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Encyclopedia Britannica

Volume 12, Part 1: Hydrozoa to Epistle of Jeremy

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Adoption
Adoption.) In The Same Direction As The Custody Of Children Act, 1891, And The Guardianship Of Infants Act, 1925, Is The Children Act, 1908, Whereby Considerable Powers Have Been Conferred On Courts Of Summary Jurisdiction. (see Children, Protective Laws.) There Is Not At Common Law Any Corresponding Obligation On The ...

Arthur Foley Winnington Ingram
Ingram, Arthur Foley Winnington (1858 ), English Divine, Was Born In Worcestershire On Jan. 26, 1858, And Educated At Marlborough College, And Keble College, Oxford. His First Curacy Was At St. Mary's, Shrewsbury, In 1884; In 1885 He Became Private Chaplain To The Bishop Of Lichfield And In 1889 Head ...

Articles On Insurance
Insurance, Articles On. The Following Deal With Insurance In Its Various Branches : Accident Insurance, Per Sonal; Agricultural Insurance; Credit, Insolvency Or Bad Debt Insurance; Engineering Insurance; Fire Insurance; Industrial Insurance; Insurance : An Introduction; In Surance, Miscellaneous : Burglary, Drivers' Policies, Fidelity, Guarantee, Plate Glass, Property Owners' Indemnity, Third ...

August Wilhelm Iffland
Iffland, August Wilhelm (1759-1814), German Actor And Dramatic Author, Was Born At Hanover On April 19, At 18 The Boy Ran Away To Gotha In Order To Prepare Himself For A Theatrical Career. He Was Taught By Hans Ekhof, And In 1779 Was Engaged At The Mannheim Theatre, Then Rising ...

Bacteriological Incubators
Bacteriological Incubators An Incubator Which Will Remain With O.5° C Of The Adjusted Temperature Gives Sufficiently Accurate Heat Regulation For All Ordinary Bacteriological Purposes. Bacteriological Incubators, Un Like Bird Incubators, Do Not Re Quire A Continuous Circulation Of Air Nor Is It Necessary To Pro Vide Any Arrangement To Moisten ...

Bank Buildings
Bank Buildings The Planning Of Modern Banks And Financial Institutions Involves The Many Mechanical Improvements That Affect Lighting, Ventila Tion And Control, And The New Inter-communicating Devices That Fa Cilitate The Rapid Transaction Of Business. Due Largely To Experi Ments Made By The Federal Reserve System Of The United States, ...

Batik
Batik.) Borobuclur.—borobudur ("many Buddhas") Is Wonderfully Situated On An Eminence Commanding An Extensive View Of Rice Fields And More Distant Towering Volcanoes ; It Is A Hill That Has Been Terraced And Clothed With Stone. It Is In Fact A Low Pyramid Composed Of Successively Receding Platforms With Re-entrant Angles. ...

Battle Of Ilipa
Ilipa, Battle Of, 206 B.c. This Was The Culminating Battle Of The Campaigns By Which Publius Cornelius Scipio (q.v.), Afterwards Named Africanus, Overthrew The Carthaginian Power In Spain, And Thereby Paved The Way For His Subsequent Campaign In Africa Which Ended In The Defeat Of Hannibal At Zama (q.v.) And ...

Battle Of Inkerman
Inkerman, Battle Of, Fought On Nov. 5, 1854, Be Tween A Portion Of The Allied British And French Army Besieging Sevastopol And A Russian Army Under Prince Menshikov (see Crimean War). This Battle Derives Its Name From A Ruin On The Northern Bank Of The River Tchernaya Near Its Mouth, ...

Bernhard Severin Ingemann
Ingemann, Bernhard Severin Danish Poet And Novelist, Was Born At Torkildstrup, Falster, On May 28, 1789. He Was Educated At The Grammar School At Sla Gelse, And Entered The University Of Copenhagen In 1806. All His Early And Unpublished Writings Were Destroyed When The English Burned The Town. In 181 ...

Board Of Inland Revenue
Inland Revenue, Board Of. The Period Follow Ing The English Revolution Of 1688 Is On Many Accounts Notable In The History Of British Public Finance. Taxation, In Particular, Under The Pressure Of War With France, Was Reorganized In Extent And Character. In 1689 The Excise Board Was Reconstituted. Stamp Duties ...

