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Encyclopedia Britannica

Volume 6, Part 2: Colebrooke to Damascius

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Croisette
Croisette, In Architecture, The Form Produced At The Outer Ends Of The Upper Part Of The Architrave Of An Opening Or Panel, When The Top Or Lintel Projects On Either Side Beyond The Width Of The Architrave Below. The Form Developed Through Primitive Construction In Which The Lintel Stone Was ...

Cromagnon Man
Cromagnon Man. The Discovery In 1868 In The Dor Dogne Area Of The Cromagnon Cave-near Les Eyzies-of Four Skeletons-associated With Aurignacian Culture-showed That A Tall People, With Large Skulls-larger Than Those Of Modern Man Had Lived In That Part Of France. Subsequent Research Has Shown That People Of This Type ...

Cromarty
Cromarty, Police Burgh, Parish And Seaport, Ross And Cromarty, Scotland. Pop. (1931) 1,232, Excluding Men Of The Royal Navy. It Is Situated On The Southern Shore Of The Mouth Of Cromarty Firth, 5 M. E. By S. Of Invergordon On The Opposite Coast, With Which There Is Daily Communication By ...

Cromer
Cromer, Urban District And Watering-place Of Norfolk, England, 24 M. N. Of Norwich On The L.n.e. And Mid. And G.n. Jt. Railways. Pop. Standing On Cliffs Of Consider Able Elevation, The Town Has Repeatedly Suffered From Ravages Of The Sea. A Wall And Esplanade Extend Along The Bottom Of The ...

Cromlech
Cromlech, A Megalithic Structure Consisting Of A Large Horizontal Capstone Supported On Uprights, Forming Part Of A Prehistoric Stone Chamber. In Britain The Word Is Practically Synonymous With Dolmen, While In France It Is Applied To The Collection Of Such Stones Usually Known As A "stone Circle" (see ...

Cromorne
Cromorne, Also Crumhorne, An Ancient Wind In Strument Of Wood In Which A Cylindrical Column Of Air Was Set In Vibration By A Reed. The Lower Extremity Was Turned Up In A Half-circle, And From This Peculiarity It Gained The French Name Tournebout. The Reed Of The Cromorne Was Not, ...

Crompton
Crompton, An Urban District Of Lancashire, England, 21 M. N. Of Oldham. Pop. Textile Industries (chiefly Spinning) Are Carried On, And There Are Coal Mines In The Vicinity. ...

Cronus
Cronus, An Ancient Deity, Not Much Worshipped In Greece, Probably Belonging To The Pre-hellenic Population (etymology Unknown; Ancient Explanation = Xpovos, Time, Impossible; Prob Ably Not Greek) . His Functions Are Connected With Agriculture; In Attica His Festival (kronia, Hekatombaion 12, I.e., Harvest Time) Resembled The Saturnalia (accius Ap. Macrob., ...

Crookes Tube
Crookes' Tube, An Early Form Of Gas Filled X-ray Tube Of The Focus Type Invented By Sir W. Crookes (fig. I) . Crookes' Tubes, The Name Given To Discharge Tubes Containing Gas At Low Pressure Similar To Those Used By Sir W. Crookes In His Experi Ments On Electrical Discharge ...

Crookston
Crookston, A City Of North-western Minnesota, On The Red Lake River, 18m. From The North Dakota Border; The County Seat Of Polk County. It Is On Federal Highways 2 And 75; Is Served By The Great Northern And The Northern Pacific Railways; And Has An Airport. The Population Was 6,825 ...

Crop Drying
Crop-drying. Artificial Methods Of Saving Crops, With Out The Risk Of Drying Them In The Fields, Have Long Been But The Endeavour To Dry Crops, Whether Of Hay Or Grain, By Arti Ficial Heat Was Not Seriously Attempted In Britain Till 1866, When Dyson's Apparatus Was Patented. In 1882 Mr. ...

Crop
Crop, The Ingluvies, Or Pouched Expansion Of A Bird's Oesoph Agus, In Which The Food Remains To Undergo A Preparatory Proc Ess Of Digestion Before Being Passed Into The True Stomach ; The Produce Of Cereals Or Other Cultivated Plants. The Term "white Crop" Is Used For Such Grain Crops ...

Crops
Crops. In Face Of The Immense Variety Of Crops Throughout The World, It Is Surprising How Uniform Are The Cultivated Farms Of Europe. Flying Across The Country You Look Down On A Suc Cession Of Rough Rectangles Of Ground, Some Of Permanent Grass, Some Sown With One Of The Four ...

