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Encyclopedia Brittanica

Volume 4, Part 2: Brain to Casting

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Cadiz_2
Cadiz, Capital And Principal Seaport Of The Spanish Province Described Above ; On Cadiz Bay, An Inlet Of The Atlantic Ocean; 94m. By Rail South Of Seville. Pop. (1930) 75,769. Cadiz Is Built On The Low, Rocky Extremity Of A Narrow, Sandy Spit Projecting About 5m. Into The Sea, In ...

Cadiz_3
Cadiz, A Municipality (with Administration Centre And Io Barrios Or Districts) Of The Province Of Occidental Negros, Island Of Negros, Philippine Islands, On The North Coast, About 53 M. N.n.e. Of Bacolod, The Provincial Capital. Pop. (1918) 21,26o, Of Whom Only 15 Were Whites. In 1918 It Had Eight Manufactur ...

Cadiz_4
Cadiz, A Municipality (with Administration Centre And 34 Barrios Or Districts) And Capital Of The Province Of Capiz, Panay, Philippine Islands, On The Capiz Or Panay River, About 4 M. From Its Mouth On The North Coast. Pop. (1918) 22,022, Of Whom Only Ii Were Whites. Capiz Has Railway Connection ...

Cadmium
Cadmium, A Metallic Element, Showing A Close Relationship To Zinc, With Which It Is Very Frequently Associated; (symbol Cd, Atomic Number 48, Atomic Weight 112.41, Isotopes 114, 112, I I0, 113, Iii, I16). It Was Discovered In 1817 By F. Stromeyer In A Sample Of Zinc Carbonate Yielding A Yellow ...

Cadmus Of Miletus
Cadmus Of Miletus, According To Some Ancient Authorities, The Inventor Of History, Or Simply The Author Of Certain Letters Of The Greek Alphabet. Suidas Mentions Three Writers So Called, One Being "later" And Author Of A History Of Attica, Among Other Works. He May Be Real; But, As Dionysius Of ...

Cadmus
Cadmus, Son Of Phoenix Or Agenor, King Of Phoenicia And Brother Of Europa. Af Ter His Sister Had Been Carried Off By Zeus, He Was Sent Out To Find Her. Unsuccessful In His Search, He Came To Delphi, Where He Consulted The Oracle. He Was Ordered To Give Up His ...

Cadre
Cadre, A Framework Or Skeleton, Particularly The Perma Nent Establishment Of A Military Corps, Regiment, Etc., Which Can Be Expanded On Emergency. The Modern Tendency Is For The Cadre To Be Largely Composed Of Commissioned And Non-commis Sioned Officers Capable Of Filling Higher Grades On Mobilization, And Trained As Instructors ...

Caduceus
Caduceus (the Lat. Adaptation Of The Doric Gr. Kapi I
Caducous
Caducous, A Botanical Term For "falling Early," Applied, For Example, To The Sepals Of A Poppy Which Fall Before The Petals Expand. ...

Caecilius Statius Or Statius
Caecilius Statius Or Statius Caecilius, Roman Comic Poet, Friend Of Ennius, Died In 168 (or 166) B.c. He Was Born In The Territory Of The Insubrian Gauls, And Was Probably Taken As A Prisoner To Rome (c. 200), During The Great Gallic War. Originally A Slave, He Assumed The Name ...

Caecilius
Caecilius, Of Calacte In Sicily, Greek Rhetorician, Flour Ished At Rome During The Reign Of Augustus. Next To Dionysius Of Halicarnassus, He Was The Most Important Critic And Rhetorician Of The Augustan Age. Only Fragments Of His Works Are Extant, Among Which May Be Mentioned : On The Style Of ...

Caecina
Caecina, The Name Of A Distinguished Etruscan Family Of Volaterrae. Graves Have Been Discovered Belonging To The Family, Whose Name Is Still Preserved In The River And Hamlet Of Cecina. ...

Caedmon
Caedmon, The Earliest English Christian Poet. His Story Is Known To Us Only From Baeda (hist. Eccl., Iv. 24). He Was (see Bede) A Herdsman, Who Received A Divine Call To Poetry In A Dream. One Night, Having Quitted A Company Because, From Want Of Skill, He Could Not Comply ...

