribes To Be Included Within This Stock And Its Precise Geographic Limits Are Still Open To Discussion. Beginning With The Ulvan (q.v.) Tribes Along The Hon Duras-nicaragua Border Southward And Eastward Through Nica Ragua, Costa Rica ...

Chibchas
Chibchas, A Small Group Of Tribes Of South American In Dians, Occupying At The Time Of The Spanish Conquest The High Val Leys In The Vicinity Of Bogota And Tunja In Colombia. In Their Cul Ture The Chibchas And Other Related Tribes In The Vicinity Ranked Next To That Developed ...