Croquet
Croquet, A Lawn Game Played With Balls, Mallets, Hoops And Two Pegs (from Fr. Trot, A Crook, Or Crooked Stick). The Game Has Been Evolved, According To Some Writers, From The Paille-maille Which Was Played In Languedoc At Least As Early As The 13th Century. However That May Be, Croquet ...

Crore
Crore. An Anglo-indian Term For A Hundred Lakhs Or Ten Million. It Is In Common Use For Statistics Of Trade And Especially Coinage. In The Days When The Rupee Was Worth Its Face Value Of 2s., A Crore Of Rupees Was Exactly Worth A Million Sterling. The Hindustani Is Karor. ...

Cross River
Cross River, A River Of West Africa, Over 5oom. Long. It Rises In 6° N., Io° 3o' E. In The Mountains Of The Cameroons And Flows At First North-west. In 8° 48' E., 5° 50' N. Are A Series Of Rapids ; Below This Point The River Is Navigable For ...

Cross Springer
Cross Springer, In Architecture, The Block From Which The Diagonal Ribs Of A Vault Spring Or Start. ...

Cross
Cross And Crucifixion, An Instrument, And Method, Of Capital Punishment Widely Used In Ancient Times. It Is Doubtful Whether Crucifixion Was Employed By The Greeks ; The Romans, Who Inflicted It Only On Slaves And Criminals Of The Lowest Class, Probably Borrowed It From The Carthaginians, Among Whom Its Use ...

Crossbill
Crossbill, The Common Name Of A Genus (loxia) Of The Finch Family (fringillidae), Remarkable In That The Upper And Lower Sheaths Of The Bill Cross One Another Obliquely. This Is Cor Related With The Bird's Habit Of Feeding On Pine Seeds, The Formation Of The Bill Enabling It To Hold ...

Crossen
Crossen, A Town Of Germany, In The Prussian Province Of Brandenburg, On The Oder, 31 M. S.e. Of Frankfort-on-oder By Rail. Pop. (1925) 7,37o. It Was Founded In 1005 And Was Important During The Middle Ages As A Point Of Passage Across The Oder. It Attained Civic Rights In 1232 ...

Crosshead
Crosshead, The Joint Between A Piston Rod And A Con Necting Rod (q.v.) Constrained To Move So That The Piston Rod Travels To And Fro In A Straight Line And The Connecting Rod Oscil Lates About The Junction. (see Steam Engine.) ...

Crossword
Crossword. A Crossword Puzzle Consists Of A Diagram, Usually Rectangular, Divided Into Squares, Each Of Which, When Not Cancelled, Has Eventually To Contain A Letter Of The Alphabet ; And The Great Majority Of These Letters Form Part Of Two Words, One Running Downwards And One Across. Each Number In ...

Crotchet
Crotchet (from The Fr. Troche, A Hook; Whence Also The Anglicized "crochet," Pronounced As In French, For The Knitting Work Done With A Hook Instead Of On Pins), Properly A Small Hook, And So Used Of The Hook-like Setae Or Bristles Found In Cer Tain Worms Which Burrow In Sand. ...

Croto Or Croton Crotona
Crotona, Croto Or Croton (gr. Kporc.wv, Mod. Cotrone), A Greek Town On The East Coast Of The Territory Of The Bruttii (mod. Calabria), On A Promontory 7 M. N.w. Of The Lacinian Promontory. It Was Founded By A Colony Of Achaeans Led By Myscellus In 710 B.c. Like Sybaris, It ...

Croton Oil
Croton Oil, An Oil Prepared From The Seeds Of Croton Tiglium, A Tree Belonging To The Family Euphorbiaceae, And Native Or Cultivated In India And The Malay Islands. The Seeds Resemble Those Of The Castor-oil Plant, But Have Not Their Polished And Mottled Surface. The Kernels Contain From So To ...

Crotonaldehyde
Crotonaldehyde Is Formed From Aldol (see Alde Hydes : Aldolization) When The Latter Loses Water. Its Chemical Formula Is : Ch•cho, And On Oxidation It Passes Into Crotonic Acid, It Is Of Importance In The Manufacture Of Rubber (see Rubber: Production And Manufacture). ...