Caelia
Caelia, The Name Of Two Ancient Cities In Italy. (i) In Apulia (mod. Ceglie Del Campo) On The Road To Gnathia (q.v.), 5m. S. Of Barium. Coins Bearing The Inscription Katxivcov Prove That It Was Once Independent. (2) In Calabria (mod. Ceglie Mes Sapica) 25m. W. Of Brundusium, And 991 ...

Caelius Aurelianus
Caelius Aurelianus (fl. End Of 4th Century), Roman Medical Writer From Sicca In Numidia. His Writings On Chronic Diseases, His Quaestiones On Materia Medica And On Diseases Of Women Are Little More Than Latin Translations Of Soranus Of Ephesus (fl. C. A.d. . Caelius Is Chiefly Interesting For His Clear ...

Caelius Marcus Caelius Rufus
Caelius (marcus Caelius Rufus) (82?-48 B.c.), Roman Politician, Was Born At Puteoli On May 28, B.c. 82, The Son Of A Roman Eques Of The Same Name. (but See Nipperdey, Rheinisches Museum, Xix., 29o.) He Was Educated Under The Instructions Of Crassus And Cicero, And Was Constantly With Cicero During ...

Caen
Caen, A City Of North-western France, Capital Of The Depart Ment Of Calvados, 71 M. From The English Channel And 149 M. W.n.w. Of Paris On The Western Railway To Cherbourg. Pop. 50,872. The Castle, Founded By William The Conqueror And Completed By Henry I., Is Still Employed As Barracks, ...

Caere
Caere, An Ancient City Of Etruria (mod. Cerveteri, I.e., Caere Vetus), About 5m. From The Sea Coast And About 20m. N.w. Of Rome, Directly Reached By A Branch Road From The Via Aurelia. Ancient Writers Tell Us That Its Original Pelasgian Name Was Agylla, And That The Etruscans Took It ...

Caerleon
Caerleon, A Country Village In The Southern Parliamentary Division Of Monmouthshire, England, On The Right (west) Bank Of The Usk, 3 M. N.e. Of Newport. Pop. (1931) 2.326. Its Claim To Notice Rests On Its Importance As The Site Of The Roman Legion Ary Fortress Of Isca (not Isca Silurum), ...

Caerphilly
Caerphilly, Glamorganshire, Wales, 7m. From Cardiff, And 6m. From Pontypridd. The Origin Of The Name Is Unknown. It Was Formerly In The Ancient Parish Of Eglwysilan, But From That And Bedwas, Mon., An Ecclesiastical Parish Was Formed In 185o, While The Whole Of The Parishes Of Eglwysilan And Llanfabon Were ...

Caesalpinus
Caesalpinus (cesalpin0), Andreas Italian Botanist And Physician, Was Born In Arezzo In Tuscany In 1519. He Studied Anatomy And Medicine At The University Of Pisa, Where He Took His Doctor's Degree In 1551, And In 1555 Be Came Professor Of Materia Medica And Director Of The Botanical Garden. Appointed Physician ...

Caesarea Mazaca
Caesarea Mazaca (mod. Kaisarieh), Chief Town Of A Vilayet Of The Same Name In Asia Minor. Mazaca, The Resi Dence Of The Kings Of Cappadocia, Later Called Eusebea (perhaps After Ariarathes Eusebes), And Named Caesarea Probably By Claudius, Stood On A Low Spur On The North Side Of Erjies Dagh ...

Caesarea Palestinae
Caesarea Palestinae, A Seaport South Of Carmel (mod. Kaisariyeh) , Built (25-13 B.c.) By Herod The Great As Port Of His Capital Sebaste (samaria) On A Phoenician Site Known To The Ancients As Straton's (astarte?) Tower. The Site With Its Richly Architectured Structures (palaces, Temple, Amphitheatre, Hippodrome, Aqueducts) Is Described ...

Caesarea Philippi
Caesarea Philippi, Anciently A City (mod. Banias), At The Southern End Of The Hermon Range Where From A Cave Issues A Source Of The Jordan. It Was The Scene Of A Great Battle In Which Palestine Was Won From The Ptolemies By Antiochus (polybius, Xvi. 18). A Village Now Occupies ...

Caesarean Section
Caesarean Section, In Obstetrics (q.v.) The Operation For Removal Of A Foetus From The Uterus By An Abdominal Incision, So Called From A Legend Of Its Employment At The Birth Of Julius Caesar. This Procedure Has Been Practised On The Dead Mother Since Very Early Times; In Fact It Was ...