Burma
Burma Ruined Buildings And Sculptures Of A Gupta Type Have Been Found At Tagaung, Prome, Thaton, And Elsewhere. Further North, Remains Of The Old City And A Gateway Dating From The 9th Cen Tury Can Be Seen At Old Pagan. Amongst Other Structures Dating From The Loth Century At Pagan ...

Burmese Buddhist Law
Burmese Buddhist Law Burmese Buddhist Law, Which Is The Body Of Customs And Usages Of The Burmese, Has Its Sources In India, But Belongs To A Social System From Which Caste, Seclusion Of Women, Child Mar Riage, The Joint Family And Other Features Of The Hindu System Are Absent. It ...

Cambodia
Cambodia Pre-khmer Or Khmer Primitive.—the History Of Indian Architecture In South-eastern Asia Can Be Followed In Cambodia Better Than Anywhere Else; Here, Despite The Fact That With The Disappearance Of Wooden Architecture More Abundant Than That In Stone, The Sequence Is Relatively Complete. In The Khmer Prim Itive, Or Pre-khmer ...

Campa
Campa Eastern Indo-china, Now Annam, Once The Seat Of Great Cam Kingdoms, Must Have Been Hinduised At An Early Date, For We Find Traces Of Hindu Kingdoms Both In The North And South As Early As The End Of The Second Century A.d. All The Early, And Much Of The ...

Campaign Of Ilerda
Ilerda, Campaign Of (49 B.c.). On Dec. 17 Julius Caesar, The Leader Of The Democratic Party In The Second Civil War, Crossed The Rubicon And In Sixty Days Was Master Of Italy. As He Failed However To Shut Pompey Up In Brundisium, This Gen Eral Sailed For Dyrrachium. The Problem ...

Cense
Cense.) Probably Nowhere Can The Actual Historical Progress From The Primitive Use Of Animal Sacrifices To The Later Refinement Of Burning Incense Be More Clearly Traced Than In The Pages Of The Old Testament ; But In The Monuments Of Ancient Egypt The Authentic Traces Of The Use Of Incense ...

Change In A Fixed
Change In A Fixed Aggregate (b) The Method Generally Used In The More Objective Problem Of Measuring The Change Of Cost Of A Fixed Aggregate Of Goods Is As Follows : The Quantities Of Defined Commodities Which Are Produced Or Consumed In A Year, Or Exported Or Imported, Or Are ...

Charles Benjamin Incledon
Incledon, Charles Benjamin (1 English Singer, Son Of A Doctor In Cornwall, Was The Principal English Tenor Of His Day. He Sang Both In Opera And In Oratorio, But His Chief Popularity Lay In His Delivery Of Ballads, Such As "sally In Our Alley," "black-eyed Susan," "the Arethusa," And Others ...

Christian Ludwig Ideler
Ideler, Christian Ludwig German Chronologist And Astronomer, Was Born Near Perleberg On Sept. 21, 1766. He Became Professor At The University Of Berlin In 182i, And 18 Years Later Foreign Member Of The Institute Of France. From 1816 To 1822 He Was Tutor To The Young Princes William Frederick And ...

Class Insecta
Class: Insecta Sub—class: Apterygota* Primitively Wingless Insects With No True Metamorphosis. Abdom Inal Appendages Present Other Than Gonopophyses And Cerci. ...

Clement Mansfield Ingleby
Ingleby, Clement Mansfield English Shakespearian Scholar, Was Born At Edgbaston, Birming Ham, On Oct. 29, 1823, Studied At Trinity College, Cambridge, And Eventually Became Partner In The Business Of His Father, A Solicitor. But In 1859 He Came To London, Commenced Journal Ism, And From 1874 Devoted Himself Exclusively To ...

Commercial Buildings
Commercial Buildings Under This Heading Are Included All Buildings Designed For The Purchase, Sale, Exchange Or Transport Of Goods Or For The Work Involved In The Financing Of Businesses, Etc. In Former Times The Bulk Of Business Was Carried On Between Individuals And Their More Or Less Immediate Neighbours ; ...

Conference Of Hythe
Hythe, Conference Of, A Meeting (may 15 To 17 Between The British And French Prime Ministers, Together With The Chancellor Of The Exchequer And The French Minister Of Finance, In Preparation For The Conference Of Spa (see Spa, Conference Of). A French Proposal That France Should Be Granted Priority In ...

Constructive Phase Of Industrial
Constructive Phase Of Industrial Relations Since About 1910 A Movement Has Developed To Introduce Into Management Scientific And Professional Principles. One Of The First Points Was The Importance Of A Highly Co-operative Em Ployee Morale. It Is True That Many Aspects Of Personnel Man Agement May Have Been Introduced As ...