Croup
Croup, A Name Formerly Given To Diseases Characterized By Distress In Breathing Accompanied By A Metallic Cough And Some Hoarseness Of Speech. It Is Now Known That These Symptoms Are Often Associated With Diphtheria (q.v.), Spasmodic Laryngitis (q.v.), And A Third Disease, Spasmodic Croup, To Which The Term Is Now ...

Crouth Crowd
Crowd, Crouth, Crowth (welsh Crwth; Fr. Crout; Ger. Chrotta, Hrotta), A Mediaeval Stringed Instrument Derived From The Lyre, Characterized By A Sound-chest Having A Vaulted Back And An Open Space Left At Each Side Of The Strings To Allow The Hand To Pass Through In Order To Stop The Strings ...

Crow
Crow, A Siouan Plains Indian Tribe, Also Known As Absaroka. They Formerly Lived In The Drainage Of Yellowstone River And Numbered 3,000-4,000. In 1922 There Remained 1,800 On Their Reservation In Montana. Their Speech Resembles The Hidatsa (q.v.) , From Whom Their Separation Is Probably Not Ancient. See Frank B. ...

Crowberry Or Crakeberry
Crowberry Or Crakeberry (empetrum Nigrum), The English Name For A Low-growing Heath-like Shrub Belonging To The Family Empetraceae, Found On Heaths And Rocks In The British Isles And Across Northern Europe, Asia And North America And Also In The Andes. • It Has Slender, Wiry, Spread Ing Branches Covered With ...

Crowfoot
Crowfoot, The Name Applied To Several Species Of Ranun Culus, Most Of Which Are Better Known As Buttercups (q.v.). The Water Crowfoot (r. Aquatilis) Has A Floating Stem Bearing Finely-divided Submerged Leaves And Lobed Floating Leaves. The Flowers Are White. (see Also Ranunculus, Ranunculaceae.) ...

Crowland Or Cropland
Crowland Or Cropland, Market-town Of Lincoln Shire, England; In A Low Fen District, On The River Welland, 8m. N.n.e. Of Peterborough, Served By Branches Of The L.n.e.r. Pop. (1921) 2,707. A Monastery Was Founded Here In 716 By King Aethelbald, In Honour Of St. Guthlac Of Mercia (d. 714)• The ...

Crowley
Crowley, A City In South-western Louisiana, U.s.a. ; The Capital Of Acadia Parish. It Is On Federal Highway 90, And Is Served By The Missouri Pacific, The Southern Pacific And The Texas And Pacific Railways. The Population In 192o Was 6,108; In 193o, 7,656 By U.s. Census. Population Of Rural ...

Crown Debt
Crown Debt, In English Law, A Debt Due To The Crown. By Various Statutes—the First Dating From The Reign Of Henry Viii. (i S41 )—the Crown Has Priority For Its Debts Before All Other Creditors Even In Bankruptcy Proceedings. At Common Law The Crown Always Had A Lien On The ...

Crown Jewels Or Regalia
Crown Jewels Or Regalia Are The Visible Emblems Of Royalty Which Pertain To A Monarch. They Vary Greatly In Dif Ferent Countries Both In Significance And Value, But In European Countries A Crown, Generally Richly Jewelled, Is The Chief Of The Insignia Of Sovereignty. The Only Crown Jewels, Except The ...

Crown Land
Crown Land, In Great Britain, Land Belonging To The Crown, The Hereditary Revenues Of Which Were Surrendered To Parliament In The Reign Of George Iii. In Anglo-saxon Times The Property Of The King Consisted Of (a) His Private Estate, (b) The Demesne Of The Crown, Compris Ing Palaces, Etc., And ...

Crown Point
Crown Point, A Village Of Essex County, New York, U.s.a., In A Township Of The Same Name, About 9om. N.e. Of Albany And About Lam. N. Of Ticonderoga, On The West Shore Of Lake Champlain. The Population Of The Township In 1920 Was 1,413 ; In 1930, U.s. Census, 1,468. ...

Crown
Crown, An English Silver Coin Of The Value Of Five Shillings; Hence Often Used To Express The Sum Of Five Shillings. It Was Originally Of Gold And Was First Coined In The Reign Of Henry Viii. Edward Vi. Introduced Silver Crowns And Half-crowns, And Down To The Reign Of Charles ...

