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Encyclopedia Brittanica

Volume 4, Part 2: Brain to Casting

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Camel
Camel, The Name Applied To The Two Species Of The Genus Camelus Of The Order Artiodactyla (q.v.). Of The Two Species, C. Dromedarius, The Arabian Camel, Is Larger And Has Only One Hump, While The Bactrian Camel, C. Bactrianus, Has Two. The Bactrian Camel Is Shorter Legged And More Ponderous ...

Camellia
Camellia, A Genus Of Evergreen Trees Or Shrubs Belonging To The Family Theaceae, With Thick, Dark Shining Leaves And Handsome White Or Rose-coloured Flowers. It Contains About Eight Species, Natives Of India, China And Japan. Most Of The Numerous Cultivated Forms Are Horticultural Products Of C. Japonica, A Native Of ...

Camelot
Camelot, The Legendary Seat Of King Arthur's Court (see Arthurian Legend), Variously Identified With Caerleon-upon Usk In Monmouthshire (see Caerleon), With Queen's Camel In Somerset, With The Little Town Of Camelford In Cornwall And With Winchester. ...

Cameo
Cameo, A Term Commonly Applied To Engraved Work Executed In Relief On Hard Or Precious Stones, As Well As To Imitations Of Such Stones In Glass, Called "pastes," And On The Shells Of Mol Luscous Animals. The Cameo Is Therefore The Converse Of The In Taglio (q.v.), Which Consists Of ...

Camera Obscura
Camera Obscura, An Optical Apparatus Consisting Of A Darkened Chamber (for Which Its Name Is The Latin Rendering) Into Which Light Is Admitted Through A Convex Lens Fixed In One End Of The Chamber. This Lens Forms An Image Of External Objects On The Other End Of The Camera (fig. ...

Camera
Camera, In Law, Is Applied, In The Phrase In Camera, To Cases Heard In Private; That Is, In Chambers. Originally The Term Was Used For The English Judges' Chambers In Serjeants' Inn, As Distinct From Their Bench In Westminster Hall. It Was Afterwards Applied To The Judges' Private Room Behind ...

Camerino
Camerino (anc. Camerinum), A City And Episcopal See (since A.d. 465, If Not Earlier ; Treia Is Now Combined With It) Of The Marches, Italy, In The Province Of Macerata, 6 M. S. Of The Rail Way Station Of Castelraimondo (to Which There Is An Electric Tramway) Which Is 24 ...

Cameron
Cameron, A City In The Cotton Region Of Central Texas, U.s.a., On The Santa Fe And The Southern Pacific Railways; The County-seat Of Milan County. The Population Was 4,298 In 192o, In It Is On The Edge Of An Oil-field, And Has An Oil Refinery, Cotton-gins And Compresses, Cottonseed-oil Mills ...

Cameronians
Cameronians, The Name Given To That Section Of The Scottish Covenanters (q.v.) Who Followed Richard Cameron (q.v.), And Were Devoted To The Covenanting Faith And The Main Tenance Of The Presbyterian Form Of Public Worship. Refusing To Take The Oaths Of Allegiance To An "uncovenanted" Ruler, Or To Exercise Any ...

Cameroons
Cameroons, A Region Of West Africa, Bounded West By The Atlantic, North-west By Nigeria, North By Lake Chad, South And East By French Equatorial Africa, And For A Short Distance South-west By Spanish Guinea; Area About I 9o,000sq.m. The Coast Line Begins At The Great Bend Of Africa From East ...

Camiling
Camiling, A Municipality (with Administration Centre And 18 Barrios Or Districts), In The North-west Part Of The Province Of Tarlac, Luzon, Philippine Islands, On The Camiling River, About 8o M. N.n.w. Of Manila. Pop (1918) 23,375, Of Whom None Were White. Its Chief Products Are Rice, Corn And Sugar; Fine ...

Camillo Castello Branco
Castello Branco, Camillo, Visconde De Cor Reia Botelho (1825-189o), Portuguese Novelist, Was Born Out Of Wedlock And Lost His Parents In Infancy. He Spent His Early Years In A Village In Traz-os-montes. He Learnt To Love Poetry From Camoens And Bocage, While Mendes Pinto Gave Him A Lust For Adventure, ...