Cremation Bacteriology
Bacteriology, Cremation, Diet And Dietetics, Food, Tion, Heating, Housing, Industrial Welfare And Medicine, Mental Hygiene, Social Hygiene, Sewer Construction, Ventilation, Water, Etc. For General Principles Governing The Sanitary Well-being Of The Community See Public Health And Preventive Medicine. ...

During And Since The
Infantry Organization Before, During And Since The World War Up To 1913 The British Infantry Was Organized On A Radically Different Plan From That Of Other Armies, The Battalion Consisting Of Eight Companies. Then, However, A School Of Reform' Carried The Day In Spite Of Much Opposition. The Old "eight ...

Early European Settlements
Early European Settlements A Portuguese Expedition Under Vasco Da Gama Started From Lisbon In The Year 1497, And, Doubling The Cape Of Good Hope, Cast Anchor Off The City Of Calicut On The 2oth Of May 1498, After A Prolonged Voyage Of Nearly Eleven Months. Portuguese Expeditions.—after Staying Nearly Six ...

Early Mediaeval
Early Mediaeval Har§a : Nalanda.—harsavardhana In The First Half Of The Seventh Century Revived The Glories Of The Diminished Gupta Empire. He May Be Regarded As Responsible For The Restoration Of The Great Monastery At Nalanda, And For The Transition From Gupta To Mediaeval Art In Magadha Generally. He Also ...

Electrical Instruments
Instruments, Electrical. On Account Of The Great Extension Of Electrical Power Supply, Cable And Radio Teleg Raphy And Telephony, And Research, Electrical Measuring Instru Ments Have Become Extremely Numerous Of Recent Years ; And It Is Therefore Desirable To Preface A Description Of The Leading Types By A Short Summary ...

Elizabeth Inchbald
Inchbald, Elizabeth (1753-1821), English Novel Ist, Playwright And Actress, Was Born On Oct. 15, 1753, The Daugh Ter Of A Farmer, Joseph Simpson. She Left Home In April 1772 To Seek Her Fortune On The London Stage; Two Months Later She Married Joseph Inchbald, An Actor, And In September Made ...

Elsie Maud Inglis
Inglis, Elsie Maud (1864-1917), British Physician And Surgeon, Was Born At Naini Tal, India, On Aug. 16, 1864. After A Childhood Spent In India And Australia, In 1878 She Settled With Her Family In Edinburgh. She Studied At The School Of Medicine For Women In Edinburgh, And At St. Margaret's ...

English Furniture
English Furniture English Furniture Has Developed In The Course Of Many Years From A Few Primitive Types To Highly Specialized Varieties ; It Has Evolved Gradually With The Progress Of Civilization. So Little Survives From Mediaeval Times That Information Must Be Sought In Contemporary References, Supplemented By Representations In Illuminated ...

Experimental Embryology Regeneration In
Regeneration In Animals, Experimental Embryology.) Hitherto We Have Been Implicitly Considering The Organism As Stable; But In Reality No Organism Is At All Stable—even The Long Est-continued Adult Stage Is But Part Of A Changing Life-cycle. We Are Accustomed To Think Of Ourselves As The Same Individual Which We Were ...

Extent Of State Intervention
Extent Of State Intervention Conciliation And Arbitration.—conciliation And Arbitration Form An Important Part Of State Intervention In Every Country. In Great Britain Conciliation Or Arbitration Action Can Be Taken Only With The Consent Of The Parties. In Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Norway, Austria, Holland, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa (public ...

External Anatomy
External Anatomy Skeleton And Segmentation.—the Skeleton Of An Insect Is The Hard Part Which Resists Decay After Death And Forms The Dried Specimens Kept In Collections, And Also Those Parts Of Insects Found As Fossils. The Skeleton Is Mainly External And Is The Hard ...

Francesco Inghirami
Francesco Inghirami (1772-1846), A Distinguished Archaeol Ogist, Fought In The French Wars (1799), , And Afterwards Devoted Himself Especially To The Study Of Etruscan Antiquities. He Founded A College At Fiesole And Collected A Mass Of Valuable Material In His Monumenti Etruschi (io Vols., 182o-27), Galleria Omerica (3 Vols., 1829-5i ...