Crown_2
Crown And Coronet, An Official Or Symbolical Ornament Worn On Or Round The Head. The Crown At First Had No Regal Significance. It Was A Garland, Or Wreath, Of Leaves Or Flowers, Con Ferred On The Winners In The Athletic Games. Afterwards It Was Often Made Of Gold, And Among ...

Crow_2
Crow, A General Name For Several Birds Of The Genus Corvus, Of The Family Corvidae. It Is Applied Particularly In England To The Carrion Crow (c. Corone) And Hooded Crow (c. Cornix) And In America To The American Crow (c. Brachyrhynchos). The Cor Vidae Are The Most Highly Developed Family ...

Croydon
Croydon, A Municipal, County And Parliamentary Borough Of North-east Surrey, England, Suburban To London. Pop. (1891), 102,695 ; (1931), 233,115. The Borough Embraces A Great Resi Dential District. It Has F Our Stations On The Main And Branch Lines Of The S.r. It Stands Near The Sources Of The River ...

Crozet Islands
Crozet Islands, An Uninhabited Group In The Indian Ocean, In 46°-47° S. And 51° E., Belonging To Britain. They Are Mountainous, With Summits From 4,000-5,000f T. High And Include Two Groups—penguin Or Inaccessible, Hog, Possession And East Islands; And The Twelve Apostles. Like Other Islands In These Waters, They Appear ...

Crozier Or Pastoral Staff
Crozier Or Pastoral Staff (q.v.), A Crook-headed Staff Conferred On Bishops At Consecration And On Mitred Abbots At Investiture; Probably Derived From The Lituus Of The Roman Augurs, And So Called From O.fr. Crozier, Med. Lat. Crociarius, Crook-bearer. The "crook" Was Formerly Called "crozier's Staff," Afterwards Abridged To "crozier" (see ...

Crucial
Crucial, Having The Form Of A Cross, As The "crucial Liga Ments" Of The Knee-joint, Which Cross Each Other, Connecting The Femur And The Tibia (lat. Crux, A Cross) ; From Francis Bacon's Expression Instantia Crucis (from The Finger-post Or Crux At Cross Roads), Decisive, Finally Choosing Between Two Alternatives, ...

Crucible Cast Steel
Crucible Cast Steel. The Crucible Process, The Oldest Of The Four Leading Methods For The Manufacture Of Steel, And One Which Holds The Premier Position For Quality, Came Into Use In 1870 As The Result Of Experiments By Benjamin Huntsman, Who Attempted To Modify The Irregularity Of The Imported Blister ...

Crucieerae
Crucieerae, A Family Of Flowering Plants, Which Derives Its Name From The Cruciform Arrangement Of The Four Petals Of The Flower. It Is A Family Of Herbaceous Dicotyledons, Many Of Which, Such As Wallflower, Stock, Mustard, Cabbage, Radish And Others, Are Well-known Garden Or Field-plants. Many Are Annuals ; Among ...

Cruden
Cruden, Village And Parish On The East Coast Of Aberdeen Shire, Scotland. Pop. It Is Situated At The Head Of Cruden Bay, 29i M. N.n.e. Of Aberdeen By The L.& N.e.r. Branch Line From Ellon To Boddam. There Is A Fine Golf Course, Good Bathing And A Large Hotel, Connected ...

Cruelty
Cruelty Is The Disposition To Inflict Unnecessary Pain Or The Actual Infliction Of It. It Would Appear At The First Blush That Some Human Beings, Even Children, Have Such A Disposition. Dr. Pfister (the Psycho-analytic Method, 1915) Reports The Case Of A Boy Whom The Sight Of A Charming Kitten ...

Cruiser
Cruiser. A Fast And Well-armed Warship, Specially Designed For Two Main Functions: (a) To Guard The Sea Routes, (b) To Act As An Advance Guard Or Scouting Force For The Battle Fleet. The First Traces Of That Elaborate Classification Of Warships Into Types With Distinctive Functions Which Is Characteristic Of ...

Crusades
Crusades, The Name Given To The Series Of Campaigns Undertaken By The Christians Of Western Europe From I O96 To 1291 For The Recovery Of The Holy Land From The Mohammedans, So Called From The Cross Worn As A Badge By The Crusaders. By Analogy The Term "crusade" Is Also ...

Crusher Gauge
Crusher-gauge, An Instrument For The Indirect Meas Urement Of The Pressure In A Gun When Fired. Lead Is The Register Ing Agent For Shotguns, But Copper Is Used In Other Insthnces. The Original Type Was Screwed Into The Wall Of A Gun, And The Explosion Drove A Knife-edged Piston Into ...