Camisards
Camisards, The Name Given To The Protestant Peasantry Of The Cevennes Who, From 1702 To 1705, And For Some Years Afterwards, Carried On An Organized Military Resistance To The Revo Cation Of The Edict Of Nantes. The Camisards (from Camisade, Obs. Fr. For "a Night Attack," From The Ital. Camiciata, ...

Camorra
Camorra, A Secret Or Quasi-secret Society Of South Italy, Once Of Considerable Dimensions, But Now Extinct. It Became Known Publicly About 182o. The Origin Of The Name Is Unknown, But Possibly Both The Word And The Association Were Introduced Into Naples By The Spaniards. There Is A Spanish Word Camorra ...

Camouflage
Camouflage. The Word Camouflage, In The Broad Sense Of Military Deception, Is Applicable To All Stratagems Designed To Mislead The Enemy. In The Following Account It Is Used In The Restricted Sense Of Deception Practised By Artists. The Application To War Of Camouflage, As Thus Defined, Is By No Means ...

Camouflet
Camouflet. A Term Used In Military Mining To Designate A Mine Charge Which, When Exploded, Does Not Break The Surface Of The Earth. Derived From Latin "calamo Flatus"—a Blast Through A Reed Or Pipe—it Came To Mean A Stiffer. This Form Of Mine Is Used By The Defence To Destroy ...

Camp
Camp (from Lat. Campus, Field), A Term Used More Par Ticularly In A Military Sense, But Also Generally For A Temporarily Organized Place Of Food And Shelter In Open Country, As Opposed To Ordinary Housing (see Camping-out). The Shelter Of Troops In The Field Has Always Been Of The Greatest ...

Campagna Di Roma
Campagna Di Roma, The Low Country Surrounding The City Of Rome, Bounded On The North-west By The Hills Surrounding The Lake Of Bracciano, On The North-east By The Sabine Mountains, On The South-east By The Alban Hills, And On The South-west By The Sea. (see Latium And Rome: Province; And, ...

Campaign
Campaign, A Military Term For The Continuous Operations Of An Army During A War Or Part Of A War. The Name Refers To The Time When Armies Went Into Quarters During The Winter And Liter Ally "took The Field" At The Opening Of Summer. Its Modern Usage Is, In Contrast ...

Campania
Campania, A Territorial Division Of Italy. The Modern District (ii. Below) Is Of Much Greater Extent Than That Known By The Name In Ancient Times. I. Campani Was The Roman Name For Inhabitants First Of The Town Of Capua And Its District And Then For Inhabitants Of The Campanian Plain. ...

Campaniform
Campaniform, In Architecture, Bell-shaped; Most Com Monly Used To Describe A Type Of Egyptian Capital (q.v.) Shaped Like An Inverted Bell. ...

Campanile
Campanile, A Bell Tower, Used In Connection With Churches Or Town Halls, Especially In Italy. The Campanile Is Sometimes Attached To The Building And Sometimes Free Standing. The Earliest Campaniles Are Those Of The Churches Of S. Apollinare In Classe And S. Apollinare Nuovo At Ravenna, Variously Dated From The ...

Campanology
Campanology, The Art, Or Science, Concerned With Bells, Bell-ringing, Bell-founding, Etc. (see Bell.) ...

Campanula
Campanula (bell-flower), In Botany, A Genus Of Plants (family Campanulaceae) Containing About 30o Species, Found In The Temperate Parts Of The Northern Hemisphere, Chiefly In The Mediterranean Region. The Name Is Taken From The Bell-shaped Flower. The Plants Are Perennial, Rarely Annual Or Biennial, Herbs With Spikes Or Racemes Of ...

Campbell
Campbell, A City Of Mahoning County, Ohio, U.s.a., On The Mahoning River, Adjoining Youngstown On The South-east. It Is Served By The Baltimore And Ohio Railroad. The Population Was 11,237 In 1920 (50.9% Foreign-born White), And Was 14,673 In 1930 U.s. Census. It Is A Rapidly Growing Industrial And Resi ...