French India
India, French, A General Name For The French Posses Sions In India—on The Coromandel Coast, Pondicherry, Karikal And Yanaon; On The Malabar Coast, Mahe And Calicut ; And In Bengal, Chandernagore. There Are A Few "lodges" Everywhere, But They Are Merely Nominal Remnants Of French Factories. The Total Area Amounts ...

French Indochina
Indochina, French. The Geographical Denomina Tion Of French Indo-china Includes The Protectorates Of Annam, Tongking And Cambodia, The Colony Of Cochin-china And Part Of The Laos Country. In 1900 The Newly-acquired Territory Of Kwang-chow Bay, On The Coast Of China, Was Placed Under The Authority Of The Governor-general Of Indo-china. ...

Further India And Indonesia
Further India And Indonesia There Can Be Traced In Each Area, First Of All, An Indianesque Period, When The Local Art Is Closely Related To That Of India In Which The Forms Of Indian Art Were Reproduced, Then A Classical Period (a.d. 800-1200) In Which Local National Formulae Are Evolved ...

Gaius Iulius Hyginus
Hyginus, Gaius Iulius, Latin Author, A Native Of Spain (or Alexandria), Was A Pupil Of The Famous Cornelius Alex Ander Polyhistor And A Freedman Of Augustus, By Whom He Was Made Superintendent Of The Palatine Library (suetonius, De Gram- Maticis, 2o). His Numerous Works Included Topographical And Biographical Treatises, Commentaries ...

Gandhara
Gandhara Graeco-buddhist Sculpture.—the Prolific Graeco-buddhist School Of The North-west Frontier (afghanistan And Part Of The Panjab, Including Peshawar And The Site Of Taxila) Has Always Attracted The Attention Of Archaeologists. Its Subjects, As In Indian Buddhist Art, Are Drawn From The Buddha Legend, And We Meet With Countless Images Of ...

Gas Engine Progress
Gas Engine Progress Fuels Used By Gas Engines.—the Principal Are :—( I) Town's Gas; Often Styled "coal Gas." (2) Producer Gas. (3) Coke Oven Gas. (4) Blast Furnace Gas. (5) Natural Gas. For A Description Of These, See Fuel; Gas Manufacture; ...

Gas Engines
Gas Engines The Commercial Career Of The Gas Engine Began With Samuel Brown (1823 Onwards), Whose Design Operated On The Atmospheric Vacuum Principle ; Actual Brown "gas-vacuum" Engines Were Made And Sold, And In 1832 Were In Regular Service At Croydon, Soham, And Old Brompton; Brown Engines Were Also Fitted ...

George Inness
Inness, George (1825-1894), American Landscape Painter, Was Born Near Newburgh (n.y.), On May 1, 1825. Before He Was Five Years Of Age His Parents Had Moved To New York And Afterwards To Newark (n.j.), In Which City His Boy Hood Was Passed. He Would Not "take Education" At The Town ...

Greed Inscriptions
Greed Inscriptions (a) Religious.—i. Temples, Their Foundation And Adminis Tration.—a Temple Was Often A Kind Of Religious Corporation Under The Control Of The State ; And Its Accounts And Details Of Adminis Tration Were Made Public At Frequent Intervals, Usually Annually, By Means Of Inscriptions, Exhibited To Public View In ...

Greek Influence
Greek Influence Astronomy And Art.—the Brahman Astronomy Owed Much To The Greeks, And What The Buddhists Were To The Architecture Of Northern India, That The Greeks Were To Its Sculpture. Greek Faces And Profiles Constantly Occur In Ancient Buddhist Statuary, And Enrich Almost All The Larger Museums In India. The ...

Gupta Ad
Gupta A.d. 320–c. 600.—in Early Gupta Art The Spirit Is Still At The Height Of Its Vitality, But Maturer, More Intellectually Conscious, More Introspective ; At The Same Time The Expression Is Less Re Served. Gupta Art Is Characteristically Logical, Sophisticated, Gracious And Sensuous. Early Gupta Art Is Important In ...

Harold Le Clair Ickes
Ickes, Harold Le Clair ). Born At Frankstown, Pa. On March 15, Mr. Ickes Adopted Law As His Profession. For Many Years, He Was Active As A Progressive Re Publican In Chicago. During The War, He Was Active With The Y.m.c.a. In 1932—breaking Finally With The Republicanism Of Coolidge And ...

Heavy Oil Engines
Heavy Oil Engines The Success Of The Otto And Langen Engine, Described Above, And The Final Establishment Of Internal Combustion Engines On A Coln Mercial Basis By The Otto Silent Gas Engine Of 1876, Directed The Close Attention Of Many Engineers To Improving Further Such Engines Particularly In Relation To ...