Crustacea
Crustacea, A Very Large Division Of The Animal Kingdom Comprising The Crabs, Lobsters, Crayfish, Prawns, Shrimps, Sand Hoppers, Woodlice, Barnacles, Water-fleas And A Vast Multitude Of Less Familiar Forms That Are Not Distinguished By Any Popular Names. In Systematic Zoology They Are Ranked As One Of The Classes Forming The ...

Crustumerium
Crustumerium, An Ancient Town Of Latium, On The Edge Of The Sabine Territory, Near The Headwaters Of The Allia, Not Far From The Tiber. Rome Conquered It In 50o B.c. According To Livy, The Tribes Crustumina (or Clustumina) Being Formed In 471 B.c. Pliny Mentions It Among The Lost Cities, ...

Cryolite
Cryolite, A Mineral Discovered In Greenland By The Danes In 1794, And Found To Be A Compound Of Fluorine, Sodium And Aluminium. From Its General Appearance, And From The Fact That It Melts Readily, Even In A Candle Flame, It Was Regarded By The Eskimos As A Peculiar Kind Of ...

Crypt
Crypt, A Vault Or Subterranean Chamber, Especially Under A Church Floor. In Latin, Crypta Designated Any Vaulted Building Partially Or Entirely Below The Ground Level, Such As A Sewer (crypta Szcburae, Juvenal, Sat. V., 1o6) ; The Vaulted Stalls For Horses And Chariots In A Circus; Farm Storage Cellars (vitruvius ...

Crypteia
Crypteia, Secret Police In Ancient Sparta (gr. Kpvnrreiv Hide) Founded, According To Aristotle, By Lycurgus. The Institu Tion Was Under The Supervision Of The Ephors (q.v.), Who, On Entering Office, Annually Proclaimed War Against The Helots (see Helots), And Thus Absolved From The Guilt Of Murder Any Spar Tan Who ...

Crypto Porticus
Crypto-porticus, An Architectural Term For A Con Cealed Or Covered Passage, Generally Underground, Though Lighted And Ventilated From The Open Air. Such Passages Were Much Used By The Romans To Furnish Private Communication Between Vari Ous Buildings Of A Group, As In The Palace Of The Caesars In Rome, And ...

Cryptobranchus
Cryptobranchus, A Genus Of Aquatic, But Lung-breath Ing Tailed Amphibia, Of The Family Amphiumidae, Characterized By A Heavy, Flattened Build, A Porous Tuberculated Skin, With A Frilled Fold Along Each Side, Short Stout Limbs With Four Fingers And Five Foes, And Minute Eyes Without Lids. Three Species Are Known. One ...

Cryptomeria Or Japanese Cedar
Cryptomeria Or Japanese Cedar, A Genus Of Conifers, Containing A Single Species, C. Japonica, A Native Of Japan. It Is One Of The Finest Of Japanese Trees, Reaching A Height Of Ioo Or More Feet, Usually Divested Of Branches Along The Lower Part Of The Trunk And Crowned With A ...

Crystal Gazing Or Scrying
Crystal-gazing Or Scrying, The Term Commonly Applied To The Induction Of Visual Hallucinations By Concentrating The Gaze On Any Clear Deep, Such As A Crystal Or A Ball Of Polished Rock Crystal. Some Persons Do Not Even Find A Clear Deep Neces Sary, And Are Content To Gaze At The ...

Crystal Palace
Crystal Palace, A Well-known English Resort In The Neighbourhood Of Sydenham Just Outside The Southern Boundary Of The County Of London. The Building, Chiefly Of Iron And Glass, Was Designed By Sir Joseph Paxton (q.v.), And Was Originally Erected In Hyde Park For The 1851 Exhibition. It Was Enlarged And ...

Crystalline Form
Crystalline Form The Fundamental Laws Governing The Form Of Crystals Are:— I. Law Of The Constancy Of Angle. 2. Law Of Symmetry. 3. Law Of Rational Intercepts Or Indices. According To The First Law, The Angles Between Corresponding Faces Of All Crystals Of The Same Chemical Substance Are Always The ...