Caesarius Of Heisterbach
Caesarius Of Heisterbach (c. 117 O—c. German Preacher, Was Born At Cologne, Joined The Cistercians And Became Prior Of The Heisterbach House In 1228. Of His Best Known Work, Dialogue Of Visions And Miracles, A Series Of As Cetical Romances, The Latest Edition Is That By J. Strange (cologne, 1851). ...

Caesarius Of Nazianzus
Caesarius Of Nazianzus (c. 330-368), Brother Of Gregory Of Nazianzus, Studied At Alexandria And Then Be Came A Physician. After Three Years In Constantinople He Returned To Nazianzus In 358 And Practised At The Court Of .constantius And Of Julian The Apostate. Under The Emperor Valens He Became Quaestor Of ...

Caesium
Caesium, A Metal Of The Alkali (q.v.) Group (symbol Cs, Atomic Number 55, Atomic Weight 132.81). Its Name Is Derived From The Lat. Caesius, Sky-blue, From Two Bright Blue Lines Of Its Spectrum. It Was The First Metal To Be Discovered By The Aid Of The Spectroscope (r. Bunsen, Pogg. ...

Caestus Or Cestus
Caestus Or Cestus, A Gauntlet Or Boxing-glove Used By The Ancient Pugilists (from Lat. Caedo, Strike). Of This There Were Several Varieties, The Simplest And Least Dangerous Being The Meilichae (µelx Ixae), Which Consisted Of Strips Of Raw Hide Tied Under The Palm, Leaving The Fingers Bare. With These The ...

Caesura
Caesura, A Break Within A Foot (gr. Cutting) Caused By The End Of A Word, With Or Without Pause In The Sense ; To Be Distinguished From A Diaeresis (8eaipeoas), Which Is A Pause Be Tween Feet. English Examples Are: The Proper Studly ? Of I Mankind I Is Man ...

Cafeteria
Cafeteria. Cafeterias Are Popular And Up-to-date Res Taurants Which Supply Meals At The Lowest Cost By Allowing The People Using Them To Wait Upon Themselves. An Institution Of American Origin And Development, The Cafeteria Has So Increas Ingly Fixed Itself In Public Favour That There Are Now Thousands In The ...

Caffeine
Caffeine, A Vegetable Base, Present In Coffee Beans, With The Formula (see Purines.) ...

Caftan Or Kaftan
Caftan Or Kaftan, A Tunic Or Under-dress With Long Hanging Sleeves, Tied With A Girdle At The Waist, Worn In The East By Persons Of Both Sexes. The Caftan Was Worn By The Upper And Middle Classes In Russia Till The Time Of Peter The Great, When It Was Generally ...

Cage
Cage, In Mining, A Contrivance In Which Is Raised To The Sur Face The "tub," "tram," "hutch" Or "box," As The Small Under Ground Truck Or Wagon Which Carries The Coal Or Mineral From The Working Face To The Shaft Is Called. The Cage, Which Is Constructed Of Steel, Is ...

Cagli
Cagli, A Town And (with Pergola) An Episcopal See Of The Marches, Italy, In The Province Of Pesaro And Urbino, 18m. South Of The Latter Town By Rail, And 8.3oft. Above Sea-level. Pop. (1939 Town. 3,957; Commune. 12,145. The Church Of St. Domenico Contains A Good Fresco (madonna And Saints) ...

Cagliari
Cagliari, The Capital Of Sardinia, An Archiepiscopal See, And The Chief Town Of A Province (see Also Carales). It Is 270111. W.s.w. Of Naples, And 375m. South Of Genoa By Sea. Pop. (1931) Of Town, Of Commune, 101,878. It Is Finely Situated At The Northern Extremity Of The Gulf Of ...

Cagots
Cagots, A People Found In The Basque Provinces, Beam, Gascony And Brittany, First Mentioned In 1288. In The 16th Cen Tury They Had Many Names, Cagots, Gahets, Gafets In France; Agotes, Gafos In Spain; And Cacons, Cahets, Caqueux And Ca Quins In Brittany. During The Middle Ages They Were Shunned ...