Henrik Johan Ibsen
Ibsen, Henrik Johan (1828-1906) Norwegian Poet And Dramatist, Was Born At Skien On March 20, 1828. His Father, Knud Henriksen Ibsen, A Merchant, Was Of Mixed Danish, Ger Man And Scotch Blood ; His Mother, Maria Cornelia Altenburg Was A Norwegian, Of German Descent. When Ibsen Was Eight Years Old, ...

Henry Inman
Inman, Henry (1801-1846), American Painter, Was Born In Utica (n.y.), On Oct. 2o, 1801. Apprenticed To The Painter John W. Jarvis At The Age Of 14, He Left Him After Seven Years And Set Up For Himself, Painting Protraits, Genre And Landscape. He Was One Of The Organizers Of The ...

Henry Mayers Hyndman
Hyndman, Henry Mayers Founder Of British Socialism, Was Born In London On March 7, The Son Of A Wealthy Man. He Was Educated At Trinity College, Cambridge And Travelled Extensively. He Was Deeply Influenced By The Paris Commune And In 1881 Joined With Several Extreme Radicals In Forming The London ...

Hindu Law
Hindu Law The Acts Establishing Courts Of Civil Justice In The Various Provinces Enjoin That Hindu Law, Or Mohammedan Law, Or (in Burma) Buddhist Law Is To Be Applied To The Adherents Of Those Faiths In Such Matters As Succession, Inheritance, Marriage, Di Vorce, Dower, Guardianship, Minority, Family Relations, Caste ...

Hindu Period
Hindu Period The External History Of India May Be Considered To Begin With The Greek Invasion In 327 B.c. Some Indirect Trade Between India And The Levant Existed From Very Ancient Times. Homer Was Acquainted With Tin And Other Articles Of Indian Merchandise By Their Sanskrit Names ; And A ...

History Of The Loans
History Of The Loans Any Attempt To Trace In Detail The Development Of Inter-allied Borrowings, Of Which The Above Official Figures Represent The Pres Ent Position, Must Be One Of Great Difficulty. For A Considerable Part No Authoritative Information Has Been Made Available As To The Dates At Which These ...

Hospital Treatment Of Insanity
Hospital Treatment Of Insanity The Era Of Real Hospitals For The Insane May Be Said To Have Begun In The 19th Century, Although There Had Been Established Here And There In Different Parts Of The World Certain Asylums Or Places Of Restraint Before This Period. The Prevailing Idea Of The ...

Hydrozoa
Hydrozoa. The Hydrozoa (sometimes Called Hydromedusae) Are A Class Of Ani Mals, The Vast Majority Of Which Are Marine, And Which Belong To The Still Greater Assemblage Known As The Coel• Enterata (q.v.). The Hydrozoa Include Not Only Polyps, But Also Medusae Or Jellyfish (these Terms Are Defined In The ...

Hyena
Hyena, The Name Applied To Members Of The Family Hyaeni Dae, A Group Of Carnivora (q.v.) Distinguished By The Four Toes On Each Foot, The Comparative Length Of The Forelegs, The Non-retrac Tile Claws, And The Enormous Strength Of The Jaws And Teeth, Enabling Them To Crush Hard Bones. Three ...

Hyeres
Hyeres, A Town In The Department Of The Var In S.e. France, I I M. By Rail E. Of Toulon. Pop. (1931) 12,72o. The Town Of Hyeres Was Founded In The Loth Century, As A Place Of Defence Against Pirates, And Takes Its Name From The Wires (hierbo In The ...

Hygieia
Hygieia, In Greek Mythology, The Goddess Of Health. The Oldest Traces Of Her Cult, So Far As Is Known At Present, Are To Be Found At Titane In The Territory Of Sicyon, Where She Was Wor Shipped Together With Asclepius, To Whom She Appears Completely Assimilated, Not An Independent Personality. ...

Hygiene
Hygiene, The Science Of Preserving Health. The Subject Embraces All Agencies Affecting The Physical And Mental Well Being Of Man, And Requires Acquaintance With Physics, Chemistry, Geology, Engineering, Architecture, Meteorology, Epidemiology, Bacteriology And Statistics. On The Personal Side It Involves Con Sideration Of Food, Water And Other Beverages; Clothing; Work, ...