Crystallite
Crystallite, A Name Given By Vogelsang To The Micro Scopic Bodies Occurring In Many Glassy Igneous Rocks, Such As Obsidian, Pitchstone And Tachylyte. Though Possessing No Distinct Reaction On Polarized Light And Often No Recognizable Crystallo Graphic Form, They Are To Be Regarded As Incipient Crystals. The Larger Bodies, Often ...

Crystallization
Crystallization, The Art Of Obtaining A Substance In The Form Of Crystals. It Is An Important Process In Chemistry, Since It Permits The Purification Of A Substance Or The Separation Of The Constituents Of A Mixture. Generally A Substance Is More Soluble In A Solvent At A High Temperature Than ...

Crystallography
Crystallography, The Science Of The Forms, Proper Ties And Structure Of Crystals. Homogeneous Solid Matter, The Physical And Chemical Properties Of Which Are The Same About Every Point, May Be Either Amorphous Or Crystalline. In Amor Phous Matter All The Properties Are The Same In Every Direction In The Mass; ...

Crystalloid
Crystalloid Is A Substance Which Dialyses Through A Parchment Membrane. Dialysis Is A Process For Separating Col Loidal And Crystalline Substances. If A Salt Solution Be Placed In A Drum Provided With A Parchment Bottom, Termed A "dialyser," And The Drum And Its Contents Placed In A Larger Vessel Of ...

Csardas Or Czardas
Csardas Or Czardas (chardash), A National Dance Of Hungary, Distinguished Especially By Its Violent Alternations Of Tempo, So That It Is Now Wild And Furious, Now Slow And Restrained. ...

Ctenophora
Ctenophora, A Group Of Extremely Curious Marine Ani Mals, Mostly Pelagic, That Is, Frequenting The Open Sea. Their Dis Tribution Is World-wide. They Are Jelly-fish In The Popular Sense, But Their Structure Is Quite Unlike That Of The More Familiar Jelly Fish Belonging To The Phylum Of Animals Known As ...

Ctesias
Ctesias, Of Cnidus In Caria, Greek Physician And Historian, Flourished In The 5th Century B.c. In Early Life He Was Physician To Artaxerxes Mnemon, Whom He Accompanied (401) On His Expedition Against His Brother Cyrus The Younger. Ctesias Was The Author Of Treatises On Rivers, And On The Persian Revenues, ...

Ctesiphon
Ctesiphon, An Ancient City On The Left Bank Of The Tigris In 33° N. And 45° E., And About 25 Miles South-east Of Baghdad. The Site Is Famous For The Remains Of One Of The Most Magnificent Buildings In Mesopotamia, A Great Vaulted Hall Of The Sassanian Period. The Earliest ...

Cuba
Cuba (the Aboriginal Name), A Republic And A Member Of The League Of Nations, The Largest And Most Populous Of The West Indian Islands, Included Between The Meridians Of I4° 7' And 84° 57' W. Long. And (roughly) The Parallels Of 19° 48' And 23° 13' N. Lat. It Divides ...

Cube
Cube, A Regular Solid With Six Square Faces; That Is, A Regular Hexahedron. Since The Volume Of A Cube Is Expressed, In Terms Of An Edge, As In Arithmetic And Algebra The Third Power Of A Quantity Is Called The Cube Of That Quantity. That Is, Or 27, Is The ...

Cubebs
Cubebs, The Fruit Of Several Species Of Pepper (piper), Fam Ily Piperaceae. The Cubebs Of Pharmacy Are Produced By Piper Cubeba, A Climbing Woody Shrub Indigenous To South Borneo, Sumatra, Prince Of Wales Island, And Java. The Cubeb Is Culti Vated In Java And Sumatra, The Fruits Are Gathered Before ...

Cubicle
Cubicle, A Small Chamber Containing A Couch Or A Bed. The Rooms Opening Into The Atrium Of A Roman House Are Known As Cubicula. In Modern Usage, A Cubicle Is One Of The Small Sepa Rate Bedrooms Or Cells Into Which A Dormitory May Be Divided; Or Similarly Separated Space, ...

Cuckoo Pint
Cuckoo-pint, Called Also Lords-and-ladies And Wake-robin (arum Maculatum), The Only Plant Of The Arum Family (araceae) Indubitably Native To The British Isles. It Is Common In Woods And Hedgerows In England, But Probably Not Wild In Scotland. It Grows From A Whitish Root-stock, Which Sends Up In The Spring A ...