Caguas
Caguas Is An Important Interior Town Situated On An Ex Tensive And Fertile Plain In The East-central Part Of Porto Rico. It Is About 25m. From San Juan, The Principal City And Seaport Of The Island, With Which It Is Connected By A Railroad And High Ways. The Population Of ...

Caher
Caher (cahir), Market Town In A Good Agricultural District, Co. Tipperary, Ireland, At The Foot Of The East End Of The Galtee Mountains On The River Suir, Midway Between Clonmel And Tipperary On The Gt. Southern Railway. Pop. (1926) 1,707. An Ancient Fortress On An Island In The River Was ...

Cahita
Cahita, A Group Of North American Indians, Mainly Of The Mayo And Yaqui Tribes, Found Chiefly In Mexico, Belonging To The Piman Family, And Numbering Some 40,00o. ...

Cahokia
Cahokia, The Name Of A North American Indian Tribe Of The Illinois Confederacy, And Of Their Mission Station, Near St. Louis. The "cahokia Mound" There (a Model Of Which Is In The Pea Body Museum, Cambridge, Mass.) Is Interesting As The Largest Prehistoric Earthwork In America (see North America : ...

Cahors
Cahors, A City Of South-western France, Capital Of The Department Of Lot, Tom. N. Of Toulouse, On The Railway To Limoges. Pop. (1931), 10,671. It Stands On A Rocky Peninsula Encircled By The River Lot, And Is Noteworthy Alike For Its Situa Tion, Its Ancient Buildings And Its Fine Old ...

Caiatia
Caiatia (mod. Caiazzo), An Ancient City Of Campania, On The Right Bank Of The Volturnus, I'm. N.e. Of Capua, On The Road To Telesia. It Was Already In The Hands Of The Romans In 3o6 B.c. In The Social War It Rebelled From Rome, And Its Territory Was Added To ...

Caietae Portus
Caietae Portus, An Ancient Harbour Of Latium Adiec Tum, Italy, In The Territory Of Formiae, From Which It Is 5 M. S.w. The Name (originally Ais Rj) Is Generally Derived From The Nurse Of Aeneas. The Coast Of The Gulf Not Only Between Caietae Portus And Formiae, But East Of ...

Cain
Cain Was, According To Genesis Iv. 1, The First-born Son Of Adam And Eve. The Genealogy Is Interrupted By The Story Of Cain And Abel (q.v.), Vv. 2-16, Which Cannot Very Well Be From The Same Stratum Of Tradition As The Garden Of Eden Story, Which Pre Cedes, For It ...

Cainozoic
Cainozoic, More Correctly Kainozo1c, Often Written Cenozoic In America (from The Gr. Icacvos, Recent, Life) ; In Geology, The Name Given To The Youngest Of The Three Great Eras Of Geological Time, The Other Two Being The Mesozoic And Palaeozoic Eras. It Is Equivalent To Tertiary (q.v.). ...

Cairn
Cairn, A Heap Of Stones Piled Up In A Conical Form. In Mod Ern Times Cairns Are Often Erected As Landmarks; In Ancient Times They Were Erected As Sepulchral Monuments. Burial-cairns Are Either Long Or Round, Corresponding With Long Barrows And Round Barrows Of Earth. Meetings Of The Tribes Were ...

Cairngorm
Cairngorm, A Yellow Or Brown Variety Of Quartz, Named From Cairngorm Or Cairngorum, One Of The Peaks Of The Grampian Mountains In Banffshire, Scotland. According To E. H. Cunning Ham-craig, The Mineral Occurs In Crystals Lining Cavities In Highly Inclined Veins Of A Fine-grained Granite Running Through The Coarser Granite ...

Cairns
Cairns, A Port On Trinity Bay On The North-east Coast Of Queensland Stretched Along The Narrow Lowland Strip Which Inter Venes Between The Atherton Plateau (r,000-4,000 Ft.) And The Sea. The Hinterland Comprises An Important Agricultural And Sugar Growing Area, With Considerable Possibilities For The Further De Velopment Of Tropical ...

Cairo
Cairo, The Capital Of Modern Egypt And The Most Populous City In Africa, On The Nile, S. Of The Apex Of The Delta, In 3o° 3' N. And 31° 21' E. It Is 130m. S.e. Of Alexandria, And 148m. W. Of Suez By Rail, Though Only 84m. From The Last-named ...