Hyginus
Hyginus (d. C. 14o), Eighth Pope. It Was During His Pon Tificate (c. 137-14o) That The Gnostic Heresies Began To Appear In Rome. See Liber Pontificalis Ed. Duchesne. ...

Hyginus_2
Hyginus (surnamed Gromaticus, From Gruma, A Sur Veyor's Measuring-rod), Latin Writer On Land-surveying, Flour Ished In The Reign Of Trajan (a.d. 98-117). Fragments Of A Work On Legal Boundaries Attributed To Him Will Be Found In C. F. Lachmann, Gromatici V Eteres, I. (1848) . A Treatise On Castrametation (de ...

Hygrometer
Hygrometer, An Instrument For Determining The Humid Ity Of The Atmosphere (gr. I Ypen, Wet, Js Pov, A Measure), An Instrument Which Determines The Humidity Changes Only Is Termed A "hygroscope." The Earlier Instruments Generally Depended For Their Action On The Alterations In The Length Of Substances When Exposed To ...

Hyksos Or Shepherd Kings
Hyksos Or "shepherd Kings," The Name Of The Earliest Invaders Of Egypt. Josephus (c. Apion. I. 14), Who Identi Fies The Hyksos With The Israelites, Preserves An Account Of Them From Bk. Ii. Of Manetho. According To It, In The Days Of King Timaeus, Egypt Was Invaded From The East ...

Hylas
Hylas, In Greek Legend, Son Of Theiodamas, King Of The Dryopians In Thessaly, The Favourite Of Hercules And His Com Panion On The Argonautic Expedition. Having Gone Ashore At Kios In Mysia To Fetch Water, He Was Carried Off By The Nymphs Of The Spring In Which He Dipped His ...

Hylozoism
Hylozoism, In Philosophy, A Term Applied To Any System Which Explains All Life, Whether Physical Or Mental, As Ultimately Derived From Matter ("cosmic Matter," Weldstoff) (gr. Dxn Matter, -w17, Life.) Such A View Of Existence Has Been Common Throughout The History Of Thought, And Especially Among Physi Cal Scientists. Thus ...

Hymen Or Hmenaeus
Hymen Or H\"menaeus. Originally The Refrain Of The Song Sung At Marriages Among The Greeks. As Usual, The Name Gradu Ally Produced The Idea Of An Actual Person Whose Adventures Gave Rise To The Custom Of This Song. He Occurs Often In Association With Linus And Ialemus, Who Represent Similar ...

Hymenoptera
Hymenoptera, The Term Used In Zoological Classification For That Order Of Insects Comprising Ants, Bees, Wasps, And Their Allies The Saw-flies. Gall-wasps And Ichneumon Flies. These Insects All Exhibit The Following Characters: (i) The Presence Of Two Pairs Of Stiff Membranous Wings Often With The Venation Reduced The Perfection Of ...

Hymettus
Hymettus, A Mountain In Attica, Bounding The Athenian Plain On The South-east (3,37o Ft.), Has Always Been Famous For Its Honey. The Spring Mentioned By Ovid (ars Amat. Iii. 687) Is Probably Near The Monastery Of Syriani Or Kaesariani On The Western Slope And Identical With That Known As Kvxxov ...

Hyogo
Hyogo, A Town And District Of Japan In The Province Of Settsu, On The Western Shore Of The Bay Of Osaka, Adjoining The Foreign Settlement Of Kobe, 21 M. W. Of Osaka By Rail. The Growth Of Its Prosperity Has Been Very Remarkable. Its Population, Including That Of Kobe, Is ...

Hyoscine
Hyoscine Is The Chief Of The Alkaloids (q.v.) Of Datura Metel, And Is Colourless Syrup, Soluble In Most Ordinary Solvents, And Yielding Crystalline Salts. (its Formula Is Of These The Hydrobromide, C17h2101n, Is That Generally Used In Medicine. It Forms Colourless Rhombs, Which Melt At 193— 194°c. Hyoscine Is Optically ...

Hyoscyamine
Hyoscyamine, One Of The Alkaloids (q.v.) Of Belladonna (q.v.). It Is The Chief Source Of Atropine (q.v.), To Which It Stands In The Relation Of Laevo-rotatory Optical Isomer, Being Converted To Atropine By Racemization (see Stereochemistry). It Crystallizes, Like Atropine, In Colourless Prisms, Has A Melting Point 108.5° C, A ...

Hypaethrus
Hypaethrus, An Architectural Term Used By Vitruvius For An Opening In The Roof To Admit Light. Alternative Forms Are Hypaethros And Hypaethrum. Many Students Of Greek Temples, Especially James Fergusson And T. J. Hittorff, Basing Their Con Clusions Upon The Vitruvian Reference To Such An Hypaethrus In The Temple Of ...

Hypatia Ad
Hypatia (a.d. 370?-415), Neoplatonic Philosopher, Born In Alexandria, Was The Daughter Of Theon, Author Of A Scholia On Euclid And A Commentary On The Almagest, In Which It Is Suggested That He Was Assisted By Hypatia. Lecturing In Her Native City, Hypatia Ultimately Became The Recognized Head Of The Neoplatonic ...

Hyperbola
Hyperbola, A Geometrical Curve; As First Conceived, Probably By Menaechmus (c. 35o B.c.), A Section Of An Obtuse Angled Circular Cone Made By A Plane Orthogonal To A Cone-ele Ment. About 2 20 B.c. Apollonius Generalized The Notion Into That Of A Section Of Any Circular Cone, Made By A ...

Hyperbole
Hyperbole, A Figure Of Rhetoric Whereby The Speaker Expresses More Than The Truth, In Order To Produce A Vivid Impres Sion ; Hence, An Exaggeration. ...

Hyperbolic Functions
Hyperbolic Functions: See Trigonometry. Hyperboloid, In Geometry, Either Of Two Open Centric Surfaces Of The Second Degree (conicoids, Quadrics). The Gen Eral Equation Of Such Centrics Takes The Form = I, Where A, B, C, May Have Four Orders Of Signs : + + + (ellip Soid), And — — ...

Hyperboreans
Hyperboreans, A Mythical People Intimately Con Nected With The Worship Of Apollo, Especially But Not Exclu Sively That At Delos ('tsrepi3opeoc, `tirepf30pecoc). Their Names Do Not Occur In Homer, But Herodo Tus (iv. 32) States That They Were Mentioned In Hesiod And In The Epigoni, An Epic Of The Theban ...

Hypereides
Hypereides (c. B.c.), One Of The Ten Attic Ora Tors, Was The Son Of Glaucippus, Of The Deme Of Collytus. Having Studied Under Isocrates, In 36o He Prosecuted Autocles, A General Charged With Treason In Thrace (frags. 55-65, Blass). At The Time Of The Social War (3 5 5) He ...

Hypergamy
Hypergamy. The Custom Of Hypergamy Forbids A Woman Of A Particular Group To Marry A Man Of A Group Lower Than Her Own In Social Standing. When, As In India, Severe Social Penalties Support This Rule, It Produces Serious Effects Upon The Social Order. It Allows Men To Marry Women ...

Hyperion
Hyperion, In Greek Mythology, One Of The Titans, Son Of Uranus And Ge, And Father Of Helios, The Sun-god (hesiod, T Iteog., 134, 371). The Name Is Often Used As An Epithet Of Helios, Who Is Himself Sometimes Called Simply Hyperion. Its Meaning May Be "son Of Hyperos"; I.e., Of ...

Hypersthene
Hypersthene, A Rock-forming Mineral Belonging To The Group Of Orthorhombic Pyroxenes. It Differs From The Other Members (enstatite And Bronzite) Of This Group In Containing A Considerable Amount Of Iron Replacing Magnesium; The Chemical Formula Is Distinctly Developed Crystals Are Rare, The Mineral Being Usually Found As Foliated Masses Embedded ...

Hypertrophy
Hypertrophy, A Term In Medicine Implying Increase In Size Of An Organ Or Component Tissue Of The Body, Where Such Enlargement Involves The Natural Elements Of The Part And Is Not The Result Of The Presence Of Some Extraneous Morbid Material. Thus, A Lung In Pneumonia, A Liver Full Of ...

Hypnotism
Hypnotism, A Term Involving All That Appertains To That Condition Of Artificial Sleep Known As Hypnosis Which Is Allied To Normal Sleep And Can Be Induced In Many Normal Persons. At All Times Individuals Have Fallen Into An Abnormal State Of Mind Resembling The Hypnotic State, Such A Condition Being ...

Hypocaust
Hypocaust, In Architecture, An Open Space Below A Floor To Allow The Passage Of Hot Air And Smoke, In Order To Heat The Room Above. This Type Of Heating Was Developed To A High Degree By The Romans Who Used It, Not Only In The Warm And Hot Rooms Of ...

Hypochondriasis
Hypochondriasis, A Medical Term, Given By The An Cients And Early Physicians To Derangements Of The Abdominal Viscera. It Is Not Now Used To Refer To Any Actual Disease But To A Morbid Mental Symptom Which Consists In An Undue Pre-occupa Tion In One's Own State Of Health With A ...

Hypostyle
Hypostyle, In Architecture, A Term Applied To Halls With Flat Ceilings Supported By Columns, Especially In Egyptian Work. A Hypostyle Hall Formed The Largest Room In Every Egyptian Temple. It Was Usually Placed Immediately Behind The Main Court And In Front Of The Small Rooms That Formed The Sanctuary. Such ...

Hyposulphite Of Soda
Hyposulphite Of Soda, The Name Originally Given To The Salt, Still In General Use By Photographers As A Fixing Agent, Known In Chemistry As Sodium Thiosulphate, One Mole Cule Of The Salt Crystallizes With Five Molecules Of Water. In Systematic Chemistry Sodium Hyposulphite Is A Salt Of Hyposulphur Ous Acid, ...

Hypothec
Hypothec, In Roman Law, The Most Advanced Form Of The Contract Of Pledge. A Specific Thing May Be Transferred To The Pos Session Of A Creditor On The Condition That It Is To Be Given Back When The Debt Is Paid; Or The Property In The Thing May Be As ...

Hypothesis
Hypothesis, In Ordinary Language, A Tentative Explanation, Supposition Or Assumption (from Gr. I Rorloevac, To Put Under; Lat. Suppositio, From Sub-ponere). Both In Ordinary Life And In The Acquisition Of Scientific Knowledge Hypothesis Is All-important. A Detective's Work Consists Largely In Forming And Testing Hypothe Ses. If An Astronomer Is ...

Hypotrachelium
Hypotrachelium, In Architecture, The Space Which Lies Between The Annulets Or Little Rings At The Bottom Of The Echinus Or Convex Portion Of The Greek Doric Capital, And The Topmost Stone Of The Column Shaft Proper. It Is Thus The Lowest Portion Of The Stone From Which The Capital Is ...

Hypsometer
Hypsometer, An Instrument For Measuring Heights (gr. I Height, /2 Tpov, A Measure), Which Employs The Principles That The Boiling-point Of A Liquid Is Lowered By Diminishing The Pressure (see Heat) And That The Barometric Pressure Varies With The Height Of The Point Of Observation. (see Meteorology.) The Instrument Consists ...

Hyracoidea
Hyracoidea, A Group Of Small Hoofed Mammals, Includ Ing The Biblical Cony. The Name Cony Or Coney Originally Referred To The Rabbit But Has Also Come To Be Used For The Related Pikas, And For The Present Quite Distinct Animals. There Is No Unambig Uous Popular Term For Members Of ...

Hyrax
Hyrax, The Name Given To Animals Of The Order Hyracoidea, Small, Plump, Almost Tail-less Beasts, Having A Hoof On Each Toe, Superficially Resembling Rodents But Forming An Order Of Their Own Of Doubtful Affinities. Here Belongs The "cony" Of The Bible. There Are Two Genera, Procavia, Which Comprises The Ground-liv ...

Hyrcania I
Hyrcania. (i) An Ancient District Of Asia, South Of The Caspian Sea, And Bounded On The East By The River Oxus, Called Virkana, Or "wolf's Land," In Old Persian. It Was A Wide And In Definite Tract. Its Chief City Is Called Tape By Strabo, Zadracarta By Arrian. The Latter ...

Hyrcanus
Hyrcanus (`tprcavos), A Greek Surname, Of Unknown Origin, Borne By Several Jews Of The Maccabaean Period. ...

Hyssop
Hyssop (hyssopus Officinalis), A Garden Herb Belonging To The Family Labiatae, Formerly Cultivated For Use In Domestic Medi Cine. It Is A Small Perennial Plant About 2 Ft. High, With Slender, Quadrangular, Woody Stems ; Narrowly Elliptical, Pointed, Entire, Dotted Leaves, About I In. Long And 1- In. Wide, Growing ...

Hystaspes
Hystaspes (the Greek Form Of The Persian Vishtdspa). (i) A Semi-legendary King (kava), Praised By Zoroaster As His Protector And A True Believer, Son Of Aurvataspa (lohrasp). The Later Tradition And The S/iahname Of Firdousi Make Him (in The Modern Form Kai Gushtasp) King Of Iran. As Zoroaster Probably Preached ...