Cuckoo
Cuckoo, A Well-known Bird, Distributed During The Breeding Season Over Most Of Europe And Northern Asia ; In Many Languages Its Name Is Derived From Its Frequently Repeated Call. Its Abnormal Breeding Habits Have Made It The Subject Of Much Controversy Among Ornithologists. The Fact That It Was Parasitic On ...

Cucumber
Cucumber (cucumis Sativus), A Creeping Plant Of The Family Cucurbitaceae. It Is Widely Cultivated, And Originated Probably In Northern India. It Is An Annual With A Rough Succulent Trailing Stem And Stalked Hairy Leaves With Three To Five Pointed Lobes; The Stem Bears Branched Tendrils By Which The Plant Can ...

Cucurbitaceae
Cucurbitaceae, A Botanical Family Of Dicotyledons, Containing 90 Genera And About 75o Species, Found In The Tem Perate And Warmer Parts Of The Earth But Especially Developed In The Tropics. The Plants Are Generally Annual Herbs, Climbing By Means Of Tendrils And Having A Rapid Growth. The Long-stalked Leaves Are ...

Cudahy
Cudahy, An Industrial City Of Milwaukee County (wis.), U.s.a., On Lake Michigan, 6m. S. Of Milwaukee. It Is Served By The Chicago And North Western And The Milwaukee Electric Rail Ways. The Population Was 6,725 In 1920, Of Whom 2,455 Were Foreign-born White, And Was 1 0,63 1 In 1930 ...

Cuddalore
Cuddalore, A Town Of British India, The Administrative Headquarters Of The South Arcot District Of Madras, On The Coast 125 M. S. Of Madras By The South Indian Railway. Pop. (1931) It Lies Low, But Is Regarded As Exceptionally Healthy. The Principal Exports Are Sugar, Oilseeds And Cake, And Cotton ...

Cuddapah
Cuddapah, Town And District, British India, In The Madras Presidency. The Town Is 6 M. From The Right Bank Of The River Pennar, And 161 M. By Rail From Madras. Pop. (1931) 22,602. Once The Capital Of The Nawabs Of Cuddapah, It Is Now A Poor Place. Hills Rise On ...

Cuenca
Cuenca, A Province In Central Spain, Part Of The Ancient Kingdom Of New Castile. It Is Bounded On The North By Guadala Jara, North-east By Teruel, East By Valencia, South By Albacete, South-west By Ciudad Real, West By Toledo And North-west By Madrid. Pop. (1930) 309,526; Area, 6,636 Sq. Miles. ...

Cuenca_2
Cuenca, Capital Of The Spanish Province Described Above; I 25m. By Rail E. By S. Of Madrid. Pop. The Pic Turesque Old Town Of Cuenca Rises Like A Pyramid Up A Rugged Height, Crowned With A Castle, Which Is Separated From The Sur Rounding Serrania De Cuenca By The Deep ...

Cuenca_3
Cuenca, A City Am', The Capital Of The Province Of Azuay, Ecuador, About 190 M. S. Of Quito And 7o M. S.e. Of Guayaquil. Pop. (1926 Estimate) 30,000 (largely Indians), Including The Suburb Of Ejido. Cuenca Stands At The Northern End Of A Broad Valley, Or Basin, Of The Andes, ...

Cuesta
Cuesta, A Name Of Spanish Origin Principally Used In New Mexico For Low Ridges Of Steep Gradient On One Side And Gentle Slope On The Other. It Has Been Suggested As A General Term For Any Land Form Having A Steep Scarp Or "strike" Face, And Gently Inclined "dip" Slope. ...

Cuevas De Vera
Cuevas De Vera, A City Of South-east Spain On The Right Bank Of The River Almanzora, In The Province Of Almeria. Pop. (1920) 20,403. Cuevas De Vera Is Isolated By The Sierra De Los Filabres From The Railway System Of Almeria. It Is, How Ever, The Chief Market For The ...

Cuff
Cuff, The Lower Edge Of A Sleeve Turned Back To Show An Ornamental Border, Or With An Addition Of Lace Or Trimming; Now Used Chiefly Of The Stiff Bands Of Linen Worn Under The Coat-sleeve Either Loose Or Attached To The Shirt. "cuff," Meaning A Blow With The Hand Either ...

Cuirass
Cuirass (fr. Cuirasse, Lat. Coriaceus, Made Of Leather, From Corium, The Original Breast-plate Being Of Leather), The Plate Armour, Formed Of One Or More Pieces Of Metal Or Other Rigid Material Which Covers The Front Of The Wearer's Person (see Arms And Armour). In A Suit Of Armour It Was ...