Cairo_2
Cairo (ka'ro), A City In The Southern Tip Of Illinois, U.s.a., On The Mississippi River At The Mouth Of The Ohio, 15om. S.e. Of St. Louis; The County Seat Of Alexander County. It Is On Federal Highways 51 And 6o; And Is Served By The Illinois Central, The Mobile And ...

Caisson Disease
Caisson Disease, A Group Of Morbid Changes Met With In Caisson Workers And Divers In Diving Dress. In Order To Exclude Water, Air Pressure Within A Caisson Used For Subaqueous Works Must Be Increased By One Atmosphere, Or 15 Lb. Per Sq. In. For Every 331ft. That The Caisson Is ...

Caisson
Caisson, When Employed As A Military Term, Denotes An Am Munition Wagon Or Chest; In Architecture, A Sunk Panel Or Coffer In A Ceiling, Or In The Soffit Of An Arch Or A Vault. In Civil Engineer Ing, The Word Is Used In Connection With A Variety Of Hydraulic Works. ...

Caithness
Caithness, A County Occupying The Extreme North-east Of Scotland, Bounded West And South By Sutherlandshire, East By The North Sea, And North By The Pentland Firth. Its Area (excluding Water) Is 438,833 Acres. The Formation Is Mainly Middle Old Red Sandstone, And The Surface Consists Of Barren Moors, Almost Destitute ...

Caius Or Gaius
Caius Or Gaius, Pope From 283 To 296, Was The Son Of Gaius, Or Of Concordius, A Relative Of The Emperor Diocletian, And Became Pope On Dec. 17, 283. His Tomb, With The Original Epitaph, Was Discovered In The Cemetery Of Calixtus And In It The Ring With Which He ...

Caius
Caius (anglice, Kees, Keys, Etc.), John English Physician, And Second Founder Of The Present Gonville And Caius College, Cambridge, Was Born At Norwich, Oct. 6, 151o. He Was Admitted A Student At What Was Then Gonville Hall, Cam Bridge, Where He Seems To Have Studied Divinity. In 1533 He Visited ...

Cajamarca Or Caxamarca
Cajamarca Or Caxamarca, A City Of Northern Peru, Capital Of A Department And Province Of The Same Name, 9om. E. By N. Of Pacasmayo, Its Port On The Pacific Coast. The Popula Tion Of The City Is Estimated At 13,000. It Is Situated In An Elevated Valley Between The Central ...

Cajamarca
Cajamarca, A Department Of Peru Lying Between The Western And Central Cordilleras And Extending From The Frontier Of Ecuador South To About 7° S. Lat., Having The Departments Of Piura And Lambayeque On The West And Amazonas On The East. Its Area According To Official Returns Is 12,541 Square Miles. ...

Cajatambo Or Caxatambo
Cajatambo Or Caxatambo, A Town And Province Of The Department Of Ancachs, Peru, On The Western Slope Of The Andes. It Has A Population Of About 5,000. The Town Is Ii Orn. N. By E. Of Lima, In 9° S3' S., 76° 57' West. The Principal Industries Of The Province ...

Cajeput Oil
Cajeput Oil, A Volatile Oil Obtained By Distillation From The Leaves Of The Myrtaceous Tree Melaleuca Leucadendron. The Trees Yielding The Oil Are Found Throughout The Indian Archipelago, The Malay Peninsula And Over The Hotter Parts Of The Australian Continent; But The Greater Portion Of The Oil Comes From Celebes. ...

Cajetan
Cajetan (gaftamcs), Cardinal , Was Born At Gaeta In The Kingdom Of Naples. His Proper Name Was Tom Maso De Vio, But He Adopted That Of Cajetan From His Birthplace. When 16 He Became A Dominican, And In Received His B.a. From Padua, Where He Was Subsequently Professor Of Metaphysics. ...

Cakchiquel
Cakchiquel, A Group Of Indians Living In The Highlands Of Guatemala. Their Tongue, One Of The "metropolitan" Maya Dia Lects, Is Spoken In The Departments Of Solola, Chimaltenango, Sacatepequez, And Escuintla. They Number About 130,000 Souls. The History Of The Cakchiquel, Like That Of The Quiche (q.v.), Is Preserved In ...

Cakes And Cake Making
Cakes And Cake-making. The Following General Rules Must Be Observed In The Making Of Cakes : Make Up The Fire So That The Oven Is The Right Heat When The Cake Is Ready. When Cooking By Gas Or Electricity Make The Oven Hot 15 Min Utes Before The Cake Is ...

Cakewalk
Cakewalk, A Dance Of American Negro Origin. The Couples Form A Square With The Men On The Inside And, Stepping High To A Lively Tune, Walk In This Square Formation. There Are Several Judges Who Consider The Precision With Which The Corners Are Turned, The Elegant Bearing And Carriage Of ...

Calabar Bean
Calabar Bean, The Seed Of A Leguminous Plant, Physo Stigma Venenosum, A Native Of Tropical Africa. The Plant Is A Climber And Attains A Height Of About Soft. With A Stem An Inch Or Two In Thickness. The Seed Pods, Which Contain Two Or Three Seeds Or Beans, Are 6 ...

Calabar
Calabar (formerly Old Calabar), A Port Of British West Africa, Capital Of A Province Of Southern Nigeria, On The Left Bank Of The Calabar River In 4° 56' N., 8° I8' E., 5m. Above The Point Where The River Falls Into The Calabar Estuary Of The Gulf Of Guinea, And ...

Calabash
Calabash, The Shell Of A Gourd Or Pumpkin Made Into A Vessel For Holding Liquids; Also A Vessel Of Similar Shape Made Of Other Materials. It Is The Name Of A Tree, Crescentia Cu Fete (fam Ily Bignomaceae), Of Tropical America, Whose Gourd-like Fruit Is So Hard That Vessels Made ...

Calabozo Or Calaboso
Calabozo Or Calaboso, An Inland Town Of Venezuela, Once Capital Of The Province Of Caracas In The Colonial Period, And Now Capital Of The State Of Guarico. Pop. (192o), 7,123. Calabozo Is Situated In The Midst Of An Extensive Llano On The Left Bank Of The Guarico River, 3 2 ...

Calabria
Calabria, The Name Of A Territorial District Of Both Ancient And Modern Italy, But Not Signifying The Same Areas In The Two Periods. (i) The Ancient District Consisted Of The Peninsula At Its S.e. Extremity, Between The Adriatic And The Gulf Of Tarentum, Ending In The Iapygian Promontory (lat. Promunturium ...

Calafat
Calafat, A Town Of Rumania In The Department Of Doljiu, On The Danube, Opposite The Bulgarian Fortress Of Vidin. Pop. 7,705. Calafat Is An Important Centre Of The Grain Trade, And Is Connected By A Branch Line With The Principal Rumanian Railway System And By Steam Ferry With Vidin. It ...

Calahorra
Calahorra (anc. Calagurris), A City Of North Spain, Province Of Logrofio; On The Bilbao-saragossa Railway And A Branch Line To Arnedo. Pop. (193o) 12,004. Calahorra Is Built On A Hill Slope Rising From The Left Bank Of The River Cidacos, Which Enters The Ebro, 3m. East. It Is The Market ...

Calais
Calais, A City Of Washington County, Maine, U.s.a., At The Head Of Navigation On The St. Croix River (the International Bound Ary), 12m. From Its Mouth. It Is On Federal Highway 1; Is Served By The Maine Central Railroad And Is Connected By Bridges With St. Stephens, New Brunswick, Across ...

Calamba Or Kalamba
Calamba Or Kalamba, A Municipality (with Adminis Tration Centre And 36 Barrios Or Districts) Of The Province Of Laguna, Luzon, Philippine Islands, About 37 M. From Manila; A Port On The South Shore Of Laguna De Bay, And A Junction For Railways From Tayabas, Batangas And Pagsanjan. It Is A ...

Calamis
Calamis, An Athenian Sculptor Of The First Half Of The Sth Century B.c. He Made Statues Of Apollo The Averter Of Ill, Hermes The Rambearer, Aphrodite And Other Deities, As Well As Part Of A Chariot Group For Hiero, King Of Syracuse. His Works Are Praised By Ancient Critics For ...

Calarashi
Calarashi, The Capital Of The Jalomitza Department Of Rumania. Pop. C. 13,000. Situated On The Left Bank Of The Borcea Branch Of The Danube, The Town Has Considerable Transport Trade In Wheat, Linseed, Hemp, Timber And Fish. ...

Calasiao
Calasiao, A Municipality (with Administration Centre And 16 Barrios Or Districts) Of The Province Of Pangasinan, Luzon, Philippine Islands, On A Branch Of The Agno River, About 4 M. S. By E. Of Dagupan; And On The Manila-dagupan Railway. Pop. (1918) 16,960, Of Whom Only One Was White. It Lies ...

Calatafimi
Calatafimi, A Town In The Province Of Trapani, Sicily, 3o M. W.s.w. Of Palermo Direct (512 M. By Rail). Pop. (1931) 50,594. The Name Comes From The Saracenic Castle Of Kalat-al Fimi (castle Of Euphemius), Which Stands Above It. Samuel Butler, The Author Of Erewhon, Did Much Of His Work ...

Calatayud
Calatayud, A City Of Central Spain, Province Of Sara Gossa. It Lies On The Left Bank Of The River Jalon, Just Below The Entrance Of Its Tributary The Jiloca, And Is Served By The Madrid Saragossa And Calatayud-sagunto Railways. Pop. (193o) 15,168. Calatayud Consists Of A Lower More Modern And ...

Calatia
Calatia, An Ancient Town Of Campania, Italy, 6m. S.e. Of Capua, On The Via Appia, Near The Point Where The Via Popillia Branches Off From It. The History Of Calatia Is Practically That Of Its More Powerful Neighbour Capua, But As It Lay Near The Point Where The Via Appia ...

Calbayog
Calbayog, A Municipality (with Administration Centre And 31 Barrios Or Districts) Of The Province And Island Of Samar, Philippine Islands, On The West Coast At The Mouth Of The Cal Bayog River, About 3o M. North-west Of Catbalogan, The Pro Vincial Capital. Pop. (1918) 25,38o, Of Vihom Only 28 Were ...

Calbe Or Kalbe
Calbe Or Kalbe, A Town Of Germany, On The Saale In Prussian Saxony, To Be Distinguished From Calbe On The Milde In The Same Province. Pop. (1930) 11,978. Its Industries Are The Manufacture Of Cloth, Paper And Sugar. ...

Calceolaria
Calceolaria, In Botany, A Genus Belonging To The Family Scrophulariaceae, Containing About 25o Species Of Herbaceous Or Shrubby Plants, Chiefly Natives Of The South American Andes Of Peru And Chile, And Sometimes Called Slipperworts. The Calceolaria Of The Present Day Has Been Developed Into A Decorative Herbaceous Plant. It Is ...

Calchaquian
Calchaquian (diaguitan), A Group Of Tribes Of South American Indians, Somewhat Doubtfully Constituting An Inde Pendent Linguistic Stock. The Calchaquis Occupied A Considerable Territory In North-western Argentina, Extending From The Valley Of Lerma Near Salta, South And East In The Foothills Of The Andes And The Western Edge Of The ...

Calchas
Calchas, Son Of Thestor, The Most Famous Soothsayer Among The Greeks At The Time Of The Trojan War. He Foretold The Duration Of The Siege, Demanded The Sacrifice Of Iphigeneia And The Return Of Chryseis ; He Suggested That Neoptolemus And Philoctetes Should Be Fetched To Troy, And Advised The ...

Calcination
Calcination. Solids, When Heated To A High Temperature For The Purpose Of Removjng Volatile Substances, For The Purpose Of Oxidizing A Portion Of The Mass, Or To Render Them Friable, Are Said To Be Calcined. Calcination, Therefore, Is Sometimes Con Sidered A Process Of Purification. A Typical Example Is The ...

Calcite
Calcite, A Mineral Consisting Of Naturally Occurring Calcium Carbonate (caco3), Crystallizing In The Rhombohedral System. With The Exception Of Quartz, It Is The Most Widely Distributed Of Minerals, While In The Beautiful Development And Extraordinary Variety Of Form Of Its Crystals It Is Surpassed By None. In The Massive Condition ...

Calcium
Calcium Is A Metallic Element, Symbol Ca, And Was So Named By Sir H. Davy Because Of Its Occurrence In Chalk (latin Calx) ; Atomic Number 20, Atomic Weight 40.07 (two Isotopes, 4o And 44, The Former Greatly Predominating, According To F. W. Aston). It Has A Bright Silvery Appearance ...

Calculating Machines
Calculating Machines. The Evolution Of Num Bering And Of Numerical Calculation Is Embodied In That Simple But Great Mechanical Calculating Instrument Known As The Abacus. (see Abacus.) The Efficiency Of This Instrument In Expert Hands Has Been Recognized From Early Times, And It Is Still Largely Em Ployed In India, ...

Calculi Or Stones
Calculi Or Stones May Occur In Any Hollow Organ In Which There Is Stagnation Of The Fluid Contents Together With An Excess Of Some Particular Substance In Solution : They May Also Occur In The Ducts Leading From Glands From The Same Cause (see Plate). The Chief Places Where Stones ...

Calculus Of Differences
Calculus Of Differences (theory Of Finite Dif Ferences), That Branch Of Mathematics Which Deals With The Suc Cessive Differences Of The Terms Of A Series. 1. The Subject Falls Under Four Main Heads. (i.) As A Simple Example, Take The Series Which Is The Series Of Squares Of The Positive ...

Calculus Of Variations
Calculus Of Variations. When Two Points, A And B, Are Given In A Plane, As Shown In Fig. 1, There Is An Infinity Of Arcs Which Join Them. A Simple Problem Of The Calculus Of Variations Is That Of Find Ing In This Class Of Arcs One Which Has The ...

Calcutta
Calcutta, A City In British India And The Capital Of The Province Of Bengal. It Is Situated In 34' N. And 88° 24' E., On The Left Or East Bank Of The Hugli, About 8om. From The Sea. It Extends Over An Area Of 32 Sq.m. And Contains A Population ...

Calder
Calder, An Ancient District Of Midlothian, Scotland. It Is Divided Into The Parishes Of Mid-calder (pop. 1931, 2,793) And West Calder (pop. 6,817), East Calder Belonging To The Parish Of Kirknewton. The Locality Owes Some Of Its Commercial Im Portance To The Mineral Oil Industry, Which, However, Has Now Declined. ...

Caldwell
Caldwell, A City Of Idaho, U.s.a., In The Fertile Boise Valley, Near The Western Boundary Of The State; The County Seat Of Canyon County. It Is On Federal Highway 3o And The Oregon Short Line Of The Union Pacific Railway System. The Population In 1930 Was 4,974. It Is The ...

Caldwell_2
Caldwell, A Town Of Essex County, New Jersey, Named In Honour Of A Hero Of The Revolution ; Population In 193o Was ; Connected By The Erie Railway And Motor Bus With Neighbouring Cities. Here Grover Cleveland, Twice President Of The United States, Was Born On March 18, 1837; Cleveland ...

Caleb
Caleb, In The Bible, One Of The Spies Sent By Moses From Kadesh In South Palestine To Spy Out The Land Of Canaan. For His Courage He Was Rewarded By The Promise That He And His Seed Should Possess It (num. Xiii. Seq.). Later Tradition Includes Joshua, The Hero Of ...

Caledon
Caledon, A Town 87 M. From Cape Town, Situated 34° 14' S., 19° 25' E., On A Spur Of The Zwartberg, At An Altitude Of 754 Feet. Pop. 1,747 Whites And About 1,000 Coloured. It Is Not Laid Out In The Usual Rectangular Plan. The Streets Conform To The Irregularities ...

Caledonia
Caledonia, The Roman Name Of North Britain, Still Used For Scotland, Especially In Poetry. It Occurs First In The Poet Lucan (a.d. 64), And Then Often In Roman Literature. There Were (i) A District Caledonia, Of Which The Southern Border Must Have Been On Or Near The Isthmus Between The ...

Caledonian Canal
Caledonian Canal. The Chain Of Fresh-water Lakes —lochs Ness, Oich And Lochy—which Stretch Along The Line Of The Great Glen Of Scotland In A South-west Direction From Inver Ness, Early Suggested The Idea Of Connecting The East And West Coasts Of Scotland By A Canal Which Would Save Ships About ...

Calenberg
Calenberg, The Name Of A District, Including The Town Of Hanover, Formerly Part Of The Duchy Of Brunswick. It Received Its Name From A Castle Near Schulenburg, And Is Traversed By The Rivers Weser And Leine, Its Area Being About 1,050 Square Miles. The District Was Given To Various Cadets ...