Campbeltown
Campbeltown, Royal And Municipal Burgh, Parish And Seaport, Argyllshire, Scotland. Pop. (1931) 6,309. It Is Situated On A Fine Bay, Towards The South-east Extremity Of The Peninsula Of Kintyre, Ii M. N. E. Of The Mull And 83 M. S. W. Of Glasgow By Water. The Seat Of The Dalriad ...

Campeche Or Campeche De
Campeche Or Campeche De Baranda, A Port Of Mexico, And Capital Of A State Of The Same Name, Situated On The Bay Of Campeche, 825m. E. Of The City Of Mexico And 90m. S.w. Of Merida, In Lat. 20° 5' N., Long. 9o° 16' W. Pop. (1910) (1930) 24,071. Campeche ...

Campeche
Campeche, A Southern State Of Mexico, Comprising The Western Part Of The Peninsula Of Yucatan, Bounded North And East By Yucatan South By Guatemala, South-west By Tabasco And North-west By The Gulf Of Mexico. Pop. (193o) 84,872, Mostly Indians And Mestizos. Area, 19,672 Sq.m. The Name Of The State Is ...

Camphors
Camphors Occur As Components Of The Essential Oils Of Many Plants; And Are Extracted By Distilling The Plant Material With Steam ; Separation Of The "camphors" Is Afterwards Effected By Fractional Distillation, Freezing Or Chemical Treatment. The Camphors Are Mainly Alcohols And Ketones Of The Hydrocarbons Known As Terpenes. Commercially, ...

Campinas
Campinas, An Inland City Of The State Of Sao Paulo, Brazil, 65m. By Rail North West Of The City Of Sao Paulo And 114m. From The Port Of Santos, With Which It Is Connected By The Paulista And Sao Paulo Railway. In 1926 The Population Of The City And Municipality ...

Camping
Camping Is As Old As The Human Race; For The Term May Be Used Not Altogether Ineptly To Refer To The Only Form Of Living Followed By The Original Representatives Of The Human Race. For Thousands Of Years They Slept, Ate, Worked And Carried On Prac Tically All Functions Of ...

Campobasso
Campobasso, A City Of Molise (see Abruzzi E Molise), Italy, The Capital Of The Province Of Campobasso, 172m. E.s.e. Of Rome By Rail, Situated A,13 Eft. Above Sea-level. Pop. (1931) Town 59,785; Commune 27,402. The Town Itself Has Some Fine Modern Edifices And A Museum Of Samnite Antiquities. Its Chief ...

Campodea
Campodea, A Small Whitish, Wingless Insect Of The Order Thysanura, Sub-class Apterygota (q.v.) With Long Flexible Anten Nae, And A Pair Of Elongated Caudal Filaments. The Best Known Species (campodea Staphylinus) Is Widely Distributed In Europe And North America Where It Occurs Under Stones And Logs, Or In Rotting Leaves ...

Campos
Campos, An Inland City Of The State Of Rio De Janeiro, Brazil, On The Parahyba River, 3o M. From The Sea, And About 143 M. N.e. Of The City Of Rio De Janeiro. In 1926 The Popula Tion Of The City Was 48,108. The River Is Navigable For Small Steamers ...

Campulung
Campulung, The Capital Of The Department Of Muscel, Rumania, And Seat Of A Suffragan Bishop; Situated Among The Out Lying Hills Of The Carpathian Mountains On The River Tirgului, A Tributary Of The Arge. Pop. Csmpulung Is A Popular Summer Resort. The Tirgului Supplies Water-power For Several Paper-mills; Annual Fairs ...

Campus
Campus, A Latin Word Meaning Level Plain. By The Romans The Name Was Given To A Number Of Open Grassy Spaces In And About The City. Of These The Most Famous Was The Campus Martius On The North-west Which Became The Property Of The State After The Expulsion Of The ...

Camulodunum
Camulodunum, A British And Roman Town, The Modern Colchester (q.v.). It Was The Capital Of The British Chief Cunobelin And Is Named On His Coins; After His Death And The Roman Conquest Of South Britain, The Romans Established (about A.d. 48) A Colonic Or Municipality Peopled With Discharged Legionaries, And ...

Cana
Cana, Of Galilee, The Scene Of Christ's First Miracle (john Ii.), And An Act Of Healing (john Iv.) ; Also The Home Of Nathanael (john Xxi. 2). The Evidence Favours Identification With Kefr Kenna About 4 M. N.n.e. Of Nazareth On The Road To Tiberias; Pop. 1,175 (682 Moslems). There ...

Canaanites Canaan
Canaan, Canaanites. Canaan Is, In The View Of The Biblical Writers The "promised Land" Which God Had Allotted To Abraham And His Seed (gen. Xii. 7; Xiii. 15, Etc.) ; The Holy Land Of The Representatives Of The Three Great Monotheistic Religions. This Hilly Country, Poor For Purposes Of Cultivation, ...

Canachus
Canachus, A Sculptor Of Sicyon Of The Latter Part Of The 6th Century B.c. He Made Two Great Statues Of Apollo With A Stag And A Bow, One In Bronze For The Temple At Miletus, And One In Cedar Wood For Thebes. The Former Is Represented On Coins Of Miletus. ...

Canada As A British
Canada As A British Colony The American Revolution.—after The Peace, Canada Was Governed Under The Authority Of A Royal Proclamation Until, In The Quebec Act Was Passed By The Imperial Parliament. The Western Territory Which France Had Claimed, Extending As Far As The Mississippi And South To The Ohio, Was ...

Canada As A Federal
Canada As A Federal State Canada Was The First Federal Union In The British Empire And It Came Into Being On July 1, 1867, A Date Ever Since Observed As A Public Holiday. The Union Sprang From Necessity : Upper And Lower Canada, United In One Legislature But Divided On ...

Canada As A French
Canada As A French Colony At The Beginning Of The 17th Century We Find The First Great Name In Canadian History. Samuel De Champlain (q.v.), Who Had Seen Service Under Henry Iv. Of France, Was Employed In The Interests Of Successive Fur-trading Monopolies And Sailed Up The St. Lawrence In ...

Canada Balsam
Canada Balsam, An Exudation Of The North American Balsam Fir, Called Also Canada Turpentine And Balsam Of Fir. It Is Strictly Speaking A Turpentine (q.v.) And Not A Balsam (q.v.), And At Ordinary Temperature Is A Yellow Solid. It Belongs To The Class Of Oleo-resins Which Are Natural Products Consisting ...

Canada Kansas City Gulf Road
Canada-kansas City-gulf Road, A High Way Extending From Duluth, Minn., Through The Heart Of Iowa And Along The Boundary Lines Between Kansas And Missouri, Arkansas And Oklahoma, Louisi Ana And Texas To Cameron, Louisiana On The Gulf Of Mexico. It Traverses The Generally Level But Somewhat Rolling Agricultural Region West ...

Canada Thistle
Canada Thistle, The Creeping Thistle (cirsium Arvense) Of Europe, Now Extensively Naturalized In North America, Where It Is Found In Fields And Waste Grounds From Newfoundland To British Columbia And Southward To Virginia And California. In Many Places It Is An Exceedingly Pernicious Weed. It Is A Low Per Ennial, ...

Canada
Canada. The Dominion Of Canada Comprises The Northern Half Of The Continent Of North America And Its Adjacent Islands, Excepting Alaska, Which Belongs To The United States, And New Foundland, Which Is A Separate Dominion Of The British Empire. The North-eastern Coast Of Labrador Belongs To Newfoundland. Its Boundary On ...

Canadian Arctic Islands
Canadian Arctic Islands Comprise The Archipel Ago Which Lies North Of Canada With Davis Strait, Baffin Bay, Smith Sound And Its Northward Continuation On The East And The Beaufort Sea On The West. As Far As Is Known The Most Northern Land, Cape Columbia 83° 7' N., Is About Half ...

Canadian Literature In English
Canadian Literature (in English). Perhaps The Most Notable Examples Of Canadian Literature In English Are To Be Found In The Field Of History, Where The Outstanding Achievement Is Canada And Its Provinces (1913 Seq.), A History Of The Country In 23 Volumes, Edited By Sir Arthur G. Doughty And Dr. ...

Canadian Literature In French
Canadian Literature (in French). Early In The Loth Century, French Canadian Literature Entered Upon A Period Of Revival And Rapid Progress. This Should Not, However, Be Allowed To Obscure The Fact That Important Works Were Pro Duced Earlier, And Laid The Foundation For The Intellectual Move Ment Of The Loth ...

Canadian National Railways
Canadian National Railways, The Railway Sys Tem Operated As A Unit Under A Board Of Directors Appointed By The Dominion Government, And Consisting Chiefly Of Five Formerly Separate Railways. Two Of These, The Intercolonial And The Na Tional Transcontinental, Were Built By The Government As Instru Ments Of National Policy. ...

Canadian Pacific Railway Company
Canadian Pacific Railway Company Oper Ates A Railway Extending Across Canada From Halifax On The Atlantic Coast To Vancouver And Victoria On The Pacific, And By A Network Of Branch Lines Reaches Practically Every Town And City In The Dominion. By Its Own Atlantic And Pacific Fleets It Pro Vides ...

Canadian Press
Canadian Press. Approximately Zoo Daily Newspapers In The Dominion Of Canada Form The Canadian Press, Which Co Operatively Collects And Distributes News Over A Net-work Of 12,000m. Of Leased Wires. The Members Appropriate About $500,000 Annually To Cover The Cost Of This Mutual News Service. The Can Adian Press Operates ...

Canadian Rockies Circle Tour
Canadian Rockies Circle Tour, As Its Name Implies, Extends Loop-fashion From Calgary, Alberta, Canada, Through Eastern British Columbia As Far East As Macleod And Back To Calgary. It Covers 567m. In Its Course And Twice Crosses The Continental Divide Of The Rocky Mountain System, Following The Trans-canada Highway Throughout Most ...

Canalis
Canalis (sometimes Canal) , In Architecture, The Depressed Portion Of The Band Whose Spiral Curvature Forms The Volute Of The Ionic Capital (see Order). ...

Canalized Rivers
Canalized Rivers Rivers Whose Discharge Is Liable To Become Quite Small At Their Low Stage, Or Which Have A Somewhat Large Fall, As Is Usual In The Upper Part Of Rivers, Cannot Be Given An Adequate Depth For Navi Gation By Regulation Works Alone; And Their Ordinary Summer Level Has ...

Canals And Canalized Rivers
Canals And Canalized Rivers. A Canal Is An Artificial Watercourse Used For The Drainage Of Low Lands (see ...

Canandaigua
Canandaigua, A City Of New York, U.s.a., At The North Ern End Of Beautiful Canandaigua Lake, 3om. S.e. Of Rochester ; The County Seat Of Ontario County And A Popular Summer Resort. It Is On Federal Highway Zo, And Is Served By The New York Cen Tral And The Pennsylvania ...

Canard
Canard, A Sensational Story, Hoax, Or False Report, Especially One Circulated By Newspapers. This Use Of The Word In France Dates From The I7th Century, And Is Said To Have Originated In The Old Expression, Vendre An Canard A Moitie, To Half-sell A Duck, I.e., To Pretend To Sell, To ...

Canary Islands
Canary Islands (canaries), A Spanish Archipelago In The Atlantic Ocean; About 6om. W. Of The African Coast, Between 27° 4o' And 3 O' N., And Between 13° 20' And 18° 1 O' W. Pop. (in 1930), 558,844; Area 2,807 Sq.m. The Canary Islands May Be Considered As Two Groups, One ...

Canary
Canary, A Passerine Bird (serinus Canarius), Belonging To The Family Fringillidae Or Finches (see Finch). It Is A Native Of The Canary Islands And Madeira, Where It Occurs Abundantly In The Wild State, And Is Of A Greyish-brown Colour, Slightly Varied With Brighter Hues. It Was First Domesticated In Italy ...

Canberra
Canberra, The National Capital Of The Commonwealth Of Australia, Was Established As The Seat Of Government Under Powers Conferred By S. 125 Of The Commonwealth Constitution Act, Which Received The Assent Of Queen Victoria On July 9, 1900. The Provision For The Establishment Of A Seat Of Government Was Presented ...

Cancale
Cancale, A Fishing Port Of North-western France In The De Partment Of Ilte-et-vilaine On The Bay Of Mont St. Michel, 9m. E.n.e. Of St. Malo. Pop. (1931), 3,291. It Is Noted For Its Oysters And For The Pretty Head-dress Of The Cancalaises. The Old Town (cancale-ville) Stands On The Cliffs, ...

Cancelli
Cancelli, In Architecture, Screens Or Parapets, Similar To Those Used By The Romans, To Divide Off The Judges' Space In A Basilica. The Latin Name For These Was Cancelli (cf. The English Legal Use Of The Word "bar") . From Their Resemblance To Such Roman Screens The Enclosures Of The ...

Cancer Control
Cancer Control Cancer Control Is The Practical Application Of The Established Facts And Sound Working Opinions Concerning The Prevention And Cure Of Cancer. Although, As Has Been Indicated, No Means Has Yet Been Discovered Of Completely Suppressing Or Preventing Can Cer, There Are Various Procedures Which Give Some Measure Of ...

Cancer Research
Cancer Research. This Subject Falls Naturally Into Two Periods Divided By The Beginning Of The Present Century. From 185o To 190o Investigation Was On The Clinical And Anatomical Sides And The Great Work Of Virchow Between 185o And 186o Upon Cellular Pathology And Upon The Malignant New Growths Laid The ...

Cancer
Cancer ("the Crab"), In Astronomy, The Fourth Sign Of The Zodiac Denoted By The Symbol ®. The Constellation Contains A Large Loose Cluster Of Stars Known As Praesepe Or The Beehive. The Tropic Of Cancer Is The Northern Limit Of Places On The Earth Where The Sun Can Be Vertically ...

Cancer_2
Cancer, A Term Embracing Several Varieties Of Morbid New Growth Or Tumour And, Secondarily, The Disease That Results From The Presence Of These New Growths And Their Mode Of Increase. Here, Cancer Will Be Considered As A Disease ; The Microscopical Appearances Of The Different Varieties Are Described Under Tumour, ...

Candelabrum
Candelabrum, A Pedestal Or Shaft Used To Support A Lamp Or Candle; In Common Usage Limited To Shafts For Lamps Or A Group Of Candles, In Contradistinction To Candlestick For A Single Candle. The Romans, Developing Hellenistic Precedents, Made Them Objects Of Great Decorative Richness. Two Roman Types Are Found: ...

Candia
Candia, The Largest City Of Crete (to Which It Has Given Its Name), Is Situated On The Northern Shore In 20' N. Lat. And 25° 9' E. Long. It Is Still Surrounded By Its Extensive Venetian Forti Fications. The Principal Buildings Are The Venetian Loggia Muti Lated Recently, The Prefecture, ...

Candidate
Candidate, One Who Offers Himself Or Is Selected By Others For An Office Or Place, Particularly One Who Puts Up For Election To Parliament Or To Any Public Body. The Word Is Derived From The Latin Candidates, Clad In White (candidus). In Rome Candi Dates For Election To The Higher ...

Candle Power
Candle-power, The Quality Of Brightness Or Intensity Of A Light. The International Unit Of Intensity Used In Photometry (q.v.) Is The International Candle, Which Is One-tenth Of The Light Given Out By The Harcourt 10 Candle-power Pentane Lamp, Burn Ing In An Atmosphere Containing O.8% Parts By Volume Of Water ...

Candle
Candle, A Rod Of Fatty Or Waxy Material Through The Centre Of Which Runs A Fibrous Wick. Modern Candles Are The Successors Of The Early Rush-lights Which Consisted Of The Pith Of Rushes Soaked In Household Grease. An Improvement Was Made By The Introduction Of Flax ("inkle") And Cotton Threads, ...

Candlemas
Candlemas, The Church Festival, Celebrated On Feb. 2, In Commemoration Of The Presentation Of Christ In The Temple; Called In The Greek Church " Ri Aria Q Rov Kvpiov ("the Meet Ing Of The Lord," I.e., With Simeon And Anna), In The West The Purification Of The Blessed Virgin (lat. ...

Candlestick
Candlestick, A Recep Tacle, Made In Various Forms, For Holding A Candle. The Word Was Formerly Used For Any Kind Of Support On Which Lights, Whether Candles Or Lamps, Were Fixed. The First Candlesticks Were Perhaps Made For Ecclesiastical Purposes, Either For Ordinary Illumination Or For Some Particular Ceremony; Their ...

Candon
Candon, A Municipality (with Administration Centre And 15 Barrios Or Districts) Of The Province Of Ilocos Sur, Luzon, Philippine Islands, On The West Coast, About 200 M. N. By W. Of Manila By Land, And 233 M. By Water. Pop. (1918) 19,950, Of Whom None Was White. Its Inhabitants Trade ...

Candytuft
Candytuft (iberis Amara), A Small Annual Herb (family Cruciferae) With White Or Purplish Flowers, The Outer Petals Of Which Are Longer Than The Rest. It Is A Native Of Western Europe And Found Wild On Dry Soil In Cultivated Ground In The Centre And East Of England. This And Several ...

Cane Fencing
Cane Fencing Is The Art Of Defending Oneself With A Walking-stick (fr. Canne) . It May Be Considered To Be Single Stick Fencing Without A Guard For The Hand, With The Important Difference That In Cane-fencing The Thrust Is As Important As The Cut, And Thus Canne Approaches Nearer To ...

Cane
Cane, A Name Applied To Many Plants Which Have Long, Slender, Reed-like Stalks Or Stems, E.g., The Sugar-cane, The Bamboo Cane. From The Use As Walking-sticks The Name "cane" Is Given To Sticks, Irrespective Of The Source From Which They Are Derived. Properly It Should Be Restricted To A Peculiar ...

Canea Or Khania
Canea Or Khania, The Principal Seaport And, Since 1841, The Capital Of Crete, Finely Situated On The Northern Coast Of The Island, About 25 M. From Its Western Extremity, On The Isthmus Of The Akrotiri Peninsula, Which Lies Between The Bay Of Canea And The Bay Of Suda (latitude 35° ...

Canephorae
Canephorae, "basket-bearers," The Title Given Of Old To Athenian Maidens Of Noble Family, Annually Chosen To Carry On Their Heads Baskets With Sacrificial Implements And Apparatus At The Panathenaic And Other Festivals. The Term, Also In The Form Of Canephores, Is Applied, In Architecture, To Figures Of Both Sexes Which ...

Canes Venatici
Canes Venatici ("the Hounds," Or "the Grey Hounds"), In Astronomy, A Constellation Of The Northern Hemi Sphere Named By Hevelius In 169o, Who Compiled It From The Stars Between The Older Asterisms Ursa Major, Bates And Coma Berenices. The Constellation Contains A Famous Spiral Nebula First Described By Lord Rosse ...

Cangas De Onis Or
Cangas De Onis Or Cangas, A Town Of Northern Spain, In The Province Of Oviedo, On The Right Bank Of The River Sella. It Lies In A Fertile, Well-watered, Partly Wooded, Undulating Region, On The Branch Railway From Arriondas To Covadonga. Pop. ( Cangas De Onis Trades Chiefly In Live-stock ...

Cangas De Tined
Cangas De Tined, A Town Of Northern Spain, In The Province Of Oviedo, And On The River Narcea. Pop. (193o) 21,163. There Is No Railway, But A Road Runs Through Tineo, Grado And The Adjacent Coalfields, To The Ports Of Cudillero And Aviles. The Inhabitants Have Thus An Accessible Market ...

Canichanan
Canichanan, A Linguistic Stock Of South American In Dians, Consisting Of A Single Tribe, The Canichanas. There Is Doubt As To. The Validity Of The Stock. The Canichanas Lived In Northern Bolivia On The Machupo And Mamore Rivers Between 13° And S. Latitude. The Remnants Are Still To Be Found ...

Canine Distemper
Canine Distemper. Distemper Is An Acute, Contagious And Infectious Disease Of Dogs, Septicaemic In Nature And Trans Missible To Certain Other Carnivorous Animals. The Condition Occurs In All Countries Possessing A Canine Population. The Early History Of Distemper Has Been Lost In Antiquity, But Possibly It Was Introduced Into Europe ...

Canis Major
Canis Major ("great Dog"), In Astronomy, A Constel Lation Placed South Of The Zodiac, Just Below And Behind The Heels Of Orion. Canis Minor, The "little Dog," Is Another Constellation, Also Following Orion And Separated From Canis Major By The Milky Way. Both These Constellations, Or At Least Their Principal ...

Canister
Canister, Another Name For Case Shot, An Artillery Projec Tile For Use At Close Quarters (from Lat. Canistrum, A Wicker Basket) . ...

Cannae
Cannae, An Ancient Village Of Italy, Near The River Aufidus, Situated On A Hill Above The Right Bank, 4m. S.w. From Its Mouth, And About 6m. Below Canusium (q.v.) . It Is Celebrated For The Disastrous Defeat Which The Romans Received There From Hannibal In B.c. In Later Times The ...

Cannanore
Cannanore, Town, British India, In The Malabar District Of Madras, On The Coast, 58 M. N. From Calicut And 470 M. By Rail From Madras. Pop. Cannanore Belonged To The Kalahasti Or Cherakal Rajas Till The Invasion Of Malabar By Hyder Ali. In 1498 It Was Visited By Vasco Da ...

Cannel Coal
Cannel Coal, A Brightly Burning Coal Rich In Hydrogen, Supposed To Take Its Name From "candle." Cannel Coal Is Found In Lancashire, England, And In Kentucky And Indiana, In The United States. It Burns Well In Open Fireplaces, And Is Also Used To Enrich Gas Made From Other Coal. (see ...

Cannes
Cannes, A Winter Resort Of South-east France, In The De Partment Of Alpes Maritimes, On The Mediterranean, 19m. S.w. Of Nice. Pop. (1931) 38,72o. It Enjoys A Southern Aspect On The Golfe De La Napoule, With The Esterels To The West. Previous To 1834 When Its Beauty And Healthy Climate ...

Cannibalism
Cannibalism, The Eating Of Human Flesh By Men (from A Latinized Form Of Carib, The Name Of A South American Tribe, Originally From The West Indies), Also Called "anthropophagy," From Greek Words Meaning The Eating Of Men. Evidence Has Been Found In Some Of The Palaeolithic Deposits Which Point To ...

Canning
Canning Is The Method Of Preserving Fresh Foods By Steril Izing Them In Hermetically Sealed Containers. The Form, Colour And Quality Of Food After The Process Is Practically The Same As That Of The Product In Its Fresh State. No Added Substance Or Chemical Need Be Used. Heat Adequate To ...

Cannock
Cannock, An Urban District Of Staffordshire, England, In The District Known As Cannock Chase, 130 M. N.w. Of London By The L.m.s.r. Pop. (1930, 34,588. The Church Of St. Luke Is Per Pendicular, Enlarged In Modern Times. The Famous Political Preacher, Henry Sacheverell, Held The Living Early In The 18th ...

Cannon
Cannon, A Gun Or Piece Of Ordnance. The Word, First Found About 1400 (there Is An Indenture Of Henry Iv. 1407 Referring To Canons, Seu Instruments Anglice Gunnes Vocata), Has Been Commonly Applied To Any Form Of Firearm Fired From A Carriage Or Fixed Mounting, In Contradistinction To "small-arms," Which ...

Canoe
Canoe, A General Term For A Boat Sharp At Both Ends, Orig Inally Designed For Propulsion By One Or More Paddles (not Oars) Held Without A Fixed Fulcrum, The Paddler Facing The Bow. As The Historical Native Name For Certain Types Of Boat Used By Savages (columbus Found The Word ...

Canon City
Canon City, A City Of South-central Colorado, U.s.a., At The Entrance To The Royal Gorge Of The Arkansas River (i,iooft. Deep) And At The Head Of The Beautiful Irrigated Arkansas Valley, Which Is Covered With Gardens, Farms And Orchards; The County Seat Of Fremont County. It Has An Elevation Of ...

Canon Law
Canon Law. Canon Law, Ius Canonicum, Is The Sum Of The Laws Framed By The Ecclesiastical Body For Its Own Regulation. It Concerns The Constitution Of The Church And The Relations Between It And Other Bodies, Religious And Civil, And Also Matters Of Internal Discipline. Canon Law Has Been Developed ...

Canon
Canon. The Greek Word Kav V Means Primarily A Straight Rod, And Metaphorically What Serves To Keep Things Straight, A Rule. In Gal. Vi. 16 It Means Rule Or Measure, In 2 Cor. X. 13, 15, 16, What Is Measured, A Province. The Word Canon Is Used In Various Senses, ...