Cuirassiers
Cuirassiers, A Kind Of Heavy Cavalry, Originally Developed Out Of The Men-at-arms Or Gendarmerie Forming The Heavy Cavalry Of Feudal Armies. Their Special Characteristic Was The Wearing Of Full Armour, Which They Retained Long After Other Troops Had Abandoned It. Hence They Became Distinguished As Cuirassiers. The First Austrian Corps ...

Cuisses
Cuisses, Plural Of Cuisse, French, Meaning Thigh And Re Ferring To The Mediaeval Plate Armour Worn On The Front Of The Thighs. ("i Saw Young Harry, . . . With Cuisses On His Thighs, Gallantly Armed" Henry Iv., Pt. I.—iv. I.) ...

Cujas Or
Cujas Or Cujac1us, Jacques (or As He Called Himself, Jacques De Cujas) (1520-1 S9o), French Jurisconsult, Was Born At Toulouse, Where His Father, Whose Name Was Cujaus, Was A Fuller. Having Taught Himself Latin And Greek, He Studied Law Under Arnoul Ferrier, Then Professor At Toulouse, And Rapidly Gained A ...

Culdees
Culdees, An Ancient Monastic Order With Settlements In Ireland And Scotland. It Was Long Imagined By Protestant And Especially By Presbyterian Writers That They Had Preserved Primi Tive Christianity Free From Roman Corruptions In One Remote Corner Of Western Europe, A View Enshrined In Thomas Camp Bell's Reullura. As Found ...

Culebra
Culebra, The Smaller Of Two Islands Lying In The Virgin Passage Immediately East Of Porto Rico And Known As The Islas De Passaje. It Is About 18 M. Distant From Cape San Juan And Rises From The Same Submerged Plateau With The Larger Islands Of The Antilles. Its Extreme Dimensions ...

Culion
Culion, A Municipality (with Administration Centre And 14 Barrios Or Districts) Oti The Island Of Culion In The Province Of Palawan, Philippine Islands. Pop. (1918) 4,868,, Of Whom Were Males; Only 18 Of The Total Were Whites. It Is The Leper Colony (founded 1906) And Its Inhabitants Are Gathered From ...

Cullen
Cullen, Royal And Municipal Burgh, Banffshire, Scotland. Pop. (1931) 1,688. It Is Situated On Cullen Bay, Iii- M. W. By N. Of Banff And 664 M. N.w Of Aberdeen By The L.n.e.r. Desk Ford Burn, After A Course Of 71 M., Enters The Sea At Cullen, Which It Divides Into ...

Cullera
Cullera, A Port Of East Spain, In The Province Of Valencia, On The Mediterranean Sea, At The Mouth Of The River Jucar, And The Terminus Of The Valencia-silla-cullera Railway. Pop. (193o) Cullera, At The Foot Of The Monte De Las Zorras, Which Terminate Eastward In Cape Cullera, And Dominated By ...

Cullinan
Cullinan, A Town In South Africa, 25° 43' S., 28° 34' E., Which Grew Up Round The Premier Diamond Mine, And Dates From 1903. It Is Connected By A Branch Railway (6 M.) With Ray Ton, On The Pretoria-delagoa Bay Line, And 24 M. E. Of Pretoria. Its Population Includes ...

Culloden
Culloden, A Tract Of Moorland In Inverness-shire, Scot Land. It Forms Part Of The North-east Of Drummossie Muir, And Is Situated About 6 M. By Road East Of Inverness, And 2 M. From Culloden Moor Station On The L.m.s.r. From Aviemore To In Verness Via Daviot. It Is Celebrated As ...

Culmination
Culmination, The Attainment Of The Highest Point (from Lat. Culmen. Summit). In Astronomy The Term Is Given To The Passage Of A Heavenly Body Over The Meridian Of A Place. Two Culminations Take Place In The Course Of The Day, One Above And The Other Below The Pole. The First ...

Culprit
Culprit, Properly The Prisoner At The Bar; So One Guilty Of An Offence. In Origin The Word Is A Combination Of Two Anglo French Legal Words, Culpable, Guilty, And Prit Or Prist, I.e., Prest, O.fr. For Pret, Ready. On The Prisoner At The Bar Pleading "not Guilty," The Clerk